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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
3 In line with what Anne Orford has called ‘critical intimacy’, approaching international law ‘with curiosity rather than suspicion’. See A. Orford, ‘Epilogue’, in L. J. M. Boer and S. Stolk, Backstage Practices of International Law (2019), at 175; A. Orford, ‘Critical Intimacy: Jacques Derrida and the Friendship of Politics’, (2005) 6 German Law Journal 31.
4 The risk being that one starts to find international law literally everywhere, as identified by Hohmann and Joyce in their search for international law’s objects, J. Hohmann and D. Joyce, International Law’s Objects (2018), 3–4.
5 In her seminal handbook, Rose identifies four sites of a critical visual methodology: production, the image, its circulation, and its audience. In this piece, we mainly focus on the interplay between image and circulation. G. Rose, Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to Researching with Visual Materials (2016), at 24.
6 See, for example, Hohmann and Joyce, supra note 4; F. Johns, Non-legality in International Law: Unruly Law (2013); Legal Materiality research network, www.legalmateriality.wordpress.com; L. Eslava and S. Pahuja ‘Beyond the (Post) Colonial: TWAIL and The Everyday Life of International Law’, (2012) Verfassung und Recht in Übersee/Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America 195.
7 For example, W. G. Werner, ‘Justice on Screen: A Study on Four Advocacy Documentaries on the ICC’, (2016) 29 Leiden Journal of International Law 1043; C. Schwöbel-Patel, 'Spectacle in International Criminal Law: The Fundraising Image of Victimhood', (2016) 4 London Review of International Law 247; I. Tallgren, S. Humphreys and K. Ainley, special issue on International Criminal Justice On/ And Film in (2018) 6 London Review of International Law; I. Tallgren, ‘Stardust of Justice? Celebrity in and by International Law’, research paper prepared for the Law and Society Association Annual Meeting 2018; R. Knox and C. Schwöbel-Patel, The Aesthetics and Counter-Aesthetics of International Law (forthcoming).
12 Stolk and Vos, supra note 2. On the appeal for legitimacy, accountability, and transparency see N. Hayashi and C. M. Bailliet (eds.), The Legitimacy of International Criminal Tribunals (2017); A. Bianchi and A. Peters (eds.), Transparency in International Law (2013); J. Dobson, ‘Mapping the Transparency Turn at the International Criminal Court’, (PhD thesis, VU Amsterdam forthcoming, on file with authors). On the literal seeing of international law see Werner, supra note 7. On international justice as sexy and glamorous see Tallgren, supra note 7; P. Akhavan, ‘Making Human Rights Sexy: Authenticity in Glamorous Times’, Harvard Human Rights Journal Blog, 29 November 2012, available at harvardhrj.com/2012/11/making-human-rights-sexy-authenticity-in-glamorous-times/.
13 On this phenomenon see, for example, S. Tascón, Human Rights Film Festivals: Activism in Context (2015).
15 A. Witcomb, ‘Remembering the dead by affecting the living: the case of a miniature model of Treblinka’, in S. Dudley (ed.), Museum Materialities: Objects, Engagements, Interpretations (2010), at 39, 42.
16 See, for example, J. Winter, ‘Museums and the Representation of War’, (2012) 10 Museum and Society 150; A. Alba, The Holocaust Memorial Museum: Sacred Secular Space (2015); J. Apsel, Introducing Peace Museums (2015); A. Milosevic ‘Remembering The Present: Dealing With The Memories Of Terrorism In Europe’, (2017) 8 Journal of Terrorism Research 44.
17 U. Belavusau and A. Gliszczyńska-Grabias, Memory: Towards Legal Governance of History (2017); J. N. Clark, ‘Reconciliation through Remembrance? War Memorials and the Victims of Vukovar’, (2013) 7 International Journal of Transitional Justice 116.
18 J. Lennon and M. Foley, Dark Tourism: the Attraction of Death and Disaster (2000).
19 See, for example, D. Light, ‘Progress In Dark Tourism And Thanatourism Research: An Uneasy Relationship With Heritage Tourism’, (2017) 61 Tourism Management 275; G. M. S. Dann and A. V. Seaton (eds.), Slavery, Contested Heritage and Thanatourism (2001); J. C. Henderson ‘War as a tourist attraction: the case of Vietnam’, (2000) 2 International Journal of Tourism Research 269.
20 P. E. Tarlow, ‘Dark Tourism: The Appealing “Dark Side” of Tourism and More’, in M. Novelli (ed.), Niche Tourism – Contemporary Issues, Trends and Cases (2005), at 48.
21 See also P. Stone, ‘A Dark Tourism Spectrum: Towards A Typology of Death and Macabre Related Tourist Sites, Attractions And Exhibitions’, (2006) 54 Tourism at 146.
22 M. Elander, ‘Images of Victims: The ECCC and the Cambodian Genocide Museum’, in D. Manderson (ed.), Law and the Visual: Representations, Technologies, and Critique (2018); R. Hughes, ‘Dutiful Tourism: Encountering the Cambodian Genocide’, (2008) 49 Asia Pacific Viewpoint 318–30; J. C. Henderson, ‘Communism, Heritage and Tourism in East Asia’, (2007) 13 International Journal of Heritage Studies 240.
23 K. Denton, ‘Exhibiting the Past: China’s Nanjing Massacre Memorial Museum’, (2014) 12 The Asia-Pacific Journal 1.
24 D. Newbury, ‘“Lest We Forget”: Photography And The Presentation Of History At The Apartheid Museum, Gold Reef City, And The Hector Pieterson Museum, Soweto’, (2005) 4 Visual Communication 259.
25 See also the typology of Stone, supra note 21. For a comparative study of the representation of the Holocaust in memorials and museum/memorials country by country see J. Young, Holocaust Memorials and Meaning: The Texture of Memory (1993).
26 On the complicated history of Nuremberg see S. Macdonald, Difficult Heritage: Negotiating The Nazi Past In Nuremberg And Beyond (2010).
32 M. Bak McKenna, ‘Designing for International Law: The Architecture of International Organisations 1922-1952’, London Review of International Law (forthcoming).
33 For example, the former American Embassy in The Hague, www.onzeambassade.nl/ and the Charles Street Jail in Boston, now called the Liberty Hotel.
34 W. G. Werner, ‘Recall it again, Sam. Practices of Repetition in the Security Council’, (2017) 86 Nordic Journal of International Law 151.
35 See, for example, C. Gray, The Politics of Museums (2015).
36 Unexpected encounters with the international in museums and galleries have been more elaborately studied in the field of international relations; see, for example, C. Sylvester, Art/Museums: International Relations Where We Least Expect It (2015).
41 This opens up an age-old debate on art and its role and responsibilities in society that we cannot do justice to in this short piece. See, for example, C. Becker, The Subversive Imagination: The Artist, Society and Social Responsibility (1994).
44 To download this exhibition see www.icc-cpi.int/display-exhibit. For an analysis see Schwöbel-Patel, supra note 7. On the relation between the ICC and art see also S. Koulen, ‘Blind Justice and the Portraits on the Wall’, in J. M. Boer and S. Stolk, Backstage Practices of Transnational Law (2018).
45 D. Litwin, ‘International Adjudication from the Visual: Stained Glass Windows, Peace Palace, The Hague’, in Hohmann and Joyce, supra note 4.
46 See, for example, S. Shefik, ‘Reimagining Transitional Justice through Participatory Art’, (2018) 12 International Journal of Transitional Justice 314; Recently, multiple initiatives have been launched to facilitate and promote the interaction between art and international justice specifically, for example, the Art and International Justice Initiative, available at www.artij.org and Creating Rights, www.creatingrights.com.
47 See Hayashi and Bailliet, Bianchi and Peters, Dobson, all supra note 12.
48 Stolk and Vos, supra note 2. On the marketing of international institutions see C. Schwöbel-Patel, Marketing Global Justice (forthcoming).
49 On motivations for tourists to visit certain sites see, for example, Y. Poria, R. Butler and D. Airey, ‘Links Between Tourists, Heritage, And Reasons For Visiting Heritage Sites’, (2004) 43 Journal of Travel Research 19; A. Milosevic ‘Can memorials heal the wounds?’, (2019) 2 Observing Memories 56.
50 Little ethnographic research is done on the visitors to international courthouses or other international legal institutions. For ethnographic work into the perception of international justice see, for example, S. Nouwen, Complementarity in the Line of Fire: The Catalysing Effect of the International Criminal Court in Uganda and Sudan (2013); N. Eltringham, ‘Spectators To The Spectacle Of Law: The Formation Of A “Validating Public” At The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda’, (2012) 77 Ethnos 425; K. M. Clarke, Affective Justice: The International Criminal Court and the Pan-Africanist Pushback (forthcoming). There is a growing body of anthropological and ethnographic studies on international lawyers working at these sites or people who participate in the institutional processes; see, for example, Koulen, supra note 44; J. Meierhenrich (ed.), Social Theory of International Law: Thick Descriptions of the International Criminal Court (forthcoming); S. Dezalay, ‘Weakness as Routine in the Operations of the Intentional Criminal Court’, (2017) 17 International Criminal Law Review 281; R. Niezen and M. Sapignoli, Palaces of Hope: The Anthropology of Global Organizations (2017); S. E. Merry, Human Rights And Gender Violence: Translating International Law Into Local Justice (2009); A. Riles, The Network Inside Out (2001).
55 On making images as research data see Rose, supra note 5, at 307. For recent works that include images as part of research data/dissemination in international law see Hohmann and Joyce supra note 4; R. Parfitt, ‘The Anti-Neutral Suit: International Legal Futurists, 1914–2017’, (2017) 5 London Review of International Law 87; L. Eslava, ‘Istanbul Vignettes: Observing the Everyday Operation of International Law’, (2014) 2 London Review of International Law 3. We have experimented with this approach during a walking tour and art workshop during our section (In)Visible International Law at the European International Studies Association (EISA) 13th Pan-European Conference on International Relations (PEC19), 11–14 September 2019, Sofia, Bulgaria. For the results see legalsightseeing.org/2019/09/13/sofia-bulgaria-in-collages-workshop-visualising-international-law/.
* Editorial Board; Postdoctoral Researcher at T.M.C. Asser Instituut, Den Haag; Research Fellow at the Centre for the Politics of Transnational Law.
** Lecturer and PhD Candidate at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Research Fellow at the Centre for the Politics of Transnational Law.
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