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THE POLYPHYLETIC NATURE OF APANTELES FOERSTER (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE): A PHYLOGENY AND RECLASSIFICATION OF MICROGASTRINAE

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

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Abstract

The subfamily Microgastrinae is redefined; Cardiochilinae and Miracinae are placed as separate subfamilies. The Microgastrinae are divided into five tribes and 51 genera, 23 of which are new. The first two tribes, Apantelini and Microgastrini, have characteristically long ovipositor and are almost all solitary parasites of Microlepidoptera. The other three tribes, Forniciini, Cotesiini and Microplitini, have short ovipositor and are almost all parasites of Macrolepidoptera, usually gregarious. The genera Pseudapanteles, Parapanteles, Glyptapanteles and Protapanteles of Ashmead, Cotesia Cameron, Dolichogenidea and Diolcogaster Viereck are revived from synonymy, and the following new genera are described: Alphomelon, Choeras, Clarkinella, Deuterixys, Distatrix, Exix, Exoryza, Exulonyx, Iconella, Illidops, Nyereria, Papanteles, Paroplitis, Pelicope, Pholetesor, Rasivalva, Rhygoplitis, Sathon, Teremys, Venanides, Venanus, Wilkinsonellus, Xenogaster. Twenty new species are described and about 350 new combinations are given.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1981

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Footnotes

1

Only a few authors (Brues 1926,1933; Riek 1975) have used the correct stem of “gaster”, i.e. “gastr-” (Rules, Art. 29 and Appendix D, VII, Table 2 B, 14) to form family group names based on Microgaster: Since recent additions to the code (Bul. Z.N. 34: 170, 1977) give no support to continued use of incorrectly formed stems for family group names I am using Microgastrinae.

There is an alternative stem “gaster-” but its use in classical Greek is limited to poetry and it is never found in compound words containing “gaster”. On this evidence I doubt if the use of the stem “gaster-“ can be defended on linguistic grounds.

References

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THE POLYPHYLETIC NATURE OF APANTELES FOERSTER (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE): A PHYLOGENY AND RECLASSIFICATION OF MICROGASTRINAE
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