Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-9w8k4 Total loading time: 0.352 Render date: 2022-12-08T20:06:38.329Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Comparison of Compositional and Morphological Atom-Probe Tomography Analyses for a Multicomponent Fe-Cu Steel

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 July 2007

R. Prakash Kolli
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3108, USA
David N. Seidman
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3108, USA Northwestern University Center for Atom-Probe Tomography (NUCAPT), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3108, USA

Abstract

A multicomponent Fe-Cu based steel is studied using atom-probe tomography. The precipitates are identified using two different methodologies and subsequent morphological and compositional results are compared. The precipitates are first identified using a maximum separation distance algorithm, the envelope method, and then by a concentration threshold method, an isoconcentration surface. We discuss in detail the proper selection of the parameters needed to delineate precipitates utilizing both methods. The results of the two methods exhibit a difference of 44 identified precipitates, which can be attributed to differences in the basis of both methods and the sensitivity of our results to user-prescribed parameters. The morphology of the precipitates, characterized by four different precipitate radii and precipitate size distribution functions (PSDs), are compared and evaluated. A variation of less than ∼8% is found between the different radii. Two types of concentration profiles are compared, giving qualitatively similar results. Both profiles show Cu-rich precipitates containing Fe with elevated concentrations of Ni, Al, and Mn near the heterophase interfaces. There are, however, quantitative disagreements due to differences in the basic foundations of the two analysis methods.

Type
MATERIALS APPLICATIONS
Copyright
© 2007 Microscopy Society of America

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Al-Kassab, T. (2002). Exploring the Nano-structure in Metals: Analyses with the Tomographic Atom Probe. University of Göttingen: Habilitationschrift.
Christian, J.W. (2002). The Theory of Transformation in Metals and Alloys, Vol. 1. Amsterdam: Pergamon Press.
de Geuser, F., Lefebvre, W. & Blavette, D. (2006). 3D atom probe study of solute atoms clustering during natural aging and pre-aging of an Al-Mg-Si alloy. Philos Mag Let 86, 227234.Google Scholar
Fultz, B. & Howe, J.M. (2002). Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials. Berlin: Springer.
Goodman, S.R., Brenner, S.S. & Low, J.R., Jr. (1973a). An FIM-atom probe study of the precipitation of copper from iron-1.4 at. pct. copper. Part I: Field-ion microscopy. Metall Trans 4, 23632369.Google Scholar
Goodman, S.R., Brenner, S.S. & Low, J.R., Jr. (1973b). An FIM-atom probe study of the precipitation of copper from iron-1.4 at. pct. copper. Part II: Atom probe analyses. Metall Trans 4, 23712378.Google Scholar
Guinier, A. (1963). X-Ray Diffraction. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company.
Heinrich, A., Al-Kassab, T. & Kirchheim, R. (2003). Investigation of the early stage of decomposition of Cu-0.7 at.% Fe with the tomographic atom probe. Mater Sci Eng A353, 9298.Google Scholar
Hellman, O.C., Blatz du Rivage, J. & Seidman, D.N. (2003). Efficient sampling for three-dimensional atom probe microscopy data. Ultramicroscopy 95, 199205.Google Scholar
Hellman, O.C., Vandenbroucke, J.A., Blatz du Rivage, J. & Seidman, D.N. (2002). Application software for data analysis for three-dimensional atom probe microscopy. Mater Sci Eng A327, 2933.Google Scholar
Hellman, O.C., Vandenbroucke, J.A., Rüsing, J., Isheim, D. & Seidman, D.N. (2000). Analysis of three-dimensional atom-probe data by the proximity histogram. Microsc Microanal 6, 437444.Google Scholar
Hibbler, R.C. (2001). Engineering Mechanics, Statics & Dynamics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hornbogen, E. & Glenn, R.C. (1960). A metallographic study of precipitation of copper from alpha iron. Trans Metall Soc AIME 218, 10641070.Google Scholar
Hyde, J.M. (1993). Computer modeling analysis of microscale phase transformations. Ph.D. dissertation. Oxford: University of Oxford.
Hyde, J.M. & English, C.A. (2000). An analysis of structure of irradiation induced Cu-enriched clusters in low and high nickel welds. Mat Res Soc Symp Proc 650, R6.6.1R.6.6.12.Google Scholar
Isheim, D., Gagliano, M.S., Fine, M.E. & Seidman, D.N. (2006a). Interfacial segregation at Cu-rich precipitates in a high-strength low-carbon steel studied on a sub-nanometer scale. Acta Mater 54, 841849.Google Scholar
Isheim, D., Kolli, R.P., Fine, M.E. & Seidman, D.N. (2006b). An atom-probe tomographic study of the temporal evolution of the nanostructure of Fe-Cu based high-strength low-carbon steels. Scripta Mater 55, 3540.Google Scholar
Kampmann, R. & Wagner, R. (1986). Phase Transformations in Fe-Cu-Alloys—SANS—Experiments and Theory. In Atomic Transport and Defects in Metals by Neutron Scattering, Janot, C., Petry, W., Richter, D. & Springer, T. (Eds.), vol. 10. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Karnesky, R.A., Sudbrack, C.K. & Seidman, D.N. (2007). Best-fit ellipsoids of atom-probe tomographic data to study coalescence of γ′ (L12) precipitates in Ni-Al-Cr. Scripta Mater 57, 353356.Google Scholar
Kelly, T.F., Camus, P.P., Larson, D.J., Holzman, L.M. & Bajikar, S.S. (1996). On the many advantages of local-electrode atom probes. Ultramicroscopy 62, 2942.Google Scholar
Kelly, T.F., Gribb, T.T., Olson, J.D., Martens, R.L., Shepard, J.D., Wiener, S.A., Kunicki, T.C., Ulfig, R.M., Lenz, D.R., Strennen, E.M., Oltman, E., Bunton, J.H. & Strait, D.R. (2004). First data from a commercial local electrode atom probe (LEAP). Microsc Microanal 10, 373383.Google Scholar
Kelly, T.F. & Larson, D.J. (2000). Local electrode atom probes. Mater Charac 44, 5985.Google Scholar
Kluthe, C., Al-Kassab, T. & Kirchheim, R. (2003). Early stages of oxide precipitation in Ag-0.42at.%-Mg-examined with the tomographic atom probe. Mater Sci Eng A353, 112118.Google Scholar
Koyama, T. & Onodera, H. (2005). Computer simulation of phase decomposition in Fe-Cu-Mn-Ni quaternary alloy based on the phase-field method. Mater Trans 46, 11871192.Google Scholar
Krakauer, B.W., Hu, J.G., Kuo, S.-M., Mallick, R.L., Seki, A. & Seidman, D.N. (1990). A system for systematically preparing atom-probe field-ion microscope specimens for the study of internal interfaces. Rev Sci Instrum 61, 33903398.Google Scholar
Krakauer, B.W. & Seidman, D.N. (1992). Systematic procedures for atom-probe field-ion microscopy studies of grain boundary segregation. Rev Sci Instrum 63, 40714079.Google Scholar
Meyer, S.L. (1975). Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Miller, M.K. (2000a). Atom Probe Tomography. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Miller, M.K. (2000b). Characterization of the early stages of phase separation by atom probe tomography. Mat Res Soc Symp Proc 580, 3540.Google Scholar
Miller, M.K. & Kenik, E.A. (2004). Atom probe tomography: A technique for nanoscale characterization. Microsc Microanal 10, 336341.Google Scholar
Miller, M.K., Wirth, B.D. & Odette, G.R. (2003). Precipitation in neutron-irradiated Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Mn model alloys: A comparison of APT and SANS data. Mater Sci Eng A353, 133139.Google Scholar
Müller, E.W. & Tsong, T.T. (1969). Field Ion Microscopy. New York: American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc.
Osamura, K., Okuda, H., Asano, K., Furusaka, M., Kishida, K., Kurosawa, F. & Uemori, R. (1994). SANS study of phase decomposition in Fe-Cu alloy with Ni and Mn addition. ISIJ Int 34, 346354.Google Scholar
Othen, P.J., Jenkins, M.L. & Smith, G.D.W. (1994). High-resolution electron microscopy studies of the structure of Cu precipitates in alpha-Fe. Philos Mag A 70, 124.Google Scholar
Othen, P.J., Jenkins, M.L., Smith, G.D.W. & Phythian, W.J. (1991). Transmission electron microscope investigations of the structure of copper precipitates in thermally-aged Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Ni. Philos Mag Let 64, 383391.Google Scholar
Pareige, P.J., Russell, K.F. & Miller, M.K. (1996). APFIM studies of the phase transformation in thermally aged ferritic FeCuNi alloys: Comparison with aging under neutron irradiation. Appl Surf Sci 94/95, 362369.Google Scholar
Ratke, L. & Voorhees, P.W. (2002). Growth and Coarsening. Berlin: Springer.
Speich, G.R. & Oriani, R.A. (1965). The rate of coarsening of copper precipitate in an alpha-iron matrix. Trans Metall Soc AIME 233, 623631.Google Scholar
Sudbrack, C.K. (2004). Decomposition behavior in model Ni-Al-Cr-X superalloys: Temporal evolution and compositional pathways on a nanoscale. Ph.D. thesis. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.
Sudbrack, C.K., Isheim, D., Noebe, R.D., Jacobson, N.S. & Seidman, D.N. (2004). The influence of tungsten on chemical composition of a temporally evolving nanostructure of a model Ni-Al-Cr superalloy. Microsc Microanal 10, 355365.Google Scholar
Sudbrack, C.K., Noebe, R.D. & Seidman, D.N. (2006a). Direct observation of nucleation in a dilute multicomponent alloy. Phys Rev B 73, 212101.Google Scholar
Sudbrack, C.K., Noebe, R.D. & Seidman, D.N. (2007). Compositional pathways and capillary effects during isothermal precipitation in a nondilute Ni-Al-Cr alloy. Acta Mater 55, 119130.Google Scholar
Sudbrack, C.K., Yoon, K.E., Noebe, R.D. & Seidman, D.N. (2006b). Temporal evolution of the nanostructure and phase compositions in a model Ni-Al-Cr alloy. Acta Mater 54, 31993210.Google Scholar
Tsong, T.T. (1990). Atom-Probe Field Ion Microscopy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vaumousse, D., Cerezo, A. & Warren, P.J. (2003). A procedure for quantification of precipitate microstructures from three-dimensional atom probe data. Ultramicroscopy 95, 215221.Google Scholar
Vaynman, S., Fine, M.E. & Bhat, S.P. (2004a). High-Strength, Low-Carbon, Ferritic, Copper-Precipitation-Strengthening Steels for Tank Car Applications, vol. 1, p. 417. New Orleans, LA: AIST and TMS.
Vaynman, S., Fine, M.E., Lee, S. & Espinosa, H.D. (2006). Effect of strain rate and temperature on mechanical properties and fracture mode of high strength precipitation hardened ferritic steels. Scripta Mater 55, 351354.Google Scholar
Vaynman, S., Isheim, D., Fine, M.E., Seidman, D.N. & Bhat, S.P. (2004b). Recent Advances in High-Strength, Low-Carbon, Precipitation-Strengthened Ferritic Steels, vol. 1, p. 525. New Orleans, LA: AIST and TMS.
Vurpillot, F., de Geuser, F., Da Costa, G. & Blavette, D. (2004). Application of Fourier transform and autocorrelation to cluster identification in the three-dimensional atom probe. J Microsc 216, 234240.Google Scholar
Watanabe, T. (1975). Aging of 1%Cu-3%Ni-1%Al steel. Tetsu-To-Hagane/Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan 61, 24562466.Google Scholar
Wolde-Giorgis, D., Al-Kassab, T. & Kirchheim, R. (2003). Nucleation and growth in Cu-0.7at.% Ti as studied with the tomographic atom probe. Mater Sci Eng A353, 152157.Google Scholar
Worrall, G.M., Buswell, J.T., English, C.A., Hetherington, M.G. & Smith, G.D.W. (1987). A study of the precipitation of copper particles in a ferrite matrix. J Nucl Mat 148, 107114.Google Scholar
Yoon, K.E. (2004). Temporal evolution of the chemistry and nanostructure of multicomponent model Ni-based superalloys. Ph.D. thesis. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.
Yoon, K.E., Noebe, R.D. & Seidman, D.N. (2007a). Effects of rhenium addition on the temporal evolution of the nanostructure and chemistry of a model Ni-Cr-Al superalloy, I. Experimental observations. Acta Mater 55, 11451157.Google Scholar
Yoon, K.E., Noebe, R.D. & Seidman, D.N. (2007b). Effects of rhenium addition on the temporal evolution of the nanostructure and chemistry of a model Ni-Cr-Al superalloy, II. Analysis of the coursening behavior. Acta Mater 55, 11591169.Google Scholar
104
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Comparison of Compositional and Morphological Atom-Probe Tomography Analyses for a Multicomponent Fe-Cu Steel
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Comparison of Compositional and Morphological Atom-Probe Tomography Analyses for a Multicomponent Fe-Cu Steel
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Comparison of Compositional and Morphological Atom-Probe Tomography Analyses for a Multicomponent Fe-Cu Steel
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *