Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A Review of Color Blindness for Microscopists: Guidelines and Tools for Accommodating and Coping with Color Vision Deficiency

  • Douglas R. Keene (a1)
Abstract

“Color blindness” is a variable trait, including individuals with just slight color vision deficiency to those rare individuals with a complete lack of color perception. Approximately 75% of those with color impairment are green diminished; most of those remaining are red diminished. Red-Green color impairment is sex linked with the vast majority being male. The deficiency results in reds and greens being perceived as shades of yellow; therefore red-green images presented to the public will not illustrate regions of distinction to these individuals. Tools are available to authors wishing to accommodate those with color vision deficiency; most notable are components in FIJI (an extension of ImageJ) and Adobe Photoshop. Using these tools, hues of magenta may be substituted for red in red-green images resulting in striking definition for both the color sighted and color impaired. Web-based tools may be used (importantly) by color challenged individuals to convert red-green images archived in web-accessible journal articles into two-color images, which they may then discern.

Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author. drk@shcc.org
References
Hide All
Allred, S.C., Schreiner, W.J. & Smithies, O. (2014). Color blindness: Still too many red-green figures. Nature 510, 340.
Baylor, D.A., Nunn, B.J. & Schnapf, J.L. (1987). Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis. J Physiol 390, 145160.
Bowmaker, J.K. & Dartnall, H.J. (1980). Visual pigments of rods and cones in human retina. J Physiol 298, 501511.
Brettel, H., Vienot, F. & Mollon, J.D. (1997). Computerized simulation of color appearance for dichromats. J Opt Soc Am A 14, 26472655.
Cole, B.L. & Vingrys, A.J. (1982). A survey and evaluation of lantern tests of color vision. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 59, 346374.
Deeb, S.S. (2005). The molecular basis of variation in human color vision. Clin Genet 67, 369377.
Hurvich, L.M. & Jameson, D. (1957). An opponent-process theory of color vision. Psychol Rev 64, 384404.
Ishihara, S. (1972). Tests for Colour-Blindness. Tokyo, Japan: Kanehara Shuppan Co., LTD.
Knudsen, J.B. (1999). Java 2D Graphics. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly & Associates.
Mancuso, K., Hauswirth, W.W., Li, Q., Connor, T.B., Kuchenbecker, J.A., Mauck, M.C., Neitz, J. & Neitz, M. (2009). Gene therapy for red-green colour blindness in adult primates. Nature 461, 784787.
McIntyre, D. (2002). Colour Blindness: Causes and Effects. Chester, UK: Dalton Publishing.
Nagel, W.A. (1907). Two cameras for Augenärzliche function test. Adaptometer and small spectrophotometer (Anomaloscope). J Ophthalmol 17, 201222.
Nathans, J., Thomas, D. & Hogness, D.S. (1986). Molecular genetics of human color vision: Genes encoding blue, green, and red pigments. Science 232, 193202.
Rushton, W.A. (1966). Densitometry of pigments in rods and cones of normal and color defective subjects. Invest Ophthalmol 5, 233241.
Shevell, S.K. (2003). The Science of Color. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Shevell, S.K. & Kingdom, A.A. (2009). Color in complex scenes. Annu Rev Psychol 59, 143166.
Wong, B. (2010). Points of view: Color coding. Nat Met 7, 573.
Wong, B. (2011). Color blindness. Nat Met 8, 441.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Microscopy and Microanalysis
  • ISSN: 1431-9276
  • EISSN: 1435-8115
  • URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Keene supplementary material
Figure S1

 Unknown (8.6 MB)
8.6 MB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Keene supplementary material
Figure S2

 Unknown (11.0 MB)
11.0 MB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Keene supplementary material
Figure S5

 Unknown (9.0 MB)
9.0 MB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Keene supplementary material
Figure S6

 Unknown (2.4 MB)
2.4 MB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Keene supplementary material
Figure S4

 Unknown (13.7 MB)
13.7 MB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Keene supplementary material
Figure S3

 Unknown (13.2 MB)
13.2 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed