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A world-wide key to the genus Graphis (Ostropales: Graphidaceae)

  • Robert LÜCKING (a1), Alan W. ARCHER (a2) and André APTROOT (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

A world-wide key to the genus Graphis is presented, based on extensive type studies and revision of several thousand historical and recent collections. A total of 330 species are accepted and included in the key, and a further 205 epithets are listed as synonyms. The structured key includes taxonomic information on type specimens of epithets considered to be synonyms of the accepted species. In addition, 28 species of other genera (Carbacanthographis, Diorygma, Dyplolabia, Glyphis) with carbonized excipulum and hyaline ascospores likely to be confused with Graphis are mentioned under the corresponding key couplets. Although the key is preliminary and some taxonomic and nomenclatural problems remain unresolved at this time, it should allow reliable identification of most specimens especially from tropical regions. The following 14 species are described as new: Graphis brahmanensis Aptroot sp. nov., G. cupei Vain. ex Lücking sp. nov., G. funilina Aptroot sp. nov., G. inspersolongula Aptroot sp. nov., G. leucaenae Aptroot sp. nov., G. lourdesina Aptroot sp. nov., G. myolensis Aptroot sp. nov., G. nadurina Aptroot sp. nov., G. norstictica Archer & Lücking sp. nov., G. sarawakensis Hale ex Lücking sp. nov., G. slendrae Hale ex Lücking sp. nov., G. subintermedians Hale ex Lücking sp. nov., G. subserpens Staiger sp. nov., and G. syzygii Aptroot sp. nov. In addition, 22 new combinations are proposed: Carbacanthographis cleitops (Fée) Lücking comb. nov., C. coccospora (Aptroot) Aptroot & Lücking comb. nov., C. induta (Müll. Arg.) Lücking comb. nov., C. triphoroides (M. Wirth & Hale) Lücking comb. nov., Graphis apoda (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., G. cremicolor (H. Magn.) Lücking & Archer comb. nov., G. enteroleuca (Ach.) Lücking comb. nov., G. evirescens (Redinger) Lücking comb. nov., G. galactoderma (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. nov., G. ingarum (Vain.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., G. isidiata (Hale) Lücking comb. nov., G. japonica (Müll. Arg.) A. W. Archer & Lücking comb. nov., G. kousyuensis (Horik. & M. Nakan.) Lücking comb. nov., G. negrosina (Vain.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., G. oxyspora (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. nov., G. plumbea (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. nov., G. riopiedrensis (Fink) Lücking comb. nov., G. semirigida (Müll. Arg.) Lücking comb. nov., G. subradiata (Nyl.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., G. subtecta (Nyl.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., and G. sulphurella (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. nov. Replacement names are established for six taxa: Graphis jeanmuelleri Lücking nom. nov. [≡ Graphina elegantula Müll. Arg., non Graphis elegantula Zahlbr.], Graphis neoelongata Lücking nom. nov. [≡ G. elongata Vain., non G. elongata Zenker], Graphis novopalmicola A. W. Archer & Lücking nom. nov. [≡ Graphina palmicola Müll. Arg., non Graphis palmicola Makhija & Adaw.], Graphis paralleloides Cáceres & Lücking nom. nov. [≡ G. rimulosa var. parallela Müll. Arg., non G. parallela Müll. Arg.], Graphis subalbostriata Lücking nom. nov. [≡ G. angustata var. albostriata Vain., non G. albostriata Vain.], and Graphis subvernicosa Lücking nom. nov. [≡ Opegrapha vernicosa Fée, non G. vernicosa Nyl.]. Three new synonyms are established for Glyphis substriatula (Nyl.) Staiger: Graphina sulcatula Müll. Arg., G. sulcatula var. conglomerata Müll. Arg., and G. bakeri Zahlbr.

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A. W. Archer (2000) The lichen genera Phaeographis and Phaeographina (Graphidaceae) in Australia. 1: Species based on Australian type specimens. Telopea 8: 461475.

A. W. Archer (2001 b) The lichen genera Phaeographis and Phaeographina (Graphidaceae) in Australia 2: Phaeographina – new reports and new species. Telopea 9: 329344.

A. W. Archer (2001 c) The lichen genera Phaeographis and Phaeographina (Graphidaceae) in Australia 3: Phaeographis – new reports and new species. Telopea 9: 663677.

B. J. Coppins & P. W. James (1978) New or interesting British lichens II. Lichenologist 10: 179207.

W. A. Leighton (1869) The Lichens of Ceylon, collected by G. H. K. Thwaites. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 27: 161185.

R. Lücking , J. L. Chaves , H. J. M. Sipman , L. Umaña & A. Aptroot (2008) A first assessment of the Ticolichen biodiversity inventory in Costa Rica: The genus Graphis, with notes on the genus Hemithecium (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae). Fieldiana (Botany), New Series 46: 1131.

H. T. Lumbsch (2002) Analysis of phenolic products in lichens for identification and taxonomy In Protocols in Lichenology: Culturing, Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Use in Biomonitoring. (I. Kranner , R. P. Beckett & A. K. Varma eds): 281295. Berlin: Springer.

H. J. M. Sipman & R. C. Harris (1989) Lichens. In Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems Biogeographical and Ecological Studies (Ecosystems of the World 14B). (H. Lieth & M. J. A. Werger , eds): 303309. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

B. Staiger , K. Kalb & M. Grube (2006) Phylogeny and phenotypic variation in the lichen family Graphidaceae (Ostropomycetidae, Ascomycota). Mycological Research 110: 765772.

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