Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 35
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Glaeser, R.M. 2016.

    Wu, Shenping Armache, Jean-Paul and Cheng, Yifan 2016. Single-particle cryo-EM data acquisition by using direct electron detection camera. Microscopy, Vol. 65, Issue. 1, p. 35.

    Popescu, Andrei Stan, George Duta, Liviu Nita, Cristina Popescu, Camelia Surdu, Vasile-Adrian Husanu, Marius-Adrian Bita, Bogdan Ghisleni, Rudy Himcinschi, Cameliu and Craciun, Valentin 2015. The Role of Ambient Gas and Pressure on the Structuring of Hard Diamond-Like Carbon Films Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition. Materials, Vol. 8, Issue. 6, p. 3284.

    Schröder, Rasmus R. 2015. Advances in electron microscopy: A qualitative view of instrumentation development for macromolecular imaging and tomography. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 581, p. 25.

    Egerton, R.F. 2014. Choice of operating voltage for a transmission electron microscope. Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 145, p. 85.

    Pantelic, Radosav S. Fu, Wangyang Schoenenberger, Christian and Stahlberg, Henning 2014. Rendering graphene supports hydrophilic with non-covalent aromatic functionalization for transmission electron microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue. 13, p. 134103.

    Castro-Hartmann, Pablo Heck, Gerard Eltit, Jose M. Fawcett, Paul and Samsó, Montserrat 2013. The ArrayGrid: A methodology for applying multiple samples to a single TEM specimen grid. Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 135, p. 105.

    Gatel, C. Lubk, A. Pozzi, G. Snoeck, E. and Hÿtch, M. 2013. Counting Elementary Charges on Nanoparticles by Electron Holography. Physical Review Letters, Vol. 111, Issue. 2,

    Glaeser, Robert M. 2013. Invited Review Article: Methods for imaging weak-phase objects in electron microscopy. Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 84, Issue. 11, p. 111101.

    Glaeser, Robert M. Sassolini, Simone Cambie, Rossana Jin, Jian Cabrini, Stefano Schmid, Andreas K. Danev, Radostin Buijsse, Bart Csencsits, Roseann Downing, Kenneth H. Larson, David M. Typke, Dieter and Han, B.G. 2013. Minimizing electrostatic charging of an aperture used to produce in-focus phase contrast in the TEM. Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 135, p. 6.

    Karimi Nejadasl, Fatemeh Karuppasamy, Manikandan Newman, Emily R. McGeehan, John E. and Ravelli, Raimond B. G. 2013. Non-rigid image registration to reduce beam-induced blurring of cryo-electron microscopy images. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 58.

    Liu, Ying Meng, Xing and Liu, Zheng 2013. Deformed grids for single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of specimens exhibiting a preferred orientation. Journal of Structural Biology, Vol. 182, Issue. 3, p. 255.

    Sader, Kasim Stopps, Martyn Calder, Lesley J. and Rosenthal, Peter B. 2013. Cryomicroscopy of radiation sensitive specimens on unmodified graphene sheets: Reduction of electron-optical effects of charging. Journal of Structural Biology, Vol. 183, Issue. 3, p. 531.

    Schenk, Andreas D. Philippsen, Ansgar Engel, Andreas and Walz, Thomas 2013. A pipeline for comprehensive and automated processing of electron diffraction data in IPLT. Journal of Structural Biology, Vol. 182, Issue. 2, p. 173.

    Suzuki, Satoshi Akase, Zentaro Shindo, Daisuke and Kondo, Hisatake 2013. Suppression of charging effect on collagen fibrils utilizing a conductive probe in TEM. Microscopy, Vol. 62, Issue. 4, p. 451.

    Vulović, Miloš Ravelli, Raimond B.G. van Vliet, Lucas J. Koster, Abraham J. Lazić, Ivan Lücken, Uwe Rullgård, Hans Öktem, Ozan and Rieger, Bernd 2013. Image formation modeling in cryo-electron microscopy. Journal of Structural Biology, Vol. 183, Issue. 1, p. 19.

    Berriman, John A. and Rosenthal, Peter B. 2012. Paraxial charge compensator for electron cryomicroscopy. Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 116, p. 106.

    Brilot, Axel F. Chen, James Z. Cheng, Anchi Pan, Junhua Harrison, Stephen C. Potter, Clinton S. Carragher, Bridget Henderson, Richard and Grigorieff, Nikolaus 2012. Beam-induced motion of vitrified specimen on holey carbon film. Journal of Structural Biology, Vol. 177, Issue. 3, p. 630.

    Malac, Marek Beleggia, Marco Kawasaki, Masahiro Li, Peng and Egerton, Ray F. 2012. Convenient contrast enhancement by a hole-free phase plate. Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 118, p. 77.

    Pantelic, Radosav S. Meyer, Jannik C. Kaiser, Ute and Stahlberg, Henning 2012. The application of graphene as a sample support in transmission electron microscopy. Solid State Communications, Vol. 152, Issue. 15, p. 1375.


Specimen Charging on Thin Films with One Conducting Layer: Discussion of Physical Principles

  • Robert M. Glaeser (a1) (a2) and Kenneth H. Downing (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 December 2004

Although the most familiar consequences of specimen charging in transmission electron microscopy can be eliminated by evaporating a thin conducting film (such as a carbon film) onto an insulating specimen or by preparing samples directly on such a conducting film to begin with, a more subtle charging effect still remains. We argue here that specimen charging is in this case likely to produce a dipole sheet rather than a layer of positive charge at the surface of the specimen. A simple model of the factors that control the kinetics of specimen charging, and its neutralization, is discussed as a guide for experiments that attempt to minimize the amount of specimen charging. Believable estimates of the electrostatic forces and the electron optical disturbances that are likely to occur suggest that specimen bending and warping may have the biggest impact on degrading the image quality at high resolution. Electron optical effects are likely to be negligible except in the case of a specimen that is tilted to high angle. A model is proposed to explain how both the mechanical and electron-optical effects of forming a dipole layer would have much greater impact on the image resolution in a direction perpendicular to the tilt axis, a well-known effect in electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Microscopy and Microanalysis
  • ISSN: 1431-9276
  • EISSN: 1435-8115
  • URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *