Skip to main content
×
Home

A New Look at Lunar Soil Collected from the Sea of Tranquility during the Apollo 11 Mission

  • Carol Kiely (a1), Gary Greenberg (a2) and Christopher J. Kiely (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Complementary state-of-the-art optical, scanning electron, and X-ray microscopy techniques have been used to study the morphology of Apollo 11 lunar soil particles (10084-47). The combination of innovative lighting geometries with image processing of a through focal series of images has allowed us to obtain a unique collection of high-resolution light micrographs of these fascinating particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) stereo-pair imaging has been exploited to illustrate some of the unique morphological properties of lunar regolith. In addition, for the first time, X-ray micrographs with submicron resolution have been taken of individual particles using X-ray ultramicroscopy (XuM). This SEM-based technique lends itself readily to the imaging of pores, cracks, and inclusions and allows the internal structure of an entire particle to be viewed. Rotational SEM and XuM movies have also been constructed from a series of images collected at sequential angles through 360°. These offer a new and insightful view of these complex particles providing size, shape, and spatial information on many of their internal features.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author. E-mail: cak4@lehigh.edu
References
Hide All
Bastin J.A. (1980). Rotating lunar globules. Nature 283, 108.
Bastin J.A. & Volborth A. (1974). The ellipsoidal and dumbell-shaped inclusions within particulate globules. Icarus 21, 112120.
Brownlow L., Mayo S., Miller P. & Sheffield-Parker J. (2006). Towards 50-nanometer resolution with an SEM-hosted X-ray microscope. Microsc Anal 12(3), 1315.
Burlingame A.L., Calvin M., Han J., Henderson W., Reed W. & Simonett B.R. (1970). Organic compounds in lunar samples: Pyrolysis products, hydrocarbons and amino acids. Science 167, 751753.
Carter J.L. (1971). Chemistry and surface morphology of fragments from Apollo 12 soil. Proc Second Lunar Sci Conf 1, 873892.
Carter J.L. & MacGregor I.D. (1970a). Minerology, petrology and surface features of lunar samples 10062,35, 10067,9, 10069,30 and 10085,16. Science 167, 661663.
Carter J.L. & MacGregor I.D. (1970b). Minerology, petrology and surface features of Apollo 11 samples. Proc Apollo 11 Lunar Sci Conf 1, 247265.
Carter J.L. & McKay D.S. (1972). Metallic mounds produced by reduction of material of a simulated lunar composition and implications on the origin of metallic mounds on lunar glasses. Proc Third Lunar Sci Conf (Suppl 3: Geochim Cosmochim Acta) 1, 953970.
Chao C.T., Boreman J.A., Minkin J.A., James O.B. & Desborough G.A. (1970). Lunar glasses of impact origin: Physical and chemical characteristics and geological implications. J Geophys Res 75(35), 74457479.
Chernyak Yu.B. & Nussinov M.D. (1976). On the mechanisms of lunar regolith glass formation. Nature 261, 664669.
Cloud P., Margolis S.V., Moorman M., Barker J.M., Licari G.R., Krinsley D. & Barnes V.E. (1970). Micromorphology and surface characteristics of lunar dust and breccia. Science 167, 776777.
Duke M.B., Woo C.C., Sellers G.A., Bird M.L. & Finkelman R.B. (1970). Genesis of soil at the tranquility base. Proc Apollo 11 Lunar Sci Conf (Suppl 1: Geochim Cosmochim Acta) 1, 347361.
Ebel D.S., Fogel R.A. & Rivers M.L. (2005). Tomographic location of potential melt-bearing phenocysts in lunar glass spherules. Proc 36th Lunar and Planetary Sci Conf, League City, Texas, March 14–18, 2005, pp. 1505–1506.
Fox S.W., Harada K., Hare P.E., Hinsch G. & Mueller G. (1970). Bio-organic compounds and glassy microparticles in lunar fines and other materials. Science 167, 767770.
Fulchignoni M., Funiciello R., Taddeucci A. & Trigila R. (1971). Glassy spheroids in lunar fines from Apollo 12 samples 12070,37; 12001,73; and 12057,60. Proc Second Lunar Sci Conf (Suppl 2: Geochim Cosmochim Acta) 1, 937948.
Goldstein J.L., Henderson E.P. & Yakowitz H. (1970). Investigation of lunar metal particles. Proc Apollo 11 Lunar Sci Conf 1, 499512.
Greenberg G. (2008). A Grain of Sand: Nature's Secret Wonder. Minneapolis, MN: Voyageur Press.
Greenberg G. & Boyde A. (1993). Novel method for stereo imaging in light microscopy at high magnifications. NeuroImage 1(2), 121128.
Greenberg G. & Boyde A. (1997). Convenient and controllable direct-view 3D imaging in conventional light microscopes: Approaches via illumination and inspection. Proc Royal Microsc Soc 32, 87100.
Hartung J.B., Horz F., McKay D.S. & Baiamonte F.L. (1972). Surface features on glass spherules from the Luna 16 sample. The Moon 5, 436446.
Heiken G. & Lofgren G. (1971). Terrestrial glass spheres. Geol Soc Am Bull 82, 10451050.
Heiken G.H., McKay D.S. & Brown R.W. (1974). Lunar deposits of possible pyroclastic origin. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 38, 17031704.
Heiken G.H. & Vaniman D.T. (1990). Characterization of lunar ilmenite resources. Proc 20th Lunar and Planetary Sci Conf, Houston, Texas, March 1989, pp. 239–247.
Housley R.M., Grant R.W. & Paton N.E. (1973). Origin and characteristics of excess Fe metal in lunar glass welded aggregates. Proc Fourth Lunar Sci Conf (Suppl 4: Geochim Cosmochim Acta) 3, 27372749.
Keller L.P. & McKay D.S. (1997). The nature and origin of rims on lunar soil grains. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64(11), 23312341.
Lindsey J. (1976). Developments in Solar System and Space Science, 3 Lunar Stratigraphy and Sedimentology. Kopa, Z. & Cameron, A.G.W. (Eds.). New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.
Lindsay J.F. & Srnka L.J. (1975). Galactic dust lanes and lunar soil. Nature 257, 776778.
Lucey P., Korotev R.L., Gillis J.J., Taylor L.A., Lawrence D., Campbell B.A., Elphic R., Feldman B., Hood L.L., Hunter D., Mendilli M., Noble S., Papike J.J., Reedy R.C., Lawson S., Prettyman T., Gasnault O. & Maurice S. (2006). Understanding the lunar surface and space-moon interactions, new views of the moon. Rev Mineral Geochem 60, 83219.
Lui Y., Park J., Schnare D., Hill E. & Taylor L.A. (2008). Characterization of lunar dust for toxicological studies II: Texture and shape. J Aerosp Eng 21(10), 272279.
McKay D.S., Greenwood W.R. & Morrison D.A. (1970). Origin of small lunar particles and breccia from the Apollo 11 site. Proc Apollo 11 Lunar Sci Conf 1, 673694.
McKay D.S., Heiken G., Basu A., Blanford G., Simon S., Reedy R., French B.M. & Papike J. (1991). The lunar regolith. Lunar Sourcebook: A User's Guide to the Moon, Chap. 7, pp. 285356 New York: Cambridge University Press.
Morris R.V., Score R., Dardano C. & Heiken G. (1983). Apollo 11 Samples Data Sheet in the Handbook of Lunar Soils, JSC 19069, Washington, DC: NASA.
Mueller G. (1971). Morphology and petrostatistics of regular particles in Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 fines. Proc Second Lunar Sci Conf 3, 20412047.
Mueller G. & Hinsch G.W. (1970). Glassy particles in lunar fines. Nature 228, 254258.
Nagy B., Drew C.M., Hamilton P.B., Modzeleski V.E., Murphy M.E., Scott W.M., Urey H.C. & Young M. (1970). Organic compounds in lunar samples: Pyrolysis products, hydrocarbons, amino acids. Science 167, 770773.
Pawley J.B. (Eds.) (1995). Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy. New York: Plenum Press.
Pillinger C.T. (1979). Solar-wind exposure effects in the lunar soil. Rep Prog Phys 42, 897967.
Pugh M.J. (1972). Rotation of lunar dumbell-shaped globules during formation. Nature 237, 158159.
Ramsamooj R., Doolin E., Greenberg G., Catalano E. & Hewitt C.W. (2002). Real-time, high-definition, three-dimensional microscopy of evaluating problematic cervical papanicolaou smears classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Cancer Cytophathol 96(3), 181186.
Robens E., Bischoff A., Schreiber A., Dabrowski A. & Unger K.K. (2007). Investigation of the surface properties of lunar regolith: Part 1. Appl Surf Sci 253, 57095714.
Rode O.D., Ivanov A.V., Nazarov M.A., Cimbalnikova A., Jurek K. & Hejl V. (1979). Atlas of Photomicrographs of the Surface of Structures of Lunar Regolith Particles. Prague: Academia.
Taylor L.A., Patchen A., Taylor D-H.S., Chambers J.G. & McKay D.S. (1996). X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: Mode analyses of minerals and glasses. Icarus 124, 500512.
Tolansky S. (1970). Interferometric examination of small glassy spherules and related objects in a 5-gram lunar dust sample. Science 167, 742743.
Wilkins S.W., Gureyev T.E., Gao D., Pogany A. & Stevenson A.W. (1996). Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays. Nature 384, 335338.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Microscopy and Microanalysis
  • ISSN: 1431-9276
  • EISSN: 1435-8115
  • URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
VIDEO
Supplementary Materials

Kiely supplementary material
Supplementary Movie 3. An XuM rotational movie of a ring aggluntinate.

 Video (1.9 MB)
1.9 MB
VIDEO
Supplementary Materials

Kiely supplementary material
Supplementary Movie 2. An XuM rotational movie of a glassy spherule.

 Video (3.8 MB)
3.8 MB
VIDEO
Supplementary Materials

Kiely supplementary material
Supplementary Movie 1. An SEM rotational movie of a ring agglutinate.

 Video (2.4 MB)
2.4 MB
VIDEO
Supplementary Materials

Kiely supplementary material
Supplementary Movie 4. An XuM rotational movie of a lunar regolith particle containing plates of ilmenite.

 Video (5.5 MB)
5.5 MB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 16 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 167 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 11th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.