Skip to main content


  • Evert E. Lindquist (a1)

A critical historical review of previous classifications and other work on tarsonemid and related mites is presented. General information concerning tarsonemids is reviewed, including the following: geographical distribution, life history, sex determination, sex ratio, copulation, adult female reproductive capacity and longevity, dispersal, food and host preferences, economic importance, and natural enemies.The generic and suprageneric taxa of Tarsonemidae, as known from the world fauna, are revised systematically and phylogenetically, based on a comprehensive assessment of morphology, ontogeny, and homology of tarsonemid structures, including their condition as found in other families of Heterostigmata. The fundamental systems of setal notation developed by Grandjean for the body and appendages of acariform mites are applied, including use for the first time of his special terminology for tarsal setae among heterostigmatic mites.Character transformation series (polarities) for the great majority of characters used in classifying tarsonemid mites are presented for the first time. The out-group method of comparison was used to propose character state polarities, based on the cladistic methodology of Hennig. The transformation series hypothesized for each of 157 characters are numbered, diagrammed in detail, and summarized in tabular form, both for the families of Tarsonemina and Heterostigmata in general and for the genera of Tarsonemidae in particular.Based on the above character transformation series, a tentative phylogeny of the genera of Tarsonemidae is proposed and illustrated by dendrograms. Three subfamilies are recognized, with Pseudotarsonemoidinae new subfam.being the sister-group of [Tarsoneminae + Acarapinae]. Seven tribes are recognized: the sister-groups Pseudotarsonemoidini and Tarsonemellini new tribes in Pseudotarsonemoidinae; the sister-groups Acarapini and Coreitarsonemini in Acarapinae; and sister-groups Steneotarsonemini and Hemitarsonemini new tribes, which together form the sister-group of Tarsonemini, in Tarsoneminae. Similar sister-groupings are proposed for the genera within each tribe, with 31 genera (7 new) and 5 subgenera allotted as follows. Pseudotarsonemoidini: Ununguitarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965; Pseudotarsonemoides Vitzthum, 1921; Polyphagotarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965; Nasutitarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965; and Tarsanonychus new genus. Tarsonemellini: Tarsonemella Hirst, 1923. Coreitarsonemini: Amcortarsonemus Fain, 1971; Asiocortarsonemus Fain, 1971; and Coreitarsonemus Fain, 1970. Acarapini: Acarapis Hirst, 1923. Hemitarsonemini: Hemitarsonemus Ewing, 1939; Eotarsonemus De Leon, 1966; and questionably Heterotarsonemus Smiley, 1969. Steneotarsonemini: Steneotarsonemus Beer, 1954 (including subgenera Parasteneotarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965, new status; Mahunkacarus Vainshtein, 1979; and Neosteneotarsonemus Tseng & Lo, 1980, new status), Ogmotarsonemus new genus, Suskia new genus, Phytonemus new genus, Dendroptus Kramer, 1876, new status; and Acaronemus Lindquist & Smiley, 1978. Tarsonemini: Fungitarsonemus Cromroy, 1958; Rhynchotarsonemus Beer, 1954; Deleonia new genus, Ceratotarsonemus De Leon, 1956; Daidalotarsonemus De Leon, 1956; Iponemus Lindquist, 1969; Pseudotarsonemus new genus; Suctarsonemus Mahunka, 1974; Xenotarsonemus Beer, 1954; Neotarsonemoides Kaliszewski, 1984; and Tarsonemus Canestrini & Fanzago, 1876 (including subgenera Chaetotarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965, new status; and Floridotarsonemus Attiah, 1970, new status). Tribal placement of Pseudacarapis new genus is uncertain, though it belongs in Tarsoneminae.New generic synonymies include the following: Neotarsonemus Smiley, 1967 objectively under Polyphagotarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965; Parasteneotarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965, and Neosteneotarsonemus Tseng & Lo, 1980 subjectively under, but subgenera of, Steneotarsonemus Beer, 1954; Praeacaronemus Kaliszewski & Magowski, 1985 subjectively under Acaronemus Lindquist & Smiley, 1978; Ditarsonemoides Kaliszewski, in prep. subjectively under Neotarsonemoides Kaliszewski, 1984; Lupotarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965, Metatarsonemus Attiah, 1970, and Cheylotarsonemus Tseng & Lo, 1980 subjectively under Tarsonemus Canestrini & Fanzago, 1876; and Chaetotarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965, and Floridotarsonemus Attiah, 1970 subjectively under, but subgenera of, Tarsonemus Canestrini & Fanzago, 1876. Newly designated nomina nuda are Punctatutarsonemus Nucifora, 1964, referred to Iponemus Lindquist, 1969, and Lupotarsonemus Beer & Nucifora, 1965, referred to Tarsonemus Canestrini & Fanzago, 1876.Descriptions are provided of the subfamily Tarsonemoidea and of all family-group taxa of Tarsonemidae. A key to the adult females, and to the adult males and larvae so far as they are known, together with diagnoses, detailed descriptions, and habitus figures, are presented for the genera and subgenera of Tarsonemidae. Definitions of each genus- and family-group taxon, based primarily on apomorphies, are also given in the section on phylogenetic relationships. Remarks on the distribution, habitats, habits, and other taxonomic and nomenclatorial aspects are given under each genus, followed by a world list of nominate species thought to belong to each genus, and indication of material examined. Descriptions of type-species, either new or inadequately described previously, are given for genera and subgenera as follows: Nasutitarsonemus brontispae Beer & Nucifora, 1965; Tarsanonychus emblematus n.sp.; Steneotarsonemus (Neosteneotarsonemus) arcticus n.sp.; Ogmotarsonemus erepsis n.sp.; Suskia mansoni n.sp.; Pseudotarsonemus eueides n.sp.; Neotarsonemoides adae Kaliszewski, 1984; Tarsonemus (Floridotarsonemus) scaber Attiah, 1970.Based on transformation series of the same characters mentioned above, a tentative phylogeny of Tarsonemidae and other families of Tarsonemina and Heterostigmata is proposed. A sister-grouping of Tarsonemidae and Podapolipidae is strongly supported apomorphically, with Pyemotoidea being the sister-group of Tarsonemoidea. Pygmephoroidea is strongly supported as the sister-group of [Pyemotoidea + Tarsonemoidea]. Of special note is a series of successive out-group relationships to [Pygmephoroidea + Pyemotoidea + Tarsonemoidea] of Trochometridiidae, then Dolichocybidae, then Heterocheylidae, and finally the Tarsocheylidae as the out-group of all other families of Heterostigmata. Each of the latter four families, therefore, warrants superfamilial status, with Trochometridiidae and Dolichocybidae being outside of Pygmephoroidea and Pyemotoidea, respectively. The Tarsonemina is strongly supported apomorphically as a subcohort. However, Heterocheyloidea appears to represent a sister-group to Tarsonemina rather than to Tarsocheyloidea, such that a grouping of Heterocheyloidea with Tarsocheyloidea, to form a subcohort Tarsocheylina, would be paraphyletic.

Hide All
Adlakha, R.L. 1976. Acarine disease of adult honey bees in India. Am. Bee J. 116: 324, 344.
Alford, D.V. 1973. A new species of tarsonemid mite found in association with Eriophyes gallarumtiliae (Turpin) (Acarma: Prostigmata) on lime. Ent. monthly Mag. 108: 123128.
André, H. 1977. Note sur le genre Mediolalata (Actinedida: Stigmaeidae) et description d'une nouvelle espèce corticicole. Acarologia 18: 462474.
Aronson, J.F. 1976. Sarcomere reorganization in mite muscle. Devel. Biol. 48: 487492.
Athias, F. 1972. Peridispus foliiger n.g., n.sp., tarsonemien nouveau de Côte d'Ivoire (Scutacaridae: Peridispodinae n. subfam.). Acarologia 13: 585592.
Athias, F. 1973. Scutacaridae de la savane de Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire). (Acariens: Tarsonemida). I. Données quantitatives sur le peuplement, liste des espèces de Scutacarinae, description de trois espèces nouvelles. Acarologia 14: 638656.
Attiah, H.H. 1970. New tarsonemid mites associated with citrus in Florida (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Fla Ent. 53: 179201.
Badii, M.H., and McMurtry, J. A.. 1984. Feeding behavior of some phytoseiid predators on the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tarsonemidae). Entomophaga 29: 4953.
Bailey, L. 1963. Infectious diseases of the honey-bee. Land Books Ltd., London. 176 pp.
Bailey, L. 1982. The Isle of Wight disease of honey bees. Antenna 6: 289292.
Bailey, L., and Perry, J.N.. 1982. The diminished incidence of Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in honev bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in Britain. Bull. ent. Res. 72: 655662.
Baker, T.C., and Eickwort, G.C.. 1975. Development and bionomics of Chrysomelobia labidomerae (Acari: Tarsonemina: Podapolipidae), a parasite of the milkweed leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Can. Ent. 107: 627638.
Baker, E.W., and Wharton, G.W.. 1952. An introduction to Acarology. Macmillan, New York. 465 pp.
Balazy, S., and Kielczewski, B.. 1965. Tarsonemoides gaebleri Schaarschmidt (Acar., Tarsonemidae) — jajozerny roztoczwzerowiskach kornikadrukarza Ipz typographus (L.). Polskie Pismoent. (B) 37–38: 718. (In Polish)
Banks, N. 1899. Tarsonemus in America. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 4: 294296.
Banks, N. 1904. Class III, Arachnida, Order I, Acarina, four new species of injurious mites. J. N. Y. ent. Soc. 12: 5356.
Banks, N. 1912. New American mites. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 14: 9699, 2 pl.
Banks, N. 1914. New Acarina. J. Ent. Zool. 6: 5563.
Beer, R.E. 1954. A revision of the Tarsonemidae of the Western Hemisphere (Order Acarina). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull. 36: 10911387.
Beer, R.E. 1958 a. The genus Tarsonemella Hirst, with description of a new species. J. Kans. ent. Soc. 31: 188192.
Beer, R.E. 1958. A new species of Steneotarsonemus, and additional information on the plant-feeding habits of Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon (Acarina). J. N. Y. ent. Soc. 66: 153159.
Beer, R.E. 1960. A new species of Xenotarsonemus from Florida. Fla Ent. 43: 2327.
Beer, R.E. 1963. Social parasitism in the Tarsonemidae, with description of a new species of tarsonemid mite involved. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 56: 153160.
Beer, R.E., and Nucifora, A.. 1965. Revisione dei generi della famiglia Tarsonemidae (Acarina). Boll. Zool. agric. Bachic., Ser. 2 7: 1943.
Benoit, P.L.G. 1959. The occurrence of the acarine mite Acarapis woodi in the honeybee in the Belgian Congo. Bee World 40: 156.
Berlese, A. 1886. La sottofamiglia dei Tarsonemidi. Bull. Soc. ent. Ital. 18: 334354, pl. 15.
Berlese, A. 1898 (1900). Gli Acari agrarii. Puntata III. Riv. Pat. Veget. 8: 227297.
Berlese, A. 1925. Gli Insetti. Vol. 2. Vita e Costumi. Soc. Editrice Libraria, Milano. ix + 992 pp.
Boness, M. 1968. Uber Milbenauftreten in Pilzkulturen. Anz. Schadlingsk. 41: 4142.
Borchert, A. 1934. On the breeding-places of the external mite (Acarapis) on the honey bee. Bee World 15: 4344.
Boss, G.D., and Thatcher, T.O.. 1970. Mites associated with Ips and Dendroctonus in southern Rocky Mountains, with special reference to Iponemus truncatus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). U.S.D.A. Forest Service Res. Note RM-171: 17.
Boyle, R., and Rivierez, M.. 1934. Un cas dedermatoseaccidentaledu type sarcoptyque, pro to oquée par un Tarsonemus. Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 27: 759762.
Bridges, J.R., and Moser, J.C.. 1983. Role of two phoretic mites in transmission of bluestain fungus, Ceralocystis minor. Ecol. Ent. 8: 912.
Brucker, E.A. 1900. Monographic de Pediculoides ventricosus Newport et théorie des pieces buccales des Acariens. Bull. Soc. Fr. Beige 35: 355442.
Brugger, A. 1936. Zur Kenntnis der ausserlichen Acarapis-Milben. Archiv f. Bienenkunde, Leipzig 17: 113142.
Brundin, L. 1976. A Neocomian chironomid and Podonominae-Aphroteniinae (Diptera) in the light of phylogenetics and biogeography. Zool. Scripla 5: 139160.
Butani, D.K. 1959. Sugarcane mites — a review. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., B 49: 99102.
Cameron, W.P.L. 1925. The fern mite (Tarsonemus tepidariorum, Warburton). Ann. appl. Biol. 12: 93112, 3 pl.
Canestrini, G. 1888. Prospetto dell'Acarofauna Italiana. III. Famiglie: Tarsonemini e Tiroglifini e appendice agli Analgesini. Padua, pp. 309427, pl. 22–36.
Canestrini, G., and Berlese, A.. 1884. Sopra alcune nuove specie di Acari Italiani. Atti Soc. Veneto-Trentina Sci. Nat. 9: 175182.
Canestrini, G., and Fanzago, F.. 1876 a. Nuovi Acari italiani (1. serie). Atti Soc. Veneto-Trentina Sci. Nat. 5: 99111.
Canestrini, G., and Fanzago, F.. 1876.b. Nuovi Acari italiani (Seconda Serie). Atti Soc. Veneto-Trentina Sci. Nat. 5: 130142.
Canestrini, G., and Fanzago, F.. 1877. Intorno agli Acari italiani. Atti reg. 1st. veneto Sci., Lett., Arti, Ser. 5 4: 69208 (Prospetto repagination: 1–140), 6 pl.
Carmona, M.M. 1968. Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Banks), um acaro com importância economica na cultura do morangueiro. Brotéria, Sér. Ciénc. Nat. 37: 95103.
Carmona, M.M. 1969. Hemitarsonemus angolensis n.sp. (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) from Angola. Agronomia lusit. 30: 3541.
Carter, H.F., and d'Abrera, V.St.E.. 1946. Mites (Acarina) — a probable factor in the etiology of spasmodic bronchitis and asthma associated with high eosinophilia. Hyg. 39: 373387.
Caullery, M. 1952. Parasitism and symbiosis. (Transi, by Lysaght, A.M.). Sidgwick and Jackson Ltd., London, xii + 340 pp.
Chow, Y.S., and Liu, M.A.. 1984. Preliminary studies on a parasite and a predatory mite of the tarsonemid mite Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley, pp. 323327 in Griffiths, D.A., and Bowman, C.E. (Eds.), Acarology VI (Proc. 6th int. Congr. Acarol., Edinburgh, Scotland, 1982), vol. 1. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.
Chow, Y.S., Tzean, S.S., Chang, C.S., and Wang, C.H.. 1980. A morphological approach of the tarsonemid mite Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley (Tarsonemidae) as a rice plant pest. Acta Arachnol. 29: 2541.
Clinch, P.G. 1976. Observations on the seasonal incidence of external mites Acarapis spp. on honey bees. N.Z. J. Exp. Agric. 4: 257258.
Clinch, P.G. 1979. Nosema apis and mites in honeybee colonies in Papua New Guinea. J. Apic. Res. 18: 298301.
Clinch, P.G., and Ross, J.G.M.. 1970. External acarine mites, Acarapis spp. (Acarina: Trombidiformes) on honey bees in New Zealand. N.Z. Ent. 4: 136137.
Coineau, Y. 1974. Elements pour une monographic morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mém. Mus. natn. Hist. nat. Paris (N.S., Ser. A, Zool.) 81: 1300, 24 pl.
Cooper, K.W. 1937. Reproductive behaviour and haploid parthenogenesis in the grass mite, Pedidulopsis graminum (Reut.) (Acarina, Tarsonemidae). Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. 23: 4144.
Cooreman, J. 1941. Un tarsonémide mycophage nouveau (Acarien). Bull. Mus. r. Hist. nat. Belg. 17(20): 17.
Cooreman, J. 1947. Association d'acariens vivants dans les nids de Larus ridibundus Linné, à Kalmthout. Bull. Mus. Hist. nat. Belg. 23: 114.
Cooreman, J. 1958. Description de Tarsonemus bachmaieri n. sp. (Tarsonemidae) et note sur Eupalopsellus olandicus Sellnick (Eupalopsellidae). Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg., Bull. 34 (24): 18.
Cooreman, J. 1963. Notes et observations sur quelques acariens inféodés aux Coléoptères Scolytides de la faune Beige. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg. 39 (30): 148.
Cromroy, H.L. 1958. A preliminary survey of the plant mites of Puerto Rico. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 42: 39144.
Cromroy, H.L. 1983. Potential use of mites in biological control of terrestrial and aquatic weeds, pp. 61–66 in Hoy, M.A., Cunningham, G.L., and Knutson, L. (Eds.), Biological Control of Pests by Mites. Univ. Calif., Division Agric. Nat. Resources, Special Publ. 3304. vi + 185 pp.
Cross, E.A. 1965. The generic relationships of the familv Pyemotidae (Acarina: Trombidiformes). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull. 45: 29275.
Cross, E.A., and Moser, J.C.. 1975. A new, dimorphic species of Pyemotes and a key to previously-described forms (Acarina: Tarsonemoidea). Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 68: 723732.
Dahl, F. 1910. Milben aus Erzeuger von Zellwucherungen. Centralbl. f. Bakter., I 53: 524533.
Daniel, M. 1971. Podrad Sametkovci-Trombidiformes. NadkohortaRoztocici-Tarsonemini. Nadkohorta Sametky - Prostigmata. pp. 357422 in Daniel, M., and Cerny, V. (Eds.), Klic zvireny CSSR, vol. 4. (In Czech)
Daniel, M., Seidler, L., and Svaty, J.. 1955. Beitragzur Lungenacariasis der Menschen. Zentralbl.f. Bakter., I 162: 136145.
Davis, A.C. 1938. Tarsonemus spp. attacking mushrooms. J. econ. Ent. 31: 547.
DeJong, D., Morse, R.A., and Eickwort, G.C.. 1982. Mite pests of honey bees. Annu. Rev. Ent. 27: 229252.
De Leon, D. 1956 a. Four new Acarina in the family Tarsonemidae. Fla Ent. 39: 105112.
De Leon, D. 1956 b. Some mites from lychee. Descriptions of two new genera and five new species of Tarsonemidae. Fla Ent. 39: 163174.
De Leon, D. 1966. A new fern mite from Trinidad, West Indies (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Fla Ent. 49: 127129.
Delfinado, M.D. 1976. Terrestrial mites of New York — V. Tarsonemidae. J. N. Y. ent. Soc. 84: 255274.
Delfinado, M.D. 1978. Terrestrial mites of New York – VI. Further notes on Tarsonemidae (Acarina). J. N. Y. ent. Soc. 86: 6686.
Delfinado-Baker, M. 1984. Acarapis woodi in the United States. Am. Bee J. 124: 805806.
Delfinado-Baker, M. 1985. An acarologist's view: the spread of the tracheal mite of honey bees in the United States. Am. Bee J. 125: 689690.
Delfinado-Baker, M., and Baker, E.W.. 1982. Notes on honey bee mites of the genus Acarapis Hirst (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Int. J. Acarol. 8: 211226.
Dittrich, V. and Streibert, P.. 1969. The respiratory mechanism of spider mite eggs. Z. angew. Ent. 63: 200211.
Doucette, C.F. 1936. Observations on bulb scale mite as a major pest of narcissus. J. econ. Ent. 29: 11031105.
Ebermann, E. 1980. Zur Zoogeographie, Taxonomie und Larvalentwicklung einiger Scutacariden-Arten aus Nordamerika. Zool. Anz., Jena 205: 123135.
Ebermann, E. 1982. Fortpflanzungsbiologische Studienan Scutacariden (Acari, Trombidiformes). Zool. Jb., Syst. 109: 98116.
Ebermann, E., and Rack, G.. 1982. Zur Biologie einer neuen myrmecophilen Art der Gattung Petalomium (Acari, Pygmephoridae). Ent. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamburg 7: 175192.
Eckert, J.E. 1961. Acarapis mites of the honey bee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus. J. Insect Pathol. 3: 409425.
Eickwort, G.C. 1975. A new species of Chrysomelobia (Acari: Tarsonemina: Podapolipidae) from North America and the taxonomie position of the genus. Can. Ent. 107: 613626.
Eickwort, G.C. 1979. Mites associated with sweat bees (Halictidae). pp. 575581 in Recent Advances in Acarology (Proc. 5th int. Congr. Acarol., East Lansing, Michigan, Aug. 6–12, 1978), vol. 1.
Elbadry, E.A., Yousef, A.A., and Metwally, S.H.. 1976. Life history studies on the soil mite Scutacarus agypticus with descriptions of the immature stages (Acarina: Scutacaridae). Pedobiologia 16: 167170.
Emmanouel, N.G. 1981. A new species of mite from the family Tarsonemidae (Prostigmata) pest of the wheat in Greece. Int. J. Acarol. 7: 129132.
Emmanouel, N.G. 1984. 11.9 The genus Steneotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in Greece, and the description of a new species, pp. 791796 in Griffiths, D.A., and Bowman, C.E. (Eds.), Acarol. VI (Proc. 6th int. Congr. Acarol., Edinburgh, Scotland, 1982), vol. 2, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.
Ewing, H.E. 1911. New predaceous and parasitic Acarina. Psyche 18: 3743.
Ewing, H.E. 1922. Studies on the taxonomy and biology of the tarsonemid mites, together with a note on the transformation of Acarapis (Tarsonemus) woodi Rennie. (Acarina). Can. Ent. 54: 104113.
Ewing, H.E. 1924. New tarsonemid mites (Order Acarina, family Tarsonemidae). Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 26: 6669.
Ewing, H.E. 1929. A new variety of Tarsonemus (Acarina) from Pacific coast. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 31: 3132.
Ewing, H.E. 1939. A revision of the mites of the subfamily Tarsoneminae of North America, the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands. Tech. Bull. U.S. Dept. Agric. 653. 63 pp.
Ewing, H.E., and Smith, F.F.. 1934. The European tarsonemid strawberry mite identical with the American cyclamen mite. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 36: 267268.
Eyndhoven, G.L. van, and Groenewold, H.. 1959. On the morphology of Steneotarsonemuspallidus and S. fragariae (Acar., Tars.). Ent. Ber. 19: 123124.
Fain, A. 1970. Coreitarsonemus un nouveau genre d'Acariens parasitant la glande odoriférante des Hémiptères Coreidae (Tarsonemidae: Trombidiformes). Rev. Zool. Bol. Afr. 82: 315334.
Fain, A. 1971. Note sur la repartition géographique des Coreitarsoneminae parasites des Hémiptères Coreides avec description de taxa nouveaux. Bull. Ann. Soc. R. Ent. Belg. 107: 8188.
Fain, A. 1976. Acariens récoltés par le Docteur J. Trave aux lies subantarctiques. II. Familes Acaridae, Anoetidae, Ereynetidae et Tarsonemidae (Astigmates et Prostigmates). Acarologia 18: 302328.
Fain, A. 1978. Notes sur les Coreitarsoneminae (Acari, Prostigmata, Tarsonemidae) parasites de la glande odoriférante d'Hemipteres Coreidae en Afrique Centrale. Rev. Zool. Afr. 92: 959970.
Fain, A. 1980 a. Les Coreitarsoneminae (Prostigmata, Tarsonemidae) parasites de la glande odoriférante d'Hemipteres de la famille Coreidae. I. Espèces d'Asie et d'Australie. Acarologia 21: 279290.
Fain, A. 1980 b. Les Coreitarsoneminae (Prostigmata, Tarsonemidae) parasites de la glande odoriférante d'Hemipteres de la famille Coreidae. II. Espèces Américaines. Acarologia 21: 346360.
Fjelddalen, J., and Stenseth, C.. 1958. Nye kjemiske midler for bekjempelse av jordbaermidd. (Tarsonemus pallidus Banks). Frukt og Baer, 1958, pp. 3742. (In Norwegian)
Flaherty, D.L. 1967. The ecology and importance of spider mites on grapevines in the southern San Joaquin Valley, with emphasis on the role of Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) in their natural control. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Calif., Berkeley. 174 pp.
Flechtmann, C.H.W. 1967. Introduço à familia Tarsonemidae Kramer, 1877 (Acarina) no estado de Sao Paulo. Anais da E.S.A. “Luis de Queiroz”, Piracicaba 24: 265272.
Flechtmann, C.H.W. 1971. Alguns Trombidiformes do Brasil e do Paraguai (Acari). Piracicaba, Est. Sao Paulo. 63 pp., 16 pl.
Flechtmann, C.H.W. 1975. Elementos de Acarologia. Livraria Nobel, Sao Paulo. 344 pp.
Flechtmann, C.H.W. 1977. A abelha “africanizada”e a disseminaçao do Acarapis woodi (Rennie) no Brasil. An. Soc. ent. Brasil 6: 130131.
Flechtmann, C.H.W., and Flechtmann, C.A.H.. 1984. Reproduction and chromosomes in the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904) (Acari, Prostigmata, Tarsonemidae). pp. 455456 in Griffiths, D.A., and Bowman, C.E. (Eds.), Acarology VI (Proc. 6th int. Congr. Acarol., Edinburgh, Scotland, 1982), vol. 1. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.
Fulmek, L. 1919. Die Milbenschwindsucht des Kafers. Nachr. deulsch. Landw.-Ges. f. Osterr. 1919(1): 6.
Gäbler, H. 1947. Milbe als Eiparasit des Buchdruckers (lps typographies L.). NachrBl. dt. PflSchutzdienst., Stuttg. 1: 113115.
Gadd, C.H. 1946. Observations on the yellow tea-mite Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks) Ewing. Bull. ent. Res. 37: 157162.
Garman, P. 1917. Tarsonemus pallidus Banks, a pest of geraniums. Maryland Agric. Exp. Sla. Bull. 208: 327342.
Gerson, U. 1971. The mites associated with citrus in Israel. Israel J. Ent. 6: 522.
Gerson, U., and Seaward, M.R.D.. 1977. Lichen-invertebrate associations. Chapter 4, pp. 69119 in Seaward, M.R.D. (Ed.), Lichen Ecology. Academic Press, London & New York.
Giordani, G. 1962. Recherches au laboratoire sur Acarapis woodi Rennie, agent de l'acariose des abeilles (Apis mellifica L.). Note 1. Bull, apicole 5(1): 119. (This paper also published in Italian in L'Apicoltore d'ltalia, 1962 1–2: 1–11.)
Giordani, G. 1963. Ricerche di laboratorio su Acarapis woodi Rennie, agente delia acariosi delle api (Apis mellifica L.). Nota 2. Bull, apicole 6: 185203.
Giordani, G. 1964. Ricerche di laboratorio su Acarapis woodi Rennie, agent della acariosi delle api (Apis mellifica L.). Nota 3. Bull, apicole 7: 4360.
Grandjean, F. 1939 a. Observations sur les Acariens (5e série). Bull. Mus. nail. Hist. nat. (2) 11: 394401.
Grandjean, F. 1939 b. Les segments post-larvaires de l'hysterosomachez les Oribates (Acariens). Bull. Soc. zool. Fr. 64: 273284.
Grandjean, F. 1940. Les poils et les organes sensitifs portes par les pattes et le palpe chez les Oribates. Deuxième partie. Bull. Soc. zool. Fr. 65: 3244.
Grandjean, F. 1941. La chaetotaxie comparée des pattes chez les Oribates (1re série). Bull. Soc. zool. Fr. 66: 3350.
Grandjean, F. 1943. Le developpement postlarvaire d' “Anystis” (Acarien). Mém. Mus. natl. Hist, nat., n.s. 18: 3377.
Grandjean, F. 1944 a. Observations sur les Acariens du genre Caeculus. Arch. Sci. phys. nat. (5) 26: 3346.
Grandjean, F. 1944 b. Observations sur les Acariens de la famille des Stigmaeidae. Arch. Sci. phys. nat. (5) 26: 103131.
Grandjean, F. 1947. Les Enarthronota (Acariens). Premiere série. Ann. Sci. nat., Zool., Sér. 11 8: 213248.
Grandjean, F. 1948. Quelques caracteres des Tétranyques. Bull. Mus. nat. Hist, natur., Sér. 2 20: 517524.
Grandjean, F. 1952. Au sujet de l'ectosquelette du podosoma chez les Oribates supérieurs et de sa terminologie. Bull. Soc. zool. Fr. 77: 1336.
Grandjean, F. 1954. Étude sur les Palaeacaroïdes (Acariens, Oribates). Mém. Mus. natl. Hist, nat., Paris, Sér. A, Zool. 7: 179272.
Grandjean, F. 1958. Sur le comportement et la notation des poils accessoires postérieurs aux tarses des Nothroïdes et d'autres Acariens. Arch. Zool. exp. gén. 96: 277308.
Grandjean, F. 1970. Stases. Actinopiline. Rappel de ma classification des Acariens en 3 groupes majeurs. Terminologie en soma. Acarologia 11: 796827.
Gray, E.G., Shaw, M.W., and Shiel, R.S.. 1975. The role of mites in the transmission of smoulder in narcissus. PI. Path. 24: 105107.
Green, E.E. 1890. Insect pests of the tea plant. Colombo, Ceylon. 85 pp.
Gressitt, J.L. 1957. Hispine beetles from the South Pacific (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Nova Guinea, n.s. 8: 205324, 1 pl.
Gupta, P.C., and Chaudhry, H.S.. 1972. New record of Hemitarsonemus latus Banks (Tarsonemidae) as a parasite of Bemisia gossypiperda M.& L. Indian J. Ent. 33: 476.
Gutierrez, J. 1968. Steneotarsonemus madecassus n. sp., agent d'une deformation des panicules de riz à Madagascar. Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 72: 323330.
Guzman-Novoa, E., and Zozaya-Rubio, A.. 1984. The effects of chemotherapy on the level of infestation and production of honey in colonies of honey bees with acariosis. Am. Bee J. 124: 669672.
Halbert, J.L. 1923. Notes on Acari, with descriptions of new species. J. Linn. Soc., Zool. 35: 363392, 3 pl.
Hammen, L. van der. 1970. Tarsonemoides limhatus nov. spec, and the systematic position of the Tarsonemida (Acarida). Zool. Verh., Leiden 108: 135.
Hammen, L. van der. 1972. A revised classification of the mites (Arachnidea, Acarida) with diagnoses, a key, and notes on phylogeny. Zool. Meded., Leiden 47: 273292.
Hammen, L. van der. 1973. Classification and phylogeny of mites, pp. 275282 in Proc. 3rd int. Congr. Acarol. (Prague, 1971). Academia, Czech. Acad. Sci., Prague.
Harada, I. 1925. On a case of mites found in human urine. Chugai Iji Shimpo 44: 859866.
(Not seen; ref.: Jap. Med. World 5: 251252, 1925.)
Helle, W., Bolland, H.R., Jeurissen, S.H.M., and van Seventer, G.A.. 1984. Chromosome data on the Actinedida, Tarsonemida and Oribatidae. pp. 449454 in Griffiths, D.A., and Bowman, C.E. (Eds.), Acarology VI (Proc. 6th int. Congr. Acarol., Edinburgh, Scotland, 1982), vol. 1. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.
Henking, H. 1882. Beitrage zur Anatomie, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Biologie von Trombidium fuliginosum. Z. wiss. Zool. 37: 553663.
Hennig, W. 1950. Grundzuge einer Theorie der phylogenetischen Systematik. Deutscher Zentralverlag, Berlin. 370 pp.
Hennig, W. 1965. Phylogenetic systematics. Annu. Rev. Enl. 10: 97116.
Hennig, W. 1966. Phylogenetic systematics. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana. 263 pp. (2nd edition, 1979)
Herfs, A. 1926. Ökologisches Untersuchungen an Pediculoides ventricosus (Newp.) Berl. Zoologica 74: 168.
Heungens, A., and van Daele, E.. 1980. Schadelijke weekhuidmijten (Tarsonemidae) in de azaleateelt. Meded. Fac. landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent 45 (5): 12231231.
Hewitt, M., and Turk, S.. 1974. Notes on the occurrence of the new species. In Mahunka, S. (Ed.), Daidalotarsonemus hewitti sp. n. (Acari: Tarsonemida) from human skin in England. Parasit. Hung. 7: 193196.
Hill, A., and Deahl, K.L.. 1978. Two new species of Tarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) associated with commercial mushroom production. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 80: 330334.
Hirschfelder, H., and Sachs, H.. 1952. Recent research on the acarine mite. Bee World 33: 201208.
Hirst, S. 1912. On a new species of mite (Tarsonemus) injurious to sugar-canes in Barbados. Bull. em. Res. 3: 325328.
Hirst, S. 1921. On some new or little-known Acari, mostly parasitic in habit. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1921: 357378.
Hirst, S. 1922 a. On the mite (Acarapis woodi, Rennie) associated with Isle of Wight bee disease. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., ser. 9 7: 509519.
Hirst, S. 1922 b. Mites injurious to domestic animals (with an appendix on the acarine disease of hive bees). Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Econ. Ser. 13. 107 pp.
Hirst, S. 1923. On some new or little-known species of Acari. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1923: 9711000.
Hislop, R.G., and Jeppson, L.R.. 1976. Morphology of the mouthparts of several species of phytophagous mites. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 69: 11251135.
Ho, C.-C., and Lo, K.-C.. 1979. The survey of the host ranges of Steneotarsonemus spinki (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Nat. Sci. Coun. Mon., Taiwan 7: 10221028. (In Chinese)
Hodson, W.E.H. 1934. The bionomics of the bulb-scale mite, Tarsonemus approximatus, Banks, var. narcissi, Ewing. Bull. ent. Res. 25: 177185.
Holloway, T.E. 1936. Insect pests of sugarcane XIV. Facts about sugar 31: 216217.
Homann, H. 1933. Die Milben in gesunden Bienenstocken. Z. Parasitenk. 6: 350415.
Hsieh, S.P.Y., Liang, W.L., and Chang, S.Y.. 1977. Etiological studies on the sterility of rice plant. I. Association of sheath rot fungus, Acrocylindrium oryzae Sawada, with sterile rice plant. Plant Prot. Bull., Taiwan 19: 3036. (In Chinese)
Huffaker, C.B., and Kennett, C.E.. 1956. Experimental studies on predation: predation and cyclamen-mite populations on strawberries in California. Hilgardia 26: 191222.
Hughes, T.E. 1959. Mites or the Acari. Athlone Press, Univ. London. 225 pp.
Humiczewska, M. 1967. Tarsonemoides noxius sp. n. (Acari). Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Cl. II, Ser. biol. 15: 8993.
Hussey, N.W. 1963. A new species of Tarsonemus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) from cultivated mushrooms. Acarologia 5: 540544.
Hussey, N.W. 1964. Mites as pests of cultivated mushrooms. Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1963: 114117.
Hussey, N.W., and Gurney, B.. 1967. Bionomics and control of Tarsonemus myceliophagus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) in mushroom composts. Ent. exp. appl. 10: 287294.
Ingram, W.R. 1960. The control of yellow tea mite, Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks), with DDT on cotton in Uganda. Bull. ent. Res. 51: 577582.
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature adopted by the XV International Congress of Zoology, 2nd ed: 1964. Intern. Trust for Zool. Nomenclature, London, xx + 176 pp.
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature adopted by the XX General Assembly of the International Union of Biological Sciences, 3rd ed. 1985. Intern. Trust of Zool. Nomenclature, London. xx+ 338 pp.
Ito, Y. 1962. Three new tarsonemid mites from Japan (Tarsonemidae, Acarina). Jap. J. appl. Ent. Zool. 6: 108113.
Ito, Y. 1963. Six newly recorded species of tarsonemid-mites in Japan. Jap. J. appl. Ent. Zool. 7: 1419.
Ito, Y. 1964. Descriptions of eight tarsonemid mites from Japan. Jap. J. appl. Enl. Zool. 8: 3444.
Ito, Y. 1977. A taxonomy and key to Japanese tarsonemid mites, pp. 223240 in Sasa, M., and Aoki, J-i. (Eds.), Contributions to Acarology in Japan. Zukan-no-Hokuryukan, Tokyo. (In Japanese)
Jeffree, E.P. 1959. The world distribution of acarine disease of honeybees and its probable dependence on meteorological factors. Bee World 40: 415.
Jeppson, L.R., Keifer, H.H., and Baker, E.W.. 1975. Mites injurious to economic plants. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley, xxiv + 614 pp., 64 pl.
Kaliszewski, M. 1978 a. Two new species of mites (Acari, Tarsonemidae) from Poland. Bull. Acad.pol. Sci., CI. 11, Ser. Sci. biol. 26: 231242.
Kaliszewski, M. 1978 b. Description of an abnormal specimen of Tarsonemuspallidus Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae). Bull. Acad.pol. Sci., Cl. II, Ser. Sci. biol. 26: 617619.
Kaliszewski, M. 1979. Two new species of the genus Tarsonemus Canestr. et Fanzago (Tarsonemidae, Acarina) from Poland. Bull. Acad.pol. Sci., Cl. II, Ser. Sci. biol. 26: 771778.
Kaliszewski, M. 1981. Study of Polish Tarsonemidae. IV. Description of the larva of Tarsonemus suskianus Kaliszewski n. nov. Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. II, Ser. Sci. biol. 28: 659662.
Kaliszewski, M. 1983 a. Study of Polish Tarsonemidae. V. Description of Tarsonemus parafusarii n. sp. (Acari: Heterostigmae). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. II, Ser. Sci. biol. 29: 385392.
Kaliszewski, M. 1983 b. Study of Polish Tarsonemidae. VI. Description of Tarsonemus paralucifer n. sp. (Acari: Heterostigmae). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. II, Ser. Sci. biol. 29: 393400.
Kaliszewski, M. 1983 c. Study of Polish Tarsonemidae. VII. Description of Tarsonemus multiplex n. sp. (Acari: Heterostigmae). Bull. Acad.pol. Sci.. Cl. II, Ser. Sci. biol. 29: 401407.
Kaliszewski, M. 1983 d. Tarsonemus onchus n. sp. and Tarsonemus occullus n. sp. (Acari, Heterostigmae) from Poland. Bull. Soc. Amis Sci. Lear. Poznan, Ser. D, Sci. biol. 23: 183194.
Kaliszewski, M. 1984 a. Some aspects of the systematics and evolution of the Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmae). pp. 202–209 in Griffiths, D. A., and Bowman, C.E. (Eds.), Acarology VI (Proc. 6th int. Congr. Acarol., Edinburgh, Scotland, 1982), vol. 1. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.
Kaliszewski, M. 1984 b. Neotarsonemoides adae n. sp., n. gen. (Acari: Tarsonemidae) from Poland. Ent. Mitt. zool. Mus. Hamburg 8: 16.
Kaliszewski, M. 1984 c. Study of Polish Tarsonemidae. X. Description of Tarsonemus pumilis n. sp. (Acari: Heterostigmae). Acta Zool. Cracov. 27: 299304.
Kaliszewski, M. 1986. Key to the females of the Palearctic species of the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini et Fanzago, 1876 (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Adam Mickiewicz Univ. Press, Poznan. In press.
Kaliszewski, M. Unpublished. Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmae) Polski. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznán, 1981. 1072 pp. (In Polish)
Kaliszewski, M., and Magowski, W.. 1985. Acaronemini n. tribe and Praeacaronemus rackae n. sp., n. gen., proposed for mites from the family Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmae). Em. Mitt. zool. Mus. Hamburg 8: 131144.
Kaliszewski, M., and Sell, D.. 1985. Tarsonemus elbrusisp. nov. (Acari: Heterostigmae), a new species of the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini et Fanzago from the Caucasus. Acarologia 26: 239251.
Kaliszewski, M., Suski, Z.W., and Rejman, S.. 1983. Individual variation in wild and laboratory reared specimens of Tarsonemus nodosus Schaarschmidt, 1959 (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Folia ent. Hung. 44: 6381.
Karafiat, H. 1959. Systematik und Ökologie der Scutacariden. Beitr. Syst. Ökol. mitteleur. Acarina I, Abschn. 4: 627712.
Karl, E. 1963. Tarsonemuspotentillae nov. spec. (Acar., Tarsonemidae) an Potentilla anserina L. Zool. Anz. 171: 459468.
Karl, E. 1965 a. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Ökologie von Tarsonemiden gartnerischer Kulturpflanzen. I. Tarsonemus pallidus Banks. Biol. Zbl. 84: 4780.
Karl, E. 1965 b. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Ökologie von Tarsonemiden gartnerischer Kulturpflanzen. II. Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks), Tarsonemus confusus Ewing, T. talpae Schaarschmidt, T. setifer Ewing, T. smithi Ewing und Tarsonemoides belemnitoides Weis-Fogh. Biol. Zbl. 84: 331357.
Karl, E. 1969. Untersuchungsergebnisse zur Klarung der Artfrage bei Tarsonemus pallidus Banks. Ber. 10. Wanderversammlung Deutscher Entomologen, 15–19 Sept. 1965, Tagungsber. Nr. 80: 567574.
Kishida, K. 1923. On the systematic position of Nephrophages sanguinarius Miyakeet Scriba, with anote on the scientific name of a mite found in wheat grain. Dobuts. Zasshi 35: 203208. (In Japanese)
Korsgaard, J., and Hallas, T.E.. 1979. Tarsonemid mites in Danish house dust. Allergy 34: 225232.
Kramer, P. 1876 a. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Milben. Arch. Naturgesch. 42: 2845.
Kramer, P. 1876 a. Ueber Dendroptus, ein neues Milbengeschlecht. Arch. Naturgesch. 42: 197208.
Kramer, P. 1877. Grundzuge zur Systematik der Milben. Arch. Naturgesch. 43: 215247.
Kramer, P. 1878. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Milben. Z. ges. Naturw., 5 F. 3(51): 519561.
Kramer, P. 1886. Über Milben. Arch. Naturgesch. 52: 241268.
Krantz, G. W. 1970. A manual of Acarology. Oregon St. Univ. Book Stores, Corvallis. 335 pp.
Krantz, G. W. 1978. A manual of Acarology, 2nd ed. Oregon St. Univ. Book Stores, Corvallis. 509 pp.
Krantz, G.W., and Lindquist, E.E.. 1979. Evolution of phytophagous mites (Acari). Annu. Rev. Ent. 24: 121 158.
Krczal, H. 1959. Systematik und Ökologie der Pyemotiden. Beitr. Svst. Ökol mitteleur. Acarina I, Abschn. 3: 385625.
Kropczynska, D. 1965. Studies on mites (Acarina) living on plants in Poland. II. Acarologia 7: 227234.
Kshirsagar, K.K. 1966. A review of work on acarine disease of honeybees. 1. History and distribution. Indian Bee J. 28: 7984.
Kühn, J. 1883. Eine neue Milbengalle auf dem Straussgrase. Boi. Centralbl. Kassel 13: 212.
Kuris, A.M. 1974. Trophic interactions: similarity of parasitic castrators to parasitoids. Quart. Rev. Biol. 49: 129148.
Landwehr, V.R. 1977. Ischyropalpus nitidulus (Coleoptera: Anthicidae), a predator of mites associated with Monterey pine. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 70: 8183.
Lavoipierre, M.M.J. 1940. Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acarina), a mite of economic importance new to South Africa. J. ent. Soc. S. Afr. 3: 116123.
Lee, T.L., and Chow, Y.S.. 1977. Direct evidences for the damage of rice plant by tarsonemid mite, Steneotarsonemus madecassus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Nat. Sci. Coun. Mon., Taiwan 5: 960963 (In Chinese)
Lehman, R.D. 1982. Mites (Acari) of Pennsylvania conifers. Trans, am. ent. Soc. 108: 181286.
Lepesme, P. 1947. Les insectes des Palmiers. P. André, Paris. 903 pp.
Liang, W.-J. 1980. Rearing method for rice-sheath-rot fungus free tarsonemid mite (Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley). Plant Prot. Bull., Taiwan 22: 2329. (In Chinese)
Lin, J.-Z., and Zhang, Y.-X.. 1982. A new species of Tarsonemus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Wuyi Sci. J., Fujian, China 2: 137140.
Lindquist, E.E. 1961. Taxonomie and biological studies of mites of the genus Arctoseius Thor from Barrow, Alaska (Acarina: Aceosejidae). Hilgardia 30: 301350.
Lindquist, E.E. 1964. Mites parasitizing eggs of bark beetles of the genus Ips. Can. Ent. 96: 125126.
Lindquist, E.E. 1968. An unusual new species of Tarsonemus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) associated with the Indian honey bee. Can. Ent. 100: 10021006.
Lindquist, E.E. 1969 a. Review of holarctic tarsonemid mites (Acarina: Prostigmata) parasitizing eggs of ipine bark beetles. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 60. III pp.
Lindquist, E.E. 1969 b. Mites and the regulation of bark beetle populations, pp. 389399 in Proc. 2nd int. Congr. Acarol. (Sutton Bonington, England), 1967. Akad. Kiado, Budapest.
Lindquist, E.E. 1969 c. New species of Tarsonemus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) associated with bark beetles. Can. Ent. 101: 12911314.
Lindquist, E.E. 1970. Review of the genus Heterotarsonemus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Can. Ent. 102: 812829.
Lindquist, E.E. 1972. A new species of Tarsonemus from stored grain (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Can. Ent. 104: 16991708.
Lindquist, E.E. 1973. Observations on the generic classification of tarsonemid mites (Prostigmata). pp. 293295, 1 pl. in Proc. 3rd int. Congr. Acarol. (Prague), 1971. W. Junk, The Hague.
Lindquist, E.E. 1975. Associations between mites and other arthropods in forest floor habitats. Can. Ent. 107: 425437.
Lindquist, E.E. 1976. Transfer of the Tarsocheylidae to the Heterostigmata, and reassignment of Tarsonemina and Heterostigmata to lower hierarchic status in the Prostigmata (Acari). Can. Ent. 108: 2348.
Lindquist, E.E. 1977. Homology of dorsal opisthosomal plates, setae, and cupules of heterostigmatic mites with those of other eleutherengone Prostigmata (Acari). Acarologia 19: 97104.
Lindquist, E.E. 1978. On the synonymy of Tarsonemus waitei Banks, T. setifer Ewing, and T. bakeri Ewing, with redescription of species (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Can. Ent. 110: 10231048.
Lindquist, E.E. 1983. Some thoughts on the potential for use of mites in biological control, including a modified concept of “parasitoids”. pp. 12–20 in Hoy, M.A., Cunningham, G.L., and Knutson, L. (Eds.), Biological Control of Pests by Mites. Univ. Calif., Division Agric. Nat. Resources, Special Publ. 3304. vi + 185 pp.
Lindquist, E.E. 1985 a. Discovery of sporothecae in adult female Trochometridium Cross with notes on analogous structures in Sileroptes Amerling (Acari: Heterostigmata). Exp. appl. Acarol. 1: 7385.
Lindquist, E.E. 1985 b. Authorship of the family-group names Tarsonemidae and Podapolipidae, and priority of Scutacaridae over Pygmephoridae (Acari: Heterostigmata). Acarologia 26: 141145.
Lindquist, E.E. 1985 c. Description of the adult female of the type-species of Metatarsonemus Attiah, with notes on the synonymy of this genus under Tarsonemus Can. & Fanz. (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Can. Ent. 117: 12791285.
Lindquist, E.E. A means of determining sex in larval Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata) based on external structure. Exp. appl. Acarol. In press a.
Lindquist, E.E. Observations on the larva and protonymph of tarsocheylid mites (Acari: Heterostigmata). Acarologia. In press, b.
Lindquist, E.E., and Bedard, W.D.. 1961. Biology and taxonomy of mites of the genus Tarsonemoides (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) parasitizing eggs of bark beetles of the genus Ips. Can. Em. 83: 982999.
Lindquist, E.E., and Kethley, J.B.. 1975. The systematic position of the Heterocheylidae Tragardh (Acari: Acariformes: Prostigmata). Can. Ent. 107: 887898.
Lindquist, E.E., and Smiley, R.L.. 1978. Acaronemus, a new genus proposed for tarsonemid mites (Acari: Prostigmata) predaceous on tetranychoid mite eggs. Can. Ent. 110: 655662.
Livshits, I.Z., Mitrofanov, V.I., and Sharonov, A.A.. 1979. Raznokogotkovye kleschi fauny Kryma (Tarsonemidae: Acariformes). in Livshits, I.Z., (Ed.), Vrediteli i bolezni lesoparkovych i plodovych nasazhdenii Kryma. Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Nikitskogo Botanicheskogo Sada, Yalta 79: 750. (In Russian)
Livshits, I.Z., Mitrofanov, V.I., and Sharonov, A.A.. 1981. Novye vidy kleshchei roda Steneotarsonemus Beer, 1954 so zlakov i mcha (Acariformes, Tarsonemidae). Vestnik Zool. 1981(6): 7982. (In Russian)
Livshits, I.Z., Mitrofanov, V.I., and Sharonov, A.A.. 1982 a. Novye vidy tarzonemidnych kleshchei (Tarsonemidae, Acariformes) iz Kryma. Zool. Zhurnal 61: 610613. (In Russian)
Livshits, I.Z., Mitrofanov, V.I., and Sharonov, A.A.. 1982 b. Novye vidy tarzonemid (Acariformes). Zool. Zhurnal 61: 789792. (In Russian)
Livshits, I.Z., Mitrofanov, V.I., and Sharonov, A.A.. 1982 c. Novye vidy kleschei roda Steneotarsonemus (Tarsonemidae, Acariformes). Biol. Nauki, Moscow 1982(10): 2428. (In Russian)
Lo, K.-C., and Ho, C.-C.. 1977. Preliminary studies on rice tarsonemid mite, Steneotarsonemus spinki (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Nat. Sci. Coun. Mon., Taiwan 5: 274284. (In Chinese)
Lo, K.-C., and Ho, C.-C.. 1979 a. Ecological observations on rice tarsonemid mite, Steneotarsonemus spinki (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). J. agric. Res. China 28: 181192. (In Chinese)
Lo, K.-C., and Ho, C.-C.. 1979 b. Studies on the cause of theempty head of rice in Taiwan. J. agric. Res. China 28: 193198. (In Chinese)
Lo, K.-C., Ho, C.-C., and Chen, S.-T.. 1979. Artificial propagation of Amblyseius taiwanicus and its tolerance to some pesticides. J. agric. Res. China 28: 251259. (In Chinese)
Lombardini, G. 1959. Acari nuovi. XXXVII. Boll. 1st. Ent. agr. Palermo 3: 163167 + 1 pl.
Luxton, M. 1981. Studies on the prostigmatic mites of a Danish beech wood soil. Pedobiologia 22: 277303.
Mackenzie, J. 1922. Endoparasitic Acari as a cause of urinary diseases, with notes on several cases. J. r. Army Med. Corps. London 39: 339347.
Magowski, W. 1985. Steneotarsonemus paradoxus n. sp., a new species of the mite family Tarsonemidae (Acari: Prostigmata). Ent. Milt. zool. Mus. Hamburg 8: 8995.
Mahunka, S. 1970 a. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei. 227. Acari: Pygmephoroidea. Ann. hist.-nat. Mus. natl. Hung., zool. 62: 343362.
Mahunka, S. 1970 b. Considerations on the systematics of the Tarsonemina and the description of new European taxa (Acari: Trombidiformes). Acta zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 137174.
Mahunka, S. 1970 c. The scientific results of the Hungarian Soil Zoological Expeditions to South America. 21. Acari: Tarsonemine species from Brazil. Acta zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 371408.
Mahunka, S. 1971. Tarsonemina (Acari) species from Korea. Zoological collectings of the Hungarian Natural History Museum in Korea (Nr. 3). Acta zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 17: 271294.
Mahunka, S. 1972 a. Tetuatkak - Tarsonemina. Magy. Allatvilaga Fauna Hung. 110, Kotet 18 (Arachnoidea), Fuzet 16. 215 pp. (In Hungarian)
Mahunka, S. 1972 b. The first survey of the tarsonemid (Acari) fauna of New Guinea. I. Acta zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 18: 4192.
Mahunka, S. 1973 a. Auf Insekten lebende Milben (Acari: Acarida, Tarsonemida) aus Afrika. I. Acta zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 19: 75123.
Mahunka, S. 1973 b. Auf Insekten lebende Milben (Acari: Acarida, Tarsonemida) aus Afrika. II. Acta zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 19: 289337.
Mahunka, S. 1974 a. Auf Insekten lebende Milben (Acari: Acarida, Tarsonemida) aus Afrika. III. Acta zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 20: 137154.
Mahunka, S. 1974 b. Daidalotarsonemus hewitti sp. n. (Acari: Tarsonemida) from human skin in England. Parasit. hung. 7: 191196.
Mahunka, S. 1975. Über die Gattung Resinacarus Vitzthum, 1927 und Resinacarinae subfam. n. (Acari: Pyemotidae). Opuscula Zool, Nr. 133: 16.
Mahunka, S. 1979 a. A Neogaea talajatkafaunajanak areatorténete (Taxonomiai, szisztematikai és biogeografiai szintézis). Doctoral thesis (summary), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. 13 pp. (In Hungarian)
Mahunka, S. 1979 b. Some remarks on polymorphism (phoretomorphism) in tarsonemid mites. Folia ent. Hung. 32: 133137.
Mahunka, S. 1981. Tarsonemiden aus Athiopien (Acari: Tarsonemina). Folia ent. Hung. 34: 101121.
Mahunka, S. 1982. Some new tarsonemids (Acari: Tarsonemina) from Madagascar. Folia ent. Hung. 43: 6976.
Mahunka, S., and Rack, G.. 1975. Bibliographica Tarsonemidologica 1. (1971–74). Folia ent. Hung. 28: 117126.
Mahunka, S., and Rack, G.. 1976. Bibliographica Tarsonemidologica II. (1975). Folia enl. Hung. 29: 4348.
Mahunka, S., and Rack, G.. 1979 a. Bibliographia Tarsonemidologica Literatur bis 1970. Folia ent. Hung. 32: 2151.
Mahunka, S., and Rack, G.. 1979 b. Bibliographia Tarsonemidologica V. (1978). Folia ent. Hung. 32: 153159.
Mahunka, S., and Rack, G.. 1982. Bibliographia Tarsonemidologica VII. (1980–81). Folia ent. Hung. 43: 7786.
Mahunka, S., and Rack, G.. 1984. Bibliographia Tarsonemidologica VIII. (1982–1983). Folia ent. Hung. 45: 4957.
Marchal, P. 1902. Les Tarsonemus des graminées. Description d'une espèce nouvelle vivant sur l'avoine (Arachn.). Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 4: 98104.
Martin, N.A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. N.Z. Dept. Sci. Indus. Res., Ent. Div. Rep. 3. iii + 98 pp.
Massalongo, C. 1897. Intorno all' Acaro cecidio delia “Stipa pennata L.” casuto dal “Tarsonemus canestrinii. Nuovo Giorn. bot. Ital, N.S. (Firenze) 4: 103110.
Massee, A.M. 1930. The tarsonemid mite of strawberry. J. Pomol. hort. Sci. 8: 305308, 1 pl.
Massee, A.M. 1933. Further observations on the strawberry tarsonemid mite (Tarsonemus fragariae Zimm.). Annu. Rep. East Mailing Res. Sta. 1932 20: 117131, 3 pl.
Matthes, D. 1967. Die Terminologie interspezifischer (heterotypischer) Beziehungen. Zool. Anz. 179: 313319.
McDaniel, B. 1979. How to know the mites and ticks. Pictured Key Nature Series. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, viii + 335 pp.
McGregor, E.A. 1942. Recently discovered mite on citrus. Calif. Citrograph 27: 270.
McGregor, E.A. 1944. A new potential enemy of the bud mite. Calif. Citrograph 30: 53.
McGregor, E.A. 1956. The mites of citrus trees in southern California. Mem. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3. 42 pp.
McMurtry, J. A., Badii, M. H., and Johnson, H.G.. 1984. The broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, as a potential prey for phytoseiid mites in California. Entomophaga 29: 8386.
McMurtry, J. A., Huffaker, C.B., and van de Vrie, M.. 1970. Ecology of tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: a review. 1. Tetranychid enemies: their biological characters and the impact of spray practices. Hilgardia 40: 331390.
McMurtry, J. A., Oatman, E.R., Phillips, P.A., and Wood, C.W.. 1978. Establishment of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in southern California. Entomophaga 23: 175179.
Meyer, M.K., Smith, P., and Loots, G.C., 1978. Acari. pp. 703718 in Werger, M.J.A., (Ed.), Biogeography and Ecology of Southern Africa. W. Junk, The Hague.
Meyer, M.K., Smith, P., Loots, G.C., Van Pletzen, R., Engelbrecht, C.M., and Walker, J.B.. 1973. Acari of the Ethiopian Region. Em. Mem., Dept. agric. tech. Serv., Repub. S. Afr., Nr. 29. 45 pp.
Michael, A.D. 1884. The Hypopus question, or the life-history of certain Acarina. J. Linn. Soc. London, Zool. 17: 371394.
Michael, A.D. 1890. Mites on sugar-cane. Bull. Misc. Inform., R. Bot. Gardens, Kew 40: 8586.
Millidge, A.F. 1977. The genera Mecopisthes Simon and Hypsocephalus n. gen. and their phylogenetic relationships (Aranae: Linyphiidae). Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. 4: 113123.
Mitchell, R. 1970. An analysis of dispersal in mites. Am. Naturalist 104: 425431.
Mitrofanov, V.I., and Trepashko, L.I.. 1976. Kleshchi, vyzyvayushchie belokolosost' zlakov v Belorussii. Zool. Zhurnal 55: 771773.(In Russian)
Miyake, H., and Scriba, J.. 1894. Nephrophages sanguinarius, ein neuer menschlicher Parasit im Urogenitalapparat. Mt. med. Facult. Tokio 3: 110.
Mohanasundaram, M. 1985. Some tarsonemid mites from Tamil Nadu, India (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Oriental Insects 18: 7985.
Morgan, C.V.G., and Hedlin, A.F.. 1960. Notes on the juniper berry mite, Trisetacus quadrisetus (Thomas) (Acarina: Eriophyidae), in British Columbia. Can. Ent. 92: 608610.
Morgenthaler, O. 1926. De l'acariose. L'Abeille 8: 7778.
Morgenthaler, O. 1927. Bienenrasse und Bienenkrankheiten. Schweiz. BienenZtg. 50: 559569.
Morgenthaler, O. 1934. Krankheitserregende und harmlose Arten der Bienenmilbe Acarapis, zugleich ein Beitrage zum Species- Problem. Rev. Suisse Zool. 41: 429446.
Morison, G.D. 1931. An Acarapis living externally on the Honey-bee. Bee World 12: 110111.
Morison, G.D. 1932. A mite (Acarapis) that dwells on the back of the Honey-bee. Bee Kingdom 3: 611.
Moser, J.C., and Cross, E.A.. 1975. Phoretomorph: a new phoretic phase unique to the Pyemotidae (Acarina: Tarsonemoidea). Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 68: 820822.
Muma, M.H. 1961. Mites associated with citrus in Florida. Univ. Fla Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 640. 39 pp., 8 pl.
Muma, M.H. 1975. Mites associated with citrus in Florida. Univ. Fla Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 640A. iv + 92 pp.
Munroe, D.D. 1974. The systematics, phylogeny, and zoogeography of Symmerus Walker and Australosymmerus Freeman (Diptera: Mycetophilidae: Ditomyiinae). Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 92. 183 pp.
Nascimento, C.B., de Mello, R.P., dos Santos, M.W., do Nascimento, R.V., and de Souza, J.D.. 1971. Ocorrencia de acariose em Apis mellifera no Brazil. Pesq. Agropec. Bras., Sec. Veter. 6: 5760.
Nelson, G.J. 1974. Classification as an expression of phylogenetic relationships. Syst. Zool. 22: 344359.
Nemestóthy, K.K. 1984. Tarsonemiden Milben dergartnerischen Kulturpflanzen Ungarns. Foliaent. Hung. 45: 4547.
Nemestóthy, K.K., and Mahunka, S.. 1981. Tarsoneminen (Acari) aus dem Naturschutzgebiet Wacholders “Borokas” bei Bares, Ungarn. Dunantuli Dolgoz. Term. Tud. Sor. 2: 157166.
Newell, I.M. 1973. Solenidial transposition in Pimeliaphilus (Acari, Pterygosomatidae) and its potential systematic significance, pp. 299302 in Proc. 3rd int. Congr. Acarol. (Prague), 1971. W. Junk, The Hague.
Nietner, M.J. 1863. Observations sur les ennemis du caféier, à Ceylan. Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) 15: 122-133, 240244.
Nixon, M. 1982. Preliminary world maps of honeybee diseases and parasites. Bee World 63: 2342.
Norton, R.A. 1977. An example of phoretomorphsin the mite family Scutacaridae. J. Georgia ent. Soc. 12: 185186.
Norton, R.A., and Ide, G.S.. 1974. Scutacarus baculitarsus agaricus n. subsp. (Acarina: Scutacaridae) from commercial mushroom houses, with notes on phoretic behaviour. J. Kans. ent. Soc. 47: 527534.
Nucifora, A. 1963. Osservazioni sulla riproduzione di Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acarina Tarsonemidae). Atti Accad. nazl. Ital. Ent. 10: 142153.
Nucifora, A. 1964. Precisazioni sulla morfologia estera dei Tarsonemidi. Boll. Zool. agric. Bachic, Ser. 2 6: 135.
Nucifora, A. 1971. Contributo alla conoscenza dei Tarsonemidi (Acarina Tarsonemidae): stadi postembrionali e loro morfologia comparata esterna. pp. 44–69 in Atti 8th Congr. nazl. Ital. Ent. (Firenze), 1969.
Örosi-Pal, Z. 1934. Experiments on the feeding habits of the Acarapis mites. Bee World 15: 9394.
Oudemans, A.C. 1903. Notes on Acari. Sixth Series. Tijdschr. Ent. 46: 124.
Oudemans, A.C. 1927. Over de door hem onderzochte Acari. Tijdschr. Ent. 70, Verslagen: xxxiii–xxxvii.
Oudemans, A.C. 1928. Acarologische Aanteekeningen XCII. Ent. Ber. 7: 341345.
Oudemans, A.C. 1929. Acarologische Aanteekeningen CXI. Ent. Ber. 7: 421429.
Oudemans, A.C. 1931. Acarologische Aanteekeningen CXI. Ent. Ber. 8: 312331. (pp. 322–328 subtitled “Revisie der Tarsonemini Can. & Fanz. 1877”)
Oudemans, A.C. 1937. Kritisch Historisch Overzicht der Acarologie. E.J. Brill, Leiden. 3, Bd. C: pp. I–XXIII, 7991348.
Potter, D.A. 1978. Functional sex ratio in the carmine spider mite. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 7: 218222.
Pritchard, A.E. 1951. The fern mite, a newly recognized pest on California ferns readily controlled by treatment with proper chemicals. Calif. Agric. 5 (No. 7): 10.
Rack, G. 1959. Acarophenax dermestidarum sp. n. (Acarina, Pyemotidae), ein Eiparasit von Dermestes-Arten. Z. Parasitenkde. 19: 411431.
Rack, G. 1967. Untersuchungen uber die Biologie von Dolichocybe Krantz, 1957 und Beschreibung von zwei neuen Arten (Acarina, Pyemotidae). Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst. 64: 2942.
Rack, G. 1972 a. Tarsonemina aus dem Saalkreis bei Halle (Acarina, Trombidiformes). Ent. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamburg 4: 277286.
Rack, G. 1972 b. Pyemotiden an Gramineen in schwedischen landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben. Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklung von Siteroptes graminum (Reuter, 1900) (Acarina, Pyemotidae). Zool. Anz. 188: 157174.
Rack, G. 1975. Phoretisch auf Kleinsaugern gefundene Arten der Gattung Pygmephorus (Acarina, Pygmephoridae). Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst. 72: 157176.
Rack, G. 1980. Eine neue Milbe (Acarina, Pygmephoridae) von Priocnemis apogonus (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) aus Chile. Folia ent. Hung. 41: 392–332.
Regenfuss, H. 1968. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie, Systematik und Ökologie der Podapolipidae (Acarina, Tarsonemini). Z. wiss. Zool. 177: 183282.
Regenfuss, H. 1972. Über die Einnischung synhospitaler Parasitenarten auf dem Wirtskorper. Untersuchungen an ektoparasitischen Milben (Podapolipidae) auf Laufkafern (Carabidae). Z. zool. Systematik u. Evolulionsforschung 10: 4465.
Regenfuss, H. 1973. Beinreduktion und Verlagerung des Kopulationsapparates in der Milbenfamilie Podapolipidae. ein Beispiel fur verhaltensgesteuerte Evolution morphologischer Strukturen. Z. zool. Systematik u. Evolulionsforschung 11: 173195.
Regenfuss, H. 1974. Neue ektoparasitische Arten der Familie Podapolipidae (Acari: Tarsonemina) von Carabiden. Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst. 71: 147163.
Regenfuss, H. 1975. Die Bedeutung der Hautung des Wirts fur Ektoparasiten und Symphorionten an Arthropoden. Zool. Beitr., N.F. 21: 201217.
Rennie, J. 1921. Notes on acarine disease. — VI. Bee World, Oct. 1921 13: 115117.
Regenfuss, H. 1923. Acarine disease explained. Mem. Coll. Agric. N. Scot. 6.
Reuter, E. 1900. Über die Weissahrigkeit der Wiesengraser in Finland. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis ihrer Ursachen. Acta Soc. Fauna Flora fenn. 19 (no. 1): 1136.
Reuter, E. 1906. Zwei neue Tarsonemus-Arten. Meddel. Soc. Fauna Flora fenn. 31: 136142.
Reuter, E. 1909. Zur Morphologie und Ontogenie der Acariden mit besonderer Berucksichtigung von Pediculopsis graminum (E. Reut.). Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 36: 1288.
Reuter, E. 1910. Acari und Geschwulstatiologie. Zbl. Baku, Jena, Abt. 1 56: 339344.
Rivard, I., Paradis, R.O., and Mailloux, M.. 1980. Les ravageurs des cultures fruitières du Québec en 1979. Ann. Soc. ent. Québec 25: 7780.
Roubik, D.W., and Reyes, F.. 1984. African honey bees have not brought acarine mite infestations to Panama. Am. Bee J. 124: 665667.
Rubsamen, E.H. 1907. Beitrage zur Kenntnis aussereuropaischer Zoocecidien. III. Beitrag: Gallen aus Brasilien und Peru. Marcellia 6: 110173.
Rutherford, A. 1913. Mites. Trap. Agric. Peradeniya (Ceylon) 41: 490494.
Ryke, P.A.J., and Meyer, M.K.P.. 1960. Phytophagous mites of the family Tarsonemidae (Acarina: Trombidiformes) occurring in South Africa. I. The genus Hemitarsonemus. S. Afr. J. Sci. 56: 143146.
Sachs, H. 1951. Zur Morphologie von Acarapis. I. Bau und Funktion der Mundwerkzeuge der Tracheenmilbe Acarapis woodi Rennie, 1921. Z. Bienenforsch. 1: 103112.
Sachs, H. 1952. Zur Morphologie von Acarapis. II. Bau des Kopulationsapparates der Tracheenmilbe Acarapis woodi Rennie, 1921. Z. Bienenforsch. 1: 174178.
Saether, O.A. 1979. Underlying synapomorphies and anagenetic analysis. Zool. Scipta 8: 305312.
Samsinak, K., Palicka, P., Zitek, K., Malis, L., and Vobrazkova, E.. 1976. Are the mites of the genus Tarsonemus really parasites of man? Folia parasit. 23: 9193.
Santos, P.F., and Whitford, W.G.. 1981. The effects of microarthropods on litter decomposition in a Chihuahuan desert ecosystem. Ecology 62: 654663.
Sasa, M. 1965. Mites. An introduction to classification, bionomics and control of Acarina. Univ. Tokyo Press. 494 pp. (In Japanese)
Savulkina, M.M. 1981. Sistema, ekologiya i rasprostranenie kleshchei sem. Pygmephoridae Cross, 1965 (Trombidiformes). Ent. Obozr. 60: 434450. (In Russian)
Schaarschmidt, L. 1959. Systematik und Ökologie der Tarsonemiden. Beitr. Syst. Okol. mitteleur. Acarina 1. Abschn. 5: 713823.
Schaarschmidt, L. 1960. Eine neue Art der Gattung Steneotarsonemus (Acar., Tarson.). Medd. Stat. Vaxtskyddsanst. 11(80): 479481.
Schaarschmidt, L. 1963. Tarsonemiden-Studien I. Zool. Am. 170: 265269.
Schaarschmidt, L. 1967. Eine neue Art der Gattung Tarsonemus auf Erdbeerpflanzen (Acari, Trombidiformes). Ann. hist.-nat. Mus. nam. hung., Zool 59: 389391.
Schlechtendal, D.R.H. von. 1898. Zwei neue Tarsonemus-Arten. Z. Naturw. 70: 428429.
Schneider, H. 1941. Untersuchung uber die Acarapis-Milben der Honigbiene. Die Flugel- und Hinterleibsmilbe. Mitt, schweiz. ent. Ges. 18: 318327.
Schruft, G. 1968. Neue Erkenntnisse uber Tarsonemus muhlei Wetzel 1964 nebst Neubeschreibung des Männchens dieser Weichhautmilbe (Tarsonemidae). Z. angew. Ent. 61: 3844.
Sevastyanov, V.D. 1977. Printsipy postroyeniya yestestvennoi sistemy kleshchei gruppy semeisty Tarsonemina (Trombidiformes). pp. 56–69 in Balashov, Yu. S. (Ed.), Morfologiya i diagnostika kleshchei. (Sbornik nauchnykh rabot). Zool. Inst., Akad. Nauk SSSR, Leningrad. 86 pp. (In Russian)
Sevastyanov, V.D. 1978. Kogorta Tarsonemina Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877. pp. 14–90 in Gilyarov, M.S. (Ed.), Opredelitel' obitayushchikh v pochve kleshchei. Trombidiformes. Izdatel'stvo “Nauka”, Moscow. 272 pp. (In Russian)
Sharonov, A.A. 1982. Novye vidy kleshchei roda Tarsonemus (Acariformes, Tarsonemidae). Biol. Nauki, Moscow 1982(11): 3539. (In Russian)
Sharonov, A.A. 1983. Novye vidy rastenieobitayushchikh kleshchei (Acariformes, Tarsonemidae) Kryma i Kavkaza. Vestn. Zool. 1983(3): 7274. (In Russian)
Sharonov, A.A. 1984. Tri novykh vida Acaronemus (Acariformes, Tarsonemidae) iz Kryma. Vestn. Zool. 1984(3): 4044. (In Russian)
Sharonov, A.A., and Livshits, I.Z., and Mitrofanov, V.I.. 1982. Palearkticheskie vidy kleschei-fitofagov roda Steneotarsonemus Beer, 1954 (Acariformes; Tarsonemidae). pp. 28–33 in Livshits, I.Z. (Ed.), Vrediteli i bolezni plodovych i dekorativnych kul'tur Kryma. Nikitskii Botanicheskii Sad, Yalta. 122 pp. (In Russian)
Sharonov, A.A., and Mitrofanov, V.I.. 1983. K revizii kleshchei Tarsonemus gruppy pauperoseatus (Acariformes, Tarsonemidae). Zool. Zhurnal 62: 299302. (In Russian)
Sharonov, A.A., and Mitrofanov, V.I.. 1984. Tarsonemus discretus Sharonov et Mitrofanov nom. n. Vestn. Zool. 1984(4): 31. (In Russian)
Sicher, E., and Leonardi, G.. 1894. Nuovi Tarsonemidi (Nota preventiva). Bull. Soc. Ven.-Trent. Sci. nat. 5: 183189.
Silfverberg, H. 1980. Comment on intermediate categories in the species group. Z.N.(S.) 2250. Bull. zool. Nom. 37: 6768.
Simmonds, S.P. 1970. The possible control of Steneotarsonemus pallidus on strawberries by Phytoseiulus persimilis. Plant Pathol. 19: 106107.
Sinha, R.N. 1964. Ecological relationships of stored-products mites and seed-borne fungi. Acarologia 6 (fase. hors sér.): 372389.
Sinha, R.N., and Wallace, H.A.H.. 1966. Association of granary mites and seed-borne fungi in stored grain and in outdoor and indoor habitats. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 59: 11701181.
Sinha, R.N., and Wallace, H.A.H.. 1973. Population dynamics of stored-product mites. Oecologia 12: 315327.
Sinha, R.N., Wallace, H.A.H., and Chebib, F.S.. 1969. Principal-component analysis of interrelations among fungi, mites and insects in grain bulk ecosystems. Ecology 50: 536547.
Smiley, R.L. 1964. Some Tarsonemidae from the Republic of The Congo (Acarina). Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 66: 145150.
Smiley, R.L. 1967. Further studies on the Tarsonemidae (Acarina). Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 69: 127146.
Smiley, R.L. 1969. Further studies on the Tarsonemidae, II. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 71: 218229.
Smiley, R.L. 1972. A review of the genus Daidalotarsonemus DeLeon (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 74: 8994.
Smiley, R.L., and Emmanouel, N.. 1980. A new species of Steneotarsonemus from Gramineae (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Int. J. Acarol. 6: 275282.
Smiley, R.L., and Landwehr, V.R.. 1976. A new species of Tarsonemus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae), predaceous on tetranychoid mite eggs. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 69: 10651072.
Smiley, R.L., and Moser, J.C.. 1974. New tarsonemids associated with bark beetles (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 67: 639665.
Smiley, R.L., and Moser, J.C.. 1976. Two new phoretomorphic Siteroptes from galleries of the southern pine beetle. Beitr. Ent. 26: 307322.
Smiley, R.L., and Moser, J.C.. 1985. A new species, key to females, and distribution records for Heterotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Int. J. Acarol. 11: 247253.
Smith, I.M. 1976. A study of the systematics of the water mite family Pionidae (Prostigmata: Parasitengona). Mem. enl. Soc. Can. 98. 249 pp.
Smith, L.M., and Goldsmith, E.V.. 1936. The cyclamen mite, Tarsonemus pallidus, and its control on field strawberries. Hilgardia 10: 5394.
Smith, M.V. 1962. Importing acarine-free bees by transporting brood. Bee World 43: 4244.
Stenseth, C., and Nordby, A.. 1976. Damage, and control of the strawberry mite Steneotarsonemus pallidus (Acarina: Tarsonemidae), on strawberries. J. hort. Sci. 51: 4954.
Stevens, P.F. 1980. Evolutionary polarity of character states. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 333358.
Steyskal, G.C. 1971. Notes on the grammar of acarine nomenclature. Acarologia 12: 639642.
Suski, Z.W. 1965 a. Tarsonemoides pomi n.sp., a new tarsonemid mite from apple trees in Poland (Acarina, Tarsonemidae). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 13: 469474.
Suski, Z.W. 1965 b. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. II. Tarsonemus bilobatus n.sp. (Acarina, Tarsonemidae). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl V, Ser. Sci. biol. 13: 539544.
Suski, Z.W. 1965 c. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. III. Tarsonemus lobosus n.sp. (Acarina, Tarsonemidae). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 13: 587593.
Suski, Z.W. 1966 a. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. IV. Tarsonemus schlechtendali n.sp. (Acarina, Tarsonemidae). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci.. Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 14: 127133.
Suski, Z.W. 1966 b. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. V. Tarsonemus hermes n.sp. (Acarina, Tarsonemidae). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 14: 327333.
Suski, Z.W. 1966 c. Nomenclature of leg setation in the mite family Tarsonemidae (Acarina), (Heterostigmata). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 14. 635638.
Suski, Z.W. 1966 d. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. VI. Tarsonemus stammeri Schaarschmidt 1959 (Acarina, Heterostigmata). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci, Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 14: 711717.
Suski, Z.W. 1967 a. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. VII. Tarsonemus naegelei n.sp. (Acarina, Heterostigmata). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 15: 4146.
Suski, Z.W. 1967 b. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. VIII. Daidalotarsonemus vandevriei n.sp. (Acarina, Tarsonemidae). Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Cl. V. Ser. Sci. biol. 15: 227233.
Suski, Z.W. 1967 c. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. IX. Tarsonemus pauperoseatus n.sp. (Acarina, Heterostigmata). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 15: 267272.
Suski, Z.W. 1967 d. Badania nad roztoczami z rodziny Tarsonemidae (Acarina, Heterostigmata) wystepujacymi na jabloniach w Polsce. Instytut Sadownictwa. Skierniewice. 268 pp. (In Polish)
Suski, Z.W. 1968 a. Setation of legs I, II, and III in some species of the mite family Tarsonemidae (Acarina, Heterostigmata). Roczn. nauk Roln. 93-A-4: 757787.
Suski, Z.W. 1968 b. Polish mites of the family Tarsonemidae (Acarina, Heterostigmata). Tarsonemus idaeus n.sp. Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 16: 637642.
Suski, Z.W. 1969. Polish mites of the family Tarsonemidae (Acarina, Heterostigmata). II. Tarsonemus virgineus sp. n. Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V. Ser. Sci. biol. 17: 307311.
Suski, Z.W. 1970 a. Polish mites of the family Tarsonemidae (Acarina, Heterostigmata). III. A description of male Tarsonemus crassus (Schaarschmidt). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 18: 219223.
Suski, Z.W. 1970 b. Polish mites of the family Tarsonemidae (Acarina, Heterostigmata). IV. Steneotarsonemus gibber n.sp. Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 18: 277282.
Suski, Z.W. 1971. Certain mites of the family Tarsonemidae (Acarina, Heterstigmata) from Madagascar. Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 19: 5560.
Suski, Z.W. 1972 a. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. X. Laboratory studies on the biology of certain mite species of the family Tarsonemidae (Acarina, Heterostigmata). Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 129: 111137.
Suski, Z.W. 1972 b. Tarsonemid mites on apple trees in Poland. XI. Field observations on the distribution and significance of Tarsonemidae (Acarina, Heterostigmata) in apple orchards. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 129: 139157.
Suski, Z.W. 1973. A revision of Siteroptes cerealium (Kirchner) complex (Acarina, Heterostigmata, Pyemotidae). Ann. Zoologici 30: 509535.
Suski, Z.W., and Schaarschmidt, L.. 1971. A note on the identity of certain tarsonemid species (Acarina, Heterostigmata). Bull. Acad. pol. Sci., Cl. V, Ser. Sci. biol. 19: 119120.
Taksdal, G. 1973. Interactions between pest and host plant in an attack by the broad mite, Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acarina, Tarsonemidae), on passion fruit, Passiflora edulis Sims. Norsk, ent. Tidsskr. 20: 301304.
Targioni-Tozzetti, A. 1878. Tarsonemus oryzae. Rei. Staz. Ent. agraria, Firenze: 365.
Thomas, C.A. 1942. Mushroom insects: their biology and control. Penn. St. Coll. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 419. 43 pp.
Trägårdh, I. 1905. Acariden aus Ägypten und dem Sudan. pp. 1124, 6 pl. in Jagerskiold, L.A. (Ed.), Results of the Swedish Zoological Expedition to Egypt and the White Nile 1901, Part 2, No. 17.
Trouessart, E.L. 1885. Description d'un nouveau genre et d'une nouvelle espèce de la sous-famille des Cheylétiens. Bull. Soc. Étude sci. Angers 14: 9091.
Tseng, Y.-H., and Lo, P.K-C.. 1980. Tarsonemid mites (Acarina: Prostigmata) from Taiwan. Plant. Prol. Bull, Taiwan 22: 113140.
Tryon, H. 1898. Fruitlet core-rot of pineapple. Queensland agric. J. 3: 458467.
Urueta Sandino, E.J., and Alzate, R. Navarro. 1978. El acaro Steneotarsonemus pallidus nueva plaga de la fresa en Colombia y estudio sobre su control quimico y diseminacion a otros cultivos. Rev. Colomb. Ent. 4: 7075.
Vainshtein, B.A. 1979. Novye i maloizvestnye kleshchi sem. Tarsonemidae (Acariformes) so zlakov. Ent. Obozr. 58: 663670. (In Russian)
Vainshtein, B.A., and Beglyarov, G.A.. 1968. Novyi vid kleshcha iz semeistva Tarsonemidae (Acariformes) -vreditel' pshenitsy. Zool. Zhurnal 47: 10981100. (In Russian)
Vitzthum, H. 1914. Beschreibung einiger neuer Milben. Zool. Anz. 44: 326328.
Vitzthum, H. 1921. Acarologische Beobachtungen. 5. Reihe. Arch. Naturgesch. 87, Abt. A(4): 177.
Vitzthum, H. 1922. Acarologische Beobachtungen. Zool. Jb. Syst. 44: 517564.
Vitzthum, H. 1923. Acarologische Beobachtungen. 7. Reihe. Kommensalen der Ipiden. Arch. Naturgesch. 89, Abt. A(2): 97181.
Vitzthum, H. 1926. Acari als Commensalen von Ipiden. (Der Acarologischen Beobachtungen 11. Reihe). Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Syst., Geogr., Biol. Tiere 52: 407503.
Vitzthum, H. 1928. Acarologische Beobachtungen. 13. Reihe. Zool. Anz. 75: 281295.
Vitzthum, H. 1929 a. Tarsonemus hydrocephalus n. sp. Ent. Tidskr. 50: 97102.
Vitzthum, H. 1929 b. 5. Ordnung: Milben, Acari. In Brohmer, P. et al. , (Eds.), Tierwelt Mitteleur. 3, Lief. 3, Abt. 7. 112 pp.
Vitzthum, H. 1931.9. Ordnung der Arachnida: Acari = Milben. In Kukenthal, , Handb. Zool. 3, H. 2, Teil 3, Lief. I. 160 pp.
Vitzthum, H. 19401943. Acarina. In Bronn's Kl. Ordn. Tierreichs 5, Abt. 4, Buch 5. 1011 pp. in 7 Lief.
Warburton, C. 1904. Mites of the genus Tarsonemus with a description of two new species. J. r. agric. Soc. England 65: 273287.
Wei, L.Y., and Chow, Y.S.. 1980. Preliminary studies on parasite of the tarsonemid mite, Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley. Plant Prot. Bull, Taiwan 22: 1115. (In Chinese)
Weis-Fogh, T. 1947. Ecological investigations on mites and collemboles in the soil. Natura Jutlandica 1: 135270.
Wetzel, T. 1964. Tarsonemus muhlei nov. spec. - eine neue Weichhautmilbenart der Gramineen (Acari, Tarsonemidae). Z. angew. Ent. 53: 462464.
White, N.D., and Sinha, R.N.. 1979. Natural regulation of Tarsonemus granarius numbers in stored wheat ecosystems — a multivariate assessment. pp. 291298 in Rodriguez, J.G. (Ed.), Recent Advances in Acarology (Proc. 5th int. Congr. Acarol., Aug. 6–12, 1978, East Lansing, Michigan), vol. 1.
White, N.D., and Sinha, R.N.. 1981. Life history and population dynamics of the mycophagous mite Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Acarologia 22: 353360.
Wiley, E.O. 1979. An annotated Linnean hierarchy, with comments on natural taxa and competing systems. Syst. Zool. 28: 308337.
Wiley, E.O. 1981. Phylogenetics: the theory and practice of phylogenetic systematics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, xv + 439 pp.
Willmann, C. 1942. Acari aus nordwestdeutschen Mooren. Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen 32: 163183.
Willmann, C. 1949 a. Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Salzgebietes von Ciechocinek. 1. Milben aus den Salzwiesen und Salzmooren von Ciechocinek an der Weichsel. Veroff. Mus. Nat. Bremen, A 1: 106135.
Willmann, C. 1949 b. Uber eine Milbenausbeute aus dem Naturschutzgebiet “Verlorenes Wasser” bei Panten (Kr. Liegnitz). Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen 32: 339348.
Wislon, W.T., and Nunamaker, R. A.. 1982. The infestation of honev bees in Mexico with Acarapis woodi. Am. Bee J. 122: 503–505, 508.
Zimmerman, H. 1905. Eine neue Tarsonemusart auf Gartenerdbeeren. Z. Mahr. Landesmus. 5: 91102.