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Unique thallium mineralization in the fumaroles of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. II. Karpovite, Tl2VO(SO4)2(H2O)

  • Oleg I. Siidra (a1), Lidiya P. Vergasova (a2), Yuri L. Kretser (a3), Yuri S. Polekhovsky (a4), Stanislav K. Filatov (a1) and Sergey V. Krivovichev (a1) (a5)...

Karpovite, ideally Tl2VO(SO4)2(H2O), was found in a fumarole of the 1st cinder cone of the North Breach of the Great Fissure Tolbachik volcano eruption (1975–1976), Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Karpovite occurs as bundles of white, needle-like crystals associated with shcherbinaite, pauflerite, bobjonesite, markhininite, evdokimovite and microcrystalline Mg, Al, Fe and Na sulfates. Karpovite is monoclinic, P21, a = 4.6524(4), b = 11.0757(9), c = 9.3876(7) Å , β = 98.353(2)º, V = 478.60(7) Å3, Z = 2 (from single-crystal diffraction data). The eight strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are (I/d/hkl): 64/4.289/012, 81/4.253/110, 38/3.683/111, 47/3.557/022, 100/3.438/1̄21, 52/2.982/013, 59/2.945/112, 54/2.354/132. The chemical composition determined by the electron microprobe analysis is (wt.%) Tl2O 61.43, VO2 11.53, SO3 23.55, H2O 2.61, total 99.12. The empirical formula (calculated on the basis of 10 O a.p.f.u.) is Tl2.00V0.96S2.03O9(H2O). The simplified formula of karpovite is Tl2VO(SO4)2(H2O), which requires Tl2O 61.93, VO2 12.09, SO3 23.34, H2O 2.62 total 100.00 wt.%. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods and refined to R1 = 0.026 for 4196 independent observed reflections. The structure contains two symmetrically independent Tl+ sites, one V 4+ site and two S6+ sites. VO5H2O octahedra and SO4 tetrahedra link together by sharing corners to form kröhnkite-type stripes parallel to the a axis with their planes oriented parallel to (021) and (021̄ ). Tl+ cations are located between the chains, linked into a three-dimensional structure. The new mineral is named in honour of Professor Gennadii Alexandrovich Karpov (b. 1938), volcanologist at the Institute of Volcanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.

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