Skip to main content Accessibility help

Parochialism and Implications for Chinese Firms’ Globalization

  • Jing Betty Feng (a1), Leigh Anne Liu (a2) and Chunyan Jiang (a3)


We explore the meaning of parochialism (xiao nong yi shi, 小农意识) to explain certain paradoxical Chinese managerial behaviors. We discuss how cultural, political, and economic traditions in China formed a salient context to cultivate parochialism. Qualitative data from Chinese and American managers reveal that the conceptual framework of parochialism includes a cognitive dimension of closed-mindedness, a behavioral dimension of self-protection, and a relational dimension of in-group focused social relationship. Parochialism hampers effective globalization of Chinese firms because it negatively impacts key facets of organizational culture: employee development, communication, customer orientation, social responsibility, strategic planning, and innovation. The study offers theoretical and practical implications for Chinese management research and the development of global competence.


Мы исследуем значение местничества (xiao nong yi shi, 小农意识) для того, чтобы объяснить некоторые парадоксальные модели поведения в сфере управления в                        Китае. Мы обсуждаем, каким образом культурные, политические и экономические традиции в Китае сформировали особый контекст для культивирования местничества. Качественные данные, полученные на основе опроса китайских и американских менеджеров, показывают, что концептуальная модель местничества включает в себя когнитивный аспект ограниченности мышления, поведенческий аспект самосохранения и социальный аспект взаимоотношений внутри группы. Местничество является препятствием для эффективной глобализации китайских фирм, потому что оно отрицательно влияет на ключевые аспекты организационной культуры: развитие потенциала сотрудников, обмен информацией, ориентацию на клиента, социальную ответственность, стратегическое планирование и инновации. В данной работе делаются теоретические и практические выводы, которые имеют значение для китайских исследований в области управления и развития глобальной компетенции.

Exploramos el significado de parroquialismo (xiao nong yi shi, 小农意识) para explicar ciertos comportamientos gerenciales chinos paradójicos. Discutimos cómo las tradiciones culturales, políticas y económicas en China formaron un contexto destacado para cultivar parroquialismo. Datos cualitativos de gerentes chinos y americanos revelan que el marco conceptual de parroquialismo incluye una dimensión cognitiva de mentalidad cerrada, una dimensión comportamental de auto-protección, y una dimensional relacional enfocada las relaciones sociales dentro del grupo. El parroquialismo obstaculiza la globalización efectiva de las empresas chinas dado sus impactos negativas en la aspectos clave de la cultura organizacional: desarrollo de empleados, comunicación, orientación al consumidor, responsabilidad social, planeación estratégica, e innovación. Este estudio ofrece implicaciones teóricas y prácticas para la investigación gerencial china y en el desarrollo de competencias globales.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Parochialism and Implications for Chinese Firms’ Globalization
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Parochialism and Implications for Chinese Firms’ Globalization
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Parochialism and Implications for Chinese Firms’ Globalization
      Available formats


Corresponding author

Corresponding author: Jing Betty Feng (


Hide All

Accepted by: Senior Editor Zhi-Xue Zhang



Hide All
Alicke, M. D., & Sedikides, C. 2009. Self-enhancement and self-protection: What they are and what they do. European Review of Social Psychology, 20(1): 148.
Altemeyer, B. 1981. Right-wing authoritarianism. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.
Barr, P. S., Stimpert, J. L., & Huff, A. S. 1992. Cognitive change, strategic action, and organizational renewal. Strategic Management Journal, 13(S1): 1536.
Bowell, A. 2011. Returning to Britain's island mentality. The Huffington Post.
Caron, J. 2014. Conservatives’ insular mindset doesn't fit today's global reality. The Japan Times.
Charmaz, K. 2006. Constructing grounding theory - A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London, UK: Sage Publications, Inc.
Chen, C. C., Chen, Y.-R., & Xin, K. 2004. Guanxi practices and trust in management: A procedural justice perspective. Organization Science, 15(2): 200209.
Chen, C. C., Chen, X. P., & Huang, S. S. 2013. Guanxi and social network research: Review and future directions. Management and Organization Review, 9(1): 167207.
Chen, C. C., Friedman, R., & Mcallister, D. J. 2017. Seeing and studying China: Leveraging phenomenon-based research in China for theory advancement. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 143: 17.
Chen, M.-J. 2001. Inside Chinese business: A guide for managers worldwide. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.
Chen, M.-J. 2002. Transcending paradox: The Chinese ‘middle way’ perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19(2–3): 179199.
Chen, M.-J., 2014. Becoming ambicultural: A personal quest, and aspiration for organizations. Academy of Management Review, 39(2): 119137.
Chen, M.-J., & Miller, D. 2010. West meets East: Toward an ambicultural approach to management. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(4): 1724.
Chen, M.-J., & Miller, D. 2011. The relational perspective as a business mindset: Managerial implications for East and West. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(3): 618.
Chen, X.-P., & Chen, C. C. 2004. On the intricacies of the Chinese guanxi: A process model of guanxi development. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 21(3): 305324.
Cheung, F. M., Cheung, S. F., Leung, K., Ward, C., & Leong, F. 2003. The English version of the Chinese personality assessment inventory. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(4): 433452.
Cheung, F. M., Leung, K., Fan, R., Song, W.-Z., Zhang, J.-X., & Zhang, J. P. 1996. Development of the Chinese personality assessment inventory (CPAI). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27(2): 181199.
Child, J., & Marinova, S. 2014. The role of contextual combinations in the globalization of Chinese firms. Management and Organization Review, 10(3): 347371.
Chiu, C.-Y., Wan, C., Cheng, S. Y., Kim, Y.-H., & Yang, Y. J. 2011. Cultural perspectives on self-enhancement and self-protection. In Alicke, M. D. & Sedikides, C. (Eds.), Handbook of self-enhancement and self-protection: 425451. New York: The Guilford Press.
Cho, J. Y., & Lee, E.-H. 2014. Reducing confusion about grounded theory and qualitative content analysis: Similarities and differences. The Qualitative Report, 19(32): 120.
Corley, K. G., & Gioia, D. A. 2004. Identity ambiguity and change in the wake of a corporate spin-off. Administrative Science Quarterly, 49(2): 173208.
Cui, Z., Liang, X., & Lu, X. 2014. Prize or price? Corporate social responsibility commitment and sales performance in the Chinese private sector. Management and Organization Review, 11(1): 2544.
Deng, X., & Li, Q. 2005. 民营中小企业成长的瓶颈--兼对小农意识的批判 (The bottleneck of the growth of private small and medium – sized enterprises – criticism on Xiao Nong Yi Shi). Technoeconomics & Management Research, 6: 5051.
Dietz, M. C., Orr, G., & Xing, J. 2008. How Chinese companies can succeed abroad. McKinsey Quarterly, 3: 19.
Dimaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. 1983. The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2): 147160.
Egri, C. P., & Ralston, D. A. 2004. Generation cohorts and personal values: A comparison of China and the United States. Organization science, 15(2): 210220.
Eisenhardt, K. M. 1989. Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4): 532550.
Fairbank, J. K. 1979. The United States and China. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Farh, J.-L., Earley, P. C., & Lin, S.-C. 1997. Impetus for action: A cultural analysis of justice and organizational citizenship behavior in Chinese society. Admistrative Science Quarterly, 42(3): 421444.
Faure, G. O., & Fang, T. 2008. Changing Chinese values: Keeping up with paradoxes. International Business Review, 17(2): 194207.
Fei, X., Hamilton, G. G., & Wang, Z. 1992. From the soil, the foundations of Chinese society: A translation of Fei Xiaotong's Xiangtu Zhongguo, with an introduction and epilogue. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Feng, J. B., Liu, L. A., & Friedman, R. 2015. Cross-Cultural adaptation to functional fitness: Evidence from Chinese Firms Operating in the United States. Paper presented to the 2015 Academy of Management Meeting: 11373.
Firth, M., Rui, O. M., & Wu, W. 2011. Cooking the books: Recipes and costs of falsified financial statements in China. Journal of Corporate Finance, 17(2): 371390.
Fischer, R. 2012. Locating Chinese work behavior in a global perspective. In Huang, X. & Bond, M. H. (Eds.), The handbook of Chinese organizational behavior: Integrating theory, research, and practice: 4862. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Gelfand, M. J., Raver, J. L., Nishii, L., Leslie, L. M., Lun, J., & Lim, B. C. 2011. Differences between tight and loose cultures: A 33-nation study. Science, 332(6033): 11001104.
Gerth, K. 2010. As China goes, so goes the world: How Chinese consumers are transforming everything, New York: Hill and Wang.
Gioia, D. A., Corley, K. G., & Hamilton, A. L. 2013. Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: Notes on the Gioia methodology. Organizational Research Methods, 16(15): 1531.
Graafland, J., & Zhang, L. 2014. Corporate social responsibility in China: Implementation and challenges. Business Ethics: A European Review, 23(1): 3449.
Hepper, E. G., Sedikides, C., & Cai, H. 2013. Self-enhancement and self-protection strategies in China: Cultural expressions of a fundamental human motive. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(1): 523.
Ho, D. Y.-F. 1976. On the concept of face. American Journal of Sociology, 81(4): 867884.
Hofstede, G. 2001. Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. 2010. Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind: London, UK: McGraw-Hill.
Hong, Y.-Y., & Cheon, B. K. 2017. How does culture matter in the face of globalization? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(5): 810823.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. 2004. Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Huang, X., & Bond, M. H. 2012. Why we need this edited book now! In Huang, X. & Bond, M. H. (Eds.), Handbook of Chinese organizational behavior: Integrating theory, research and practice: 310. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Huff, A. S. 1990. Mapping strategic thought. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Huff, L., & Kelley, L. 2003. Levels of organizational trust in individualist versus collectivist societies: A seven-nation study. Organization Science, 14(1): 8190.
Humborstad, S. I. W., Humborstad, B., Whitfield, R., & Perry, C. 2008. Implementation of empowerment in Chinese high power-distance organizations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(7): 13491364.
Hunt, M. F. Jr, & Miller, G. R. 1968. Open-and closed-mindedness, belief-discrepant communication behvior, and tolerance for cognitive inconsistency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(1): 35–7.
Hutchings, K., Zhu, C. J., Cooper, B. K., Zhang, Y., & Shao, S. 2009. Perceptions of the effectiveness of training and development of ‘grey-collar'workers in the People's Republic of China. Human Resource Development International, 12(3): 279296.
Hwang, K.-K. 1987. Face and favor: The Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology, 92(4): 944974.
Jost, J. T., Glaser, J., Kruglanski, A. W., & Sulloway, F. J. 2003. Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 129(3): 339375.
Jost, J. T., Napier, J. L., Thorisdottir, H., Gosling, S. D., Palfai, T. P., & Ostafin, B. 2007. Are needs to manage uncertainty and threat associated with political conservatism or ideological extremity? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(7): 9891007.
Kruglanski, A. W. 2013. The psychology of closed mindedness. New York: Psychology Press.
Lalwani, A. K., Shavitt, S., & Johnson, T. 2006. What is the relation between cultural orientation and socially desirable responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(1): 165178.
Lee, D. Y., & Dawes, P. L. 2005. Guanxi, trust, and long-term orientation in Chinese business markets. Journal of International Marketing, 13(2): 2856.
Leung, K. 2008. Chinese culture, modernization, and international business. International Business Review, 17(2): 184187.
Leung, K. 2012a. Indigenous Chinese management research: Like it or not, we need it. Management and Organization Review, 8(1): 15.
Leung, K. 2012b. Theorizing about Chinese organizational behavior: The role of cultural and social forces. In Huang, X. & Bond, M. H. (Eds.), Handbook of Chinese organizational behavior: Integrating theory, research and practice. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Leung, K. 2014. Globalization of Chinese firms: What happens to culture. Management and Organization Review, 10(3): 391397.
Leung, K., & Bond, M. H. 2004. Social axioms: A model for social beliefs in multicultural perspective. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 36: 119197.
Leung, K., Bond, M. H., Carrasquel, S. R. D., Muñoz, C., Hernández, M., Murakami, F., Yamaguchi, S., Bierbrauer, G., & Singelis, T. M. 2002. Social axioms: The search for universal dimensions of general beliefs about how the world functions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(3): 286302.
Levy, O., Beechler, S., Taylor, S., & Boyacigiller., N. A. 2007. What we talk about when we talk about ‘global mindset’: Managerial cognition in multinational corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(2): 231258.
Li, P. P. 2013. Speech by Ruimin Zhang, CEO of Haier, at AOM. International Association for Chinese Management Research, Quarterly Newsletter, 9(3): 910.
Li, P. P., Leung, K., Chen, C. C., & Luo, J. D. 2012. Indigenous research on Chinese management: What and how. Management and Organization Review, 8(1): 724.
Liang, S. M. 1987. 中国文化要 (The essence of Chinese culture), Hong Kong: Joint Publishing (HK) Co., Ltd
Lin, T. W. 2004. Corporate governance in China: Recent developments, key problems and solutions. Journal of Accounting and Corporate Governance, 1: 123.
Liu, D. 2013. A 股的 “异化”: 条条大路通地产 (‘Alienation’ of A share market: all the way through real estate). China Economic Weekly, 23: 3236.
Liu, L. A., Friedman, R. A., Barry, B., Gelfand, M. J., & Zhang, Z.-X. 2012. The dynamics of consensus building in intracultural and intercultural negotiations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 57(2): 269304.
Liu, L. A., Friedman, R. A., & Chi, S. C. 2005. Ren Qing'versus the ‘Big Five’: The role of culturally sensitive measures of individual difference in distributive negotiations. Management and Organization Review, 1(2): 225247.
Liu, W., Friedman, R. A., & Hong, Y.-Y. 2012. Culture and accountability in negotiation: Recognizing the importance of in-group relations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 117(1): 221234.
Liu, X. 2003. The conflict between outside ‘airborne’ managers and original management team and its influence on corporate effectiveness. Management World, 6: 105113.
Liu, Y. 1996. 小农意识初探 (上)(The investigation of Xiao Nong Yi Shi -I). 社会科学论坛, 6: 3134.
Liu, Y. 1997a. 小农意识初探(下)(The investigation of Xiao Nong Yi Shi - III). 社会科学论坛, 2: 2730.
Liu, Y. 1997b. 小农意识初探(中)(The investigation of Xiao Nong Yi Shi -II). 社会科学论坛, 1: 3638.
Liu, Y., Luo, Y., & Liu, T. 2009. Governing buyer–supplier relationships through transactional and relational mechanisms: Evidence from China. Journal of Operations Management, 27(4): 294309.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. 1991. Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological review, 98(2): 224253.
Mccarthy, K. J., Dolfsma, W., & Weitzel, U. 2016. The first global merger wave and the enigma of Chinese performance. Management and Organization Review, 12(2): 221248.
Meadowcroft, M. 2011. The danger of our island mentality. The Guardian.
Midler, P. 2007. 'Quality fade': China's great business challenge. Knowledge Wharton.
Midler, P. 2010. Poorly made in China: An insider's account of the China production game. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Son.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. 1994. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Molinsky, A. L. 2013. The psychological processes of cultural retooling. Academy of Management Journal, 56(3): 683710.
Morosini, P., Shane, S., & Singh, H. 1998. National cultural distance and cross-border acquisition performance. Journal of International Business Studies, 29(1): 137158.
Myers, M. D. 2011. Qualitative research in business & management. London, UK: Sage Publications, Inc.
Needham, J. 1954. Science and civilisation in China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ng, I., Lee, Y.-T., & Cardona, P. 2012. Building teams in Chinese organizations. In Huang, X. & Bond, M. H. (Eds.), Handbook of Chinese organizational behavior: Integrating theory, research and practice. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Nisbett, R. E. 2004. The geography of thought: How Asians and Westerners think differently… and why. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.
Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. 2001. Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108(2): 291310.
Orlikowski, W. J. 2000. Using technology and constituting structures: A practice lens for studying technology in organizations. Organization Science, 11(4): 404428.
Pan, Y., Rowney, J. A., & Peterson, M. F. 2012. The structure of Chinese cultural traditions: An empirical study of business employees in China. Management and Organization Review, 8(1): 7795.
Petty, R. E., Tormala, Z. L., Brinol, P., & Jarvis, W. B. G. 2006. Implicit ambivalence from attitude change: An exploration of the PAST model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(1): 2141.
Philipsen, S., & Littrell, R. F. 2011. Manufacturing quality and cultural values in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Business and Management, 2(2): 2644.
Rapoport, M. 2015. New York global group chief charged with securities fraud. The Wall Street Journal.
Redding, G. 1990. The spirit of Chinese capitalism. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Redding, G. 2014. The unexamined differences in dreams: Chinese firms' globalization and interface challenges. Management and Organization Review, 10(3): 399404.
Redding, G. 2016. The needham question today. Management and Organization Review, 12(1): 2534.
Rickert, E. J. 1998. Authoritarianism and economic threat: Implications for political behavior. Political Psychology, 19(4): 707720.
Schwartz, S. H. 1999. A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(4): 2347.
Scott, W. R. 1995. Institutions and organizations: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Sedikides, C. 2012. Self-protection. Handbook of Self and Identity, 327353.
Shenkar, O. 2009. Becoming multinational: Challenges for Chinese firms. Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, 2(3): 149162.
Song, F., Cadsby, C. B., & Bi, Y. 2012. Trust, reciprocity, and guanxi in China: An experimental investigation. Management and Organization Review, 8(2): 397421.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. 1998. Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Sun, L. 2004. 中国文化的深层结构 (The deep structure of Chinese culture): Guilin Guangxi: Normal University Press.
The Economist. 2014. Island mentality: Bad schools and low aspirations used to be inner-city problems. Not any more.
Tihanyi, L., Griffith, D. A., & Russell, C. J. 2005. The effect of cultural distance on entry mode choice, international diversification, and MNE performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(3): 270283.
Triandis, H. C. 1995. Individualism & collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Tsui, A. S. 2006. Contextualization in Chinese management research. Management and Organization Review, 2(1): 113.
Tsui, A. S. 2012. Contextualizing research in a modernizing China. In Huang, X. & Bond, M. H. (Eds.), The handbook of Chinese organizational behavior: Integrating theory, research, and practice: 1328. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Tsui, A. S. 2013. The spirit of science and socially responsible scholarship. Management and Organization Review, 9(3): 375394.
Tsui, A. S., Wang, H., & Xin, K. R. 2006. Organizational culture in China: An analysis of culture dimensions and culture types. Management and Organization Review, 2(3): 345376.
Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A. W. 1994. Individual differences in need for cognitive closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6): 10491062.
Wen, S. S., Lau, D. C.-S., & Lam, L. W. 2012. Enhancing trust in Chinese organizations. In Huang, X. & Bond, M. H. (Eds.), The handbook of Chinese organizational behavior: Integrating theory, research, and practice: 289306. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Wu, X. 2013. (Big losing battle): Zhe Jiang University Press.
Xin, K. K., & Pearce, J. L. 1996. Guanxi: Connections as substitutes for formal institutional support. Academy of Management Journal, 39(6): 16411658.
Yao, J., Zhang, Z.-X., Brett, J., & Murnighan, J. K. 2017. Understanding the trust deficit in China: Mapping positive experience and trust in strangers. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 143: 8597.
Yuan, Y. 2000. 与中国代化 (Xiao nong yi shi and Chinese modernization): 武漢出版社.
Yuan, Y. 2012. 毛泽东改造小农意识的思想叙论 (The discussion of reforming peasant mentality by Mao Zedong). China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House, 1: 42–22.
Zaheer, S. 1995. Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2): 341363.
Zhang, A. Y., Tsui, A. S., Song, L. J., Li, C., & Jia, L. 2008. How do I trust thee? The employee-organization relationship, supervisory support, and middle manager trust in the organization. Human Resource Management, 47(1): 111132.
Zhang, J.-D., Liu, L. A., & Liu, W. 2015. Trust and deception in negotiation: Culturally divergent effects. Management and Organization Review, 11(1): 123144.
Zhang, Z.-X., Chen, C. C., Liu, L. A., & Liu, X.-F. 2008. Chinese traditions and Western theories: Influences on business leaders in China. In Chen, C. C. & Lee, Y. T. (Eds.), Leadership and management in China: Philosophies, theories, and practices: 239271. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Management and Organization Review
  • ISSN: 1740-8776
  • EISSN: 1740-8784
  • URL: /core/journals/management-and-organization-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed