Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lupoi, Jason S. Singh, Seema Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan Simmons, Blake A. and Henry, Robert J. 2015. Recent innovations in analytical methods for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of lignin. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 49, p. 871.

    Ma, Jianfeng Lv, Xunli Yang, Shumin Tian, Genlin and Liu, Xing’e 2015. Structural Insight into Cell Wall Architecture of Micanthus sinensis cv. using Correlative Microscopy Approaches. Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21, Issue. 05, p. 1304.

    Schulz, Hartwig Krähmer, Andrea Naumann, Annette and Gudi, Gennadi 2014. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging.

    Xia, Ye Petti, Carloalberto Williams, Mark A. and DeBolt, Seth 2014. Experimental approaches to study plant cell walls during plant-microbe interactions. Frontiers in Plant Science, Vol. 5,


Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, and Confocal Raman Microscopic Analysis of Ultrastructural and Compositional Heterogeneity of Cornus alba L. Wood Cell Wall

  • Jianfeng Ma (a1), Zhe Ji (a1), Xia Zhou (a1), Zhiheng Zhang (a1) and Feng Xu (a1) (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 04 February 2013

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy can be used to characterize ultrastructural and compositional heterogeneity of plant cell walls. In this study, TEM observations revealed the ultrastructural characterization of Cornus alba L. fiber, vessel, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, and pit membrane between cells, notably with the ray parenchyma consisting of two well-defined layers. Fluorescence microscopy evidenced that cell corner middle lamella was more lignified than adjacent compound middle lamella and secondary wall with variation in lignification level from cell to cell. In situ Raman images showed that the inhomogeneity in cell wall components (cellulose and lignin) among different cells and within morphologically distinct cell wall layers. As the significant precursors of lignin biosynthesis, the pattern of coniferyl alcohol and aldehyde (joint abbreviation Lignin-CAA for both structures) distribution in fiber cell wall was also identified by Raman images, with higher concentration occurring in the fiber secondary wall where there was the highest cellulose concentration. Moreover, noteworthy was the observation that higher concentration of lignin and very minor amounts of cellulose were visualized in the pit membrane areas. These complementary microanalytical methods provide more accurate and complete information with regard to ultrastructural and compositional characterization of plant cell walls.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

U.P. Agarwal (2006). Raman imaging to investigate ultrastructure and composition of plant cell walls: Distribution of lignin and cellulose in black spruce wood (Picea mariana). Planta 224(5), 11411153.

U.P. Agarwal & R.H. Atalla (1986). In-situ Raman microprobe studies of plant cell walls: Macromolecular organization and compositional variability in the secondary wall of Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. Planta 169(3), 325332.

U.P. Agarwal , J.D. McSweeny & S.A. Ralph (2011). FT-Raman investigation of milled-wood lignins: Softwood, hardwood, and chemically modified black spruce lignins. J Wood Chem Technol 31(4), 324344.

U.P. Agarwal & S.A. Ralph (1997). FT-Raman spectroscopy of wood: Identifying contributions of lignin and carbohydrate polymers in the spectrum of black spruce. Appl Spectrosc 51(11), 16481655.

W. Boerjan , J. Ralph & M. Baucher (2003). Lignin biosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Biol 54(1), 519546.

N. Chaffey , P. Barlow & B. Sundberg (2002). Understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in wood formation in angiosperm trees: Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) as the model species. Tree Physiol 22(4), 239249.

D.J. Cosgrove (2005). Growth of the plant cell wall. Nat Rev Mol Cell Bio 6(11), 850861.

G. Daniel , T. Nilsson & B. Pettersson (1991). Poorly and non-lignified regions in the middle lamella cell corners of birch (Betula verrucosa) and other wood species. IAWA Bull 12, 7083.

L. Donaldson , J. Hague & R. Snell (2001). Lignin distribution in coppice poplar, linseed and wheat straw. Holzforschung 55(4), 379385.

L.A. Donaldson (2001). Lignification and lignin topochemistry: An ultrastructural view. Phytochemistry 57(6), 859873.

L.A. Donaldson (2008). Microfibril angle: Measurement, variation and relationships. IAWA J 29(4), 345386.

L.A. Donaldson & J.P. Knox (2012). Localization of cell wall polysaccharides in normal and compression wood of radiata pine: Relationships with lignification and microfibril orientation. Plant Physiol 158(2), 642653.

L.A. Donaldson & M.J.F. Lausberg (1998). Comparison of conventional transmitted light and confocal microscopy for measuring wood cell dimensions by image analysis. IAWA J 19(3), 321336.

L.A. Donaldson & K.G. Ryan (1987). A comparison of relative lignin concentration as determined by interference microscopy and bromination/EDXA. Wood Sci Technol 21(4), 303309.

L.A. Donaldson , A.P. Singh , A. Yoshinaga & K. Takabe (1999). Lignin distribution in mild compression wood of Pinus radiata. Can J Bot 77(1), 4150.

T.S. Feild , D.W. Lee & N.M. Holbrook (2001). Why leaves turn red in autumn. The role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves of red-osier dogwood. Plant Physiol 127(2), 566574.

J. Fromm , B. Rockel , S. Lautner , E. Windeisen & G. Wanner (2003). Lignin distribution in wood cell walls determined by TEM and backscattered SEM techniques. J Struct Biol 143(1), 7784.

N. Gierlinger & M. Schwanninger (2006). Chemical imaging of poplar wood cell walls by confocal Raman microscopy. Plant Physiol 140(4), 12461254.

N. Gierlinger & M. Schwanninger (2007). The potential of Raman microscopy and Raman imaging in plant research. Spectroscopy 21(2), 6989.

S. Jansen , B. Choat & A. Pletsers (2009). Morphological variation of intervessel pit membranes and implications to xylem function in angiosperms. Am J Bot 96(2), 409419.

R.J. Murphy & K.L. Alvin (1992). Variation in fiber wall structure in bamboo. IAWA Bull 13(4), 403410.

R.A. Parham & W.A. Côté (1971). Distribution of lignin in normal and compression wood of Pinus taeda L. Wood Sci Technol 5(1), 4962.

J. Ralph , G. Brunow & W. Boerjan (2007). Lignins. In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

S. Saka , P. Whiting , K. Fukazawa & D. Goring (1982). Comparative studies on lignin distribution by UV microscopy and bromination combined with EDXA. Wood Sci Technol 16(4), 269277.

R. Schmid & R.D. Machado (1968). Pit membranes in hardwoods—Fine structure and development. Protoplasma 66(1-2), 185204.

A. Singh , G. Daniel & T. Nilsson (2002). Ultrastructure of the S2 layer in relation to lignin distribution in Pinus radiata tracheids. J Wood Sci 48(2), 9598.

A.P. Singh , Y.S. Kim , G.C. Chung , B.D. Park & A.H.H. Wong (2003). TEM examination of surface characteristics of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) HTMP fibers. Holzforschung 57(6), 579584.

M. Takayama , T. Johjima , T. Yamanaka , H. Wariishi & H. Tanaka (1997). Fourier transform Raman assignment of guaiacyl and syringyl marker bands for lignin determination. Spectrochim Acta A 53(10), 16211628.

V. Tirumalai , U. Agarwal & J. Obst (1996). Heterogeneity of lignin concentration in cell corner middle lamella of white birch and black spruce. Wood Sci Technol 30(2), 99104.

U. Westermark , O. Lidbrandt & I. Eriksson (1988). Lignin distribution in spruce (Picea abies) determined by mercurization with SEM-EDXA technique. Wood Sci Technol 22(3), 243250.

S.G. Wi , A.P. Singh , K.H. Lee & Y.S. Kim (2005). The pattern of distribution of pectin, peroxidase and lignin in the middle lamella of secondary xylem fibers in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Ann Bot 95(5), 863868.

J.H. Wiley & R.H. Atalla (1987). Band assignments in the raman spectra of celluloses. Carbohydr Res 160(220), 113129.

F. Xu , R.C. Sun , Q. Lu & G. Jones (2006). Comparative study of anatomy and lignin distribution in normal and tension wood of Salix gordejecii. Wood Sci Technol 40(5), 358370.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Microscopy and Microanalysis
  • ISSN: 1431-9276
  • EISSN: 1435-8115
  • URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *