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Worshipping in Concert with the World

  • Hillary Kaell


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1 Italics and brackets in original. Armin Gesswein, “Powerful Prayer Principles,” Feb. 1980, International Intercessors mailing, no page; and Norval Hadley, letter to Dear Intercessor, Jan. 1980 (for 17,000), folder 13 Ministries “Int. Intercessors” Jan.–Dec. 1980, Central Records, Global Center, Los Angeles, World Vision International Archives, Monrovia, CA [hereafter WVIA].

2 Frank Ineson, form letter, Mar. 1974, folder 13 Ministries “Int. Intercessors” Jan.–Dec. 1974, WVIA.

3 “Prayer Calendar,” insert with May 1980 appeal, folder 4 Marketing Sponsor/Childcare Promotions, WVIA.

4 “How Busy People Can Pray for Missions,” World Vision Magazine, July 1959, 6.

5 “58” in W. Herbert Scott to “Dear Friends in Christ,” Oct. 1977, folder 13 Ministries “Int. Intercessors” Jan.–Dec. 1980 and Jan.–Dec. 1977, WVIA.

6 Stanley Mooneyham, letter, “Dear International Intercessor,” Jan. 1976, folder 13 Ministries “Int. Intercessors” Jan.–Dec. 1976, WVIA.

7 MacKendrick, Karmen, The Matter of Voice: Sensual Soundings (New York, 2016), 71. On a similar note, Erben, Patrick M., A Harmony of the Spirits: Translation and the Language of Community in Early Pennsylvania (Chapel Hill, 2012), 1011.

8 Beaver, R. Pierce, “The Concert for Prayer for Missions: An Early Venture in Ecumenical Action,” The Ecumenical Review (1958): 425–6; Chaney, Charles L., The Birth of Missions in America (Pasadena, CA, 1976), 156–7.

9 Edwards, Jonathan, An Humble Attempt to Promote Explicit Agreement and Visible Union Among God's People in Extraordinary Prayer (Boston, 1747).

10 Mrs. Dr. Hibbard quoted by Frances J. Decker, “New York Branch Report,” Heathen Woman's Friend, Oct. 1884, 86.

11 “Narration for Compassion slide set” (144 slides), 1965, folder 1965 Multimedia (1965–1976), box USA, Compassion International Archives (unprocessed), Colorado Springs, CO [hereafter CIA].

12 “Free Record to all Sponsors or Contributors,” folder 1964 Publication General, box USA 1 Documents, CIA; “Compassion Recordings” (flyer), folder 1965 Publications, box USA, CIA. The citations concern Compassion's choir, which operated on the same basis as World Vision. See also Woo, Susie, “Imagining Kin: Cold War Sentimentalism and the Korean Children's Choir,” American Quarterly 67, no. 1 (Mar. 2015): 2553.

13 Korean Study Plan, 1970: 6, folder 1970 Internal documents, box USA, CIA.

14 Vásquez, Manuel A. and Marquardt, Marie F., Globalizing the Sacred: Religion Across the Americas (New Brunswick, NJ, 2003), 3. See also Harvey, David, The Condition of Postmodernity (Cambridge, MA, 1989).

15 On the construction of a Western self in relation to others, see Sontag, Susan, “The Anthropologist as Hero” (1963) in Against Interpretation and Other Essays (1966; New York, 2001), 6981; Said, Edward, Orientalism (New York, 1979); and Fabian, Johannes, Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object (New York, 1983).

16 Bakhtin, Mikhail, Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics, trans. Emerson, Caryl (Minneapolis, 1984), 82. Bakhtin is referring to a much broader ideological mode in the European enlightenment, but I find his general point helpful regarding Christian projects that developed out of the same period.

17 W. Herbert Scott to “Dear Friends in Christ,” Oct. 1977, folder 13 Ministries “Int. Intercessors” Jan.–Dec. 1977, WVIA.

18 Active choirs include the evangelical Watoto Children's Choir and the liberal, secular African Children's Choir founded by Ray Barnett in 1984. U.S.-based choirs on a similar model include the International Children's Choir (founded in Utah c. 1992); World Children's Choir (Virginia, 1990), and the long-running International Children's Choir (Long Beach, CA, 1957).

19 The World Council of Churches initially called the day of prayer. Supporters included “many other national partners,” as well as the All Africa Conference of Churches, Caritas in Veritate International, and World Evangelical Alliance—none of which are based in the U.S. “World Vision backs global day of prayer to end famine,” press release, May 3, 2017, (accessed Sept. 13, 2017).


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Worshipping in Concert with the World

  • Hillary Kaell


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