Stomata (singular, “stoma”) are tiny pores through which plants breathe. Stomata are found on the upper and lower sides of leaves, on flower petals, on stems, and on roots. Scientists survey plant surfaces to determine the density and size of stomata and relate these findings to properties of the environment, such as temperature and the amounts of sunlight, humidity, oxygen, and carbon dioxide in the air when a leaf is formed. Stomata of various plants are suitable subjects for classroom laboratory activities since they may be examined by light microscopy.
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