Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Nepal's Ongoing Political Transformation: A review of post-2006 literature on conflict, the state, identities, and environments*

  • SARA SHNEIDERMAN (a1), LUKE WAGNER (a2), JACOB RINCK (a3), AMY L. JOHNSON (a4) and AUSTIN LORD (a5)...
Abstract
Abstract

This review article provides a reading guide to scholarly literature published in English about Nepal's political transformation since 2006, when Nepal's decade-long civil conflict between Maoist and state forces formally ended. The article is structured around four major themes: (1) the Maoist insurgency or ‘People's War’; (2) state formation and transformation; (3) identity politics; and (4) territorial and ecological consciousness. We also address the dynamics of migration and mobility in relation to all of these themes. Ultimately, we consider the Maoist movement as one element in a much broader process of transformation, which with the benefit of hindsight we can situate in relation to several other contemporaneous trajectories, including: democratization, identity-based mobilization, constitutional nationalism, international intervention, territorial restructuring, migration and the remittance economy, and the emergence of ecological and other new forms of consciousness. By looking across the disciplines at scholarship published on all of these themes, we aim to connect the dots between long-standing disciplinary traditions of scholarship on Nepal and more recent approaches to understanding the country's transformation.

Copyright
Footnotes
Hide All
*

We thank Yale University's Department of Anthropology for hosting the year-long graduate seminar in 2013–2014 out of which this article emerged, and K. Sivaramakrishnan for nurturing the idea behind it. Within our five-author collective, we acknowledge the following organizations that supported elements of our individual scholarship during the review and writing period: the Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowship; the Fulbright Commission in Nepal; the National Science Foundation; the Wenner-Gren Foundation; the Department of Anthropology, the Institute of Asian Research, and the Hampton Research Fund at the University of British Columbia; and the following units at Yale University: Department of Anthropology, Department of Sociology, MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, South Asian Studies Council, and Yale Himalaya Initiative. We thank the many friends and colleagues who have shaped our thinking and writing over time, and the family members who have supported our work. We cannot name everyone individually, but recognize the many important conversations that took place in Nepal at the Carter Center, the Cornell Nepal Study Program, Martin Chautari, Social Science Baha, the Central Departments of Sociology and Anthropology at Tribhuvan University, and Patipa Palace. We are grateful to our four anonymous reviewers, whose recommendations significantly improved this article. Finally, we thank the editors of Modern Asian Studies, especially Norbert Peabody, for their interest, patience, and guidance.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Acharya A., ‘The Maoist insurgency and the political economy of violence’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-First Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 263283.
Adhikari A., ‘Revolution by other means: the transformation of Nepal's Maoists in a time of peace’, in Nepal in Transition: From People's War to Fragile Peace, von Einsiedel S., Malone D., and Pradhan S. (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, pp. 265285.
Adhikari A., The Bullet and the Ballot Box: The Story of Nepal's Maoist Revolution, Verso Books, London, 2014.
Adhikari J., Under the Shadow of the Red Flag: Travels During Nepal's Armed Conflict, Martin Chautari, Kathmandu, 2014.
Adhikari J. and Dhungana H., ‘The state and forest resources: an historical analysis of policies affecting forest management in the Nepalese Tarai’, Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies, vol. 29, nos 1–2, 2009, pp. 4356.
Adhikari J. and Hobley M., Everyone is Leaving, who Will Sow our Fields?: The Effects of Migration from Khotang District to the Gulf and Malaysia, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Kathmandu, 2011.
Adhikari K. and Gellner D. N., ‘New identity politics and the 2012 collapse of Nepal's Constituent Assembly: when the dominant becomes the other’, Modern Asian Studies, FirstView, doi: 10.1017/S0026749X15000438, 2016.
Adhikari P., ‘Conflict-induced displacement, understanding the causes of flight’, American Journal of Political Science, vol. 57, no. 1, 2013, pp. 8289.
Adhikari P. and Samford S., ‘The Nepali state and the dynamics of the Maoist insurgency’, Studies in Comparative International Development, vol. 48, 2013, pp. 457481.
Ahlborg H. and Nightingale A. J., ‘Mismatch between scales of knowledge in Nepalese forestry: epistemology, power, and policy implications’, Ecology and Society, vol. 17, no. 4, 2012, art. 16.
Banerjee S., Gerlitz J. Y., and Hoermann B., Labour Migration as a Response Strategy to Water Hazards in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, 2011.
Baral L. S., Autocratic Monarchy: Politics in Panchayat Nepal, Martin Chautari, Kathmandu, 2012.
Bartlett R., Bharati L., Pant D., Hosterman H., and McCornick P. G., ‘Climate change impacts and adaptation in Nepal’, International Water Management Institute, Working Paper 139, 2010.
Bell T., Kathmandu, Random House India, Gurgaon, 2014.
Bennett L. and Parajuli D., The Nepal Multidimensional Exclusion Index: Making Smaller Social Groups Visible for Tracking Results on Social Inclusion, Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2013.
Bhattachan K., ‘Ethnopolitics and ethnodevelopment: an emerging paradigm in Nepal’, in State, Leadership and Politics in Nepal, Kumar D. (ed.), Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, 1995.
Bhattachan K., ‘Ethnopolitics and ethnodevelopment: an emerging paradigm in Nepal—with a postscript’, in Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict: Identities and Mobilization after 1990, Lawoti M. and Hangen S. (eds), Routledge, Abingdon, 2013, pp. 3557.
Blaikie P., Cameron J., and Seddon D., Nepal in Crisis: Growth and Stagnation at the Periperhy, Adroit Publishers, New Delhi, 2005 [1980].
Blaikie P., Cameron J., and Seddon D., Centre, Periphery, and Access in West Central Nepal: Approaches to Social and Spatial Relations of Inequality, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 1983.
Bohara A. K., Mitchell N. J., and Nepal M., ‘Opportunity, democracy, and the exchange of political violence: a subnational analysis of conflict in Nepal’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 50, no. 1, 2006, pp. 108128.
Bohra-Mishra P., ‘Labour migration and investments by remaining households in rural Nepal’, Journal of Population Research, vol. 30, no. 2, 2013, pp. 171192.
Bohra P. and Massey D. S., ‘Processes of internal and international migration from Chitwan, Nepal’, International Migration Review, vol. 43, no. 3, 2009, pp. 621651.
Bohra-Mishra P. and Massey D. S., ‘Individual decisions to migrate during conflict’, Demography, vol. 48, no. 2, 2011, pp. 401424.
Borgström B. E., The Patron and the Panca: Village Values and Pancayat Democracy in Nepal, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 1976.
Bruslé T., ‘Choosing a destination and work migration: strategies of Nepalese workers in Uttarakhand, northern India’, Mountain Research and Development, vol. 28, nos 3/4, 2008, pp. 240247.
Bruslé T., ‘Nepalese migrations: introduction’, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, vols 35–36, 2009–2010, pp. 1623.
Bruslé T., ‘From home to abroad, and back again: the expanding territories of Nepalese migrants’, in Territorial Changes and Territorial Restructuring in the Himalayas, Smadja J. (ed), Adroit Publishers, New Delhi, 2014, pp. 335352.
Burghart R., ‘The formation of the concept of nation-state in Nepal’, The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 44, no. 1, 1984, pp. 101125.
Burghart R., ‘Gift to the gods: power, property, and ceremonial in Nepal’, in Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies, Cannadine D. and Price S. (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987, pp. 237270.
Bushley B. and Khatri D. B., ‘REDD+: Reversing, reinforcing or reconfiguring decentralized forest governance in Nepal?’, ForestAction Nepal, Discussion Paper Series, vol. 11, no. 3, 2011.
Cameron M., On the Edge of the Auspicious: Gender and Caste in Nepal, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 1998.
Campbell B., Living Between Juniper and Palm: Nature, Culture, and Power in the Himalayas, Vajra Books, Kathmandu, 2013.
Campbell B., ‘From remote area to thoroughfare of globalisation: shifting territorialisations of development and border peasantry in Nepal’, in Territorial Changes and Territorial Restructuring in the Himalayas, Smadja J. (ed.), Adroit Publishers, New Delhi, 2014, pp. 269288.
Caplan L., Land and Social Change in East Nepal: A Study of Hindu–Tribal Relations, Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2000 [1970].
Caplan L., Administration and Politics in a Nepalese Town: The Study of a District Capital and its Environs, Oxford University Press, London, 1975.
Carrin M., Kanungo P., and Toffin G. (eds), The Politics of Ethnicity in India, Nepal and China, Indian Council of Social Science Research/Primus Books, Delhi, 2014.
Chalmers R., ‘State power and the security sector: ideologies and interests’, in Nepal in Transition: From People's War to Fragile Peace, von Einsiedel S., Malone D., and Pradhan S. (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, pp. 5880.
Childs G., Craig S., Beall C. M., and Basnyat B., ‘Depopulating the Himalayan highlands: education and outmigration from ethnically Tibetan communities of Nepal’, Mountain Research and Development, vol. 34, no. 2, 2014, pp. 8594.
Cowan S., ‘Inside the People's Liberation Army: a military perspective’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 301332.
Craig S., ‘Migration, social change, health, and the realm of the possible: women's stories from Nepal to New York’, Anthropology and Humanism, vol. 36, no. 2, 2011, pp. 193214.
Crawford M., Sex Trafficking in South Asia: Telling Maya's Story, Routledge, London, 2010.
Darnal S., A Land of Our Own: Conversations with Dalit Members of Constituent Assembly, Samata Foundation and Jagaran Media Center, Kathmandu, 2009.
Dastider M., Understanding Nepal: Muslims in a Plural Society, Har Anand Publications, New Delhi, 2007.
Davis C., Maithil Women's Tales: Storytelling on the Nepal-India Border, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 2014.
Des Chene M., ‘Is Nepal in South Asia? The condition of non-postcoloniality’, Studies in Nepali History and Society, vol. 12, no. 2, 2007, pp. 207223.
Devkota P. M. (ed.), Dalits of Nepal: Issues and Challenges, Feminist Dalit Organization, Lalitpur, 2002.
Dixit A. and Gyawali D., ‘Nepal's constructive dialogue on dams and development’, Water Alternatives, vol. 3, no. 2, 2010, pp. 106123.
Eck K.. ‘Recruiting rebels: indoctrination and political education in Nepal’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 3351.
von Einsiedel S., Malone D. M., and Pradhan S. (eds), Nepal in Transition: From People's War to Fragile Peace, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2012.
Fisher J. F., At Home in the World: Globalization and the Peace Corps in Nepal, Orchid Press, Bangkok, 2013.
Fisher W. F., Fluid Boundaries: Forming and Transforming Identity in Nepal, Columbia University Press, New York, 2001.
Fitzpatrick I. C., Cardamom and Class: A Limbu Village and its Extensions in East Nepal, Vajra Publications, Kathmandu, 2011.
Folmar S., ‘Problems of identity for hill Dalits and Nepal's nationalist project’, in Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilizations after 1990, Lawoti M. and Hangen S. (eds), Routledge, Abingdon, 2013, pp. 85101.
Forbes A. A., ‘The importance of being local: villagers, NGOs, and the World Bank in the Arun Valley, Nepal’, Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, vol. 6, nos 2–3, 1999, pp. 319344.
Fricke T., ‘Tamang conversions: culture, politics, and the Christian conversion narrative in Nepal’, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, vol. 35, no. 1, 2008, pp. 3562.
Fujikura T., Discourses of Awareness: Development, Social Movements, and the Practice of Freedom in Nepal, Martin Chautari, Kathmandu, 2013.
Gaenszle M., Rai I. P., Pettigrew J., Rai M., Bickel B., Banjade G., Bhatta T. N., Lieven E., Paudyal N. P., and Stoll S., ‘Resisting the state in east Nepal: the “Chintang Incident” of 1979 and the politics of commemoration’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 97113.
Gaige F. H., Regionalism and National Unity in Nepal, Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2009 [1975].
Gautam S., Banskota A., and Manchanda R., ‘Where there are no men: women in the Maoist insurgency in Nepal’, in Women, War and Peace in South Asia, Manchanda R. (ed.), Sage Press, New Delhi, 2001, pp. 214248.
Gayer L., ‘“Love-marriage-sex” in the People's Liberation Army: the libidinal economy of a greedy institution’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 333366.
Geertz C., Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1980.
Gellner D. N. (ed.), Resistance and the State: Nepalese Experiences, Social Science Press, Delhi, 2003 (2nd ed. Berghahn, Oxford, 2007).
Gellner D. N. (ed.), Ethnic Activism and Civil Society in South Asia, Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2009.
Gellner D. N. (ed.), Varieties of Activist Experience: Civil Society in South Asia, Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2010.
Gellner D. N. (ed.), Borderland Lives in Northern South Asia, Duke University Press, Durham, 2013.
Gellner D. N., ‘The 2013 elections in Nepal’, Asian Affairs, vol. 45, no. 2, 2014, pp. 243261.
Gellner D. N. and Hachhethu K. (eds), Local Democracy in South Asia: Microprocesses of Democratization in Nepal and its Neighbors, Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2008.
Gellner D. N., Pfaff-Czarnecka J., and Whelpton J. (eds), Nationalism and Ethnicity in Nepal, Vajra Publications, Kathmandu, 2008 [1997].
Ghimire P., ‘The Maoists in eastern Nepal: the example of Khotang’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 114140.
Gidwani V. and Paudel D.Gramsci at the margins: a prehistory of the Maoist movement in Nepal’, in Gramsci: Space, Nature, Politics, Ekers M., Hart G., Kipfer S., and Loftus A. (eds), Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, Massachusetts, 2012, pp. 261278.
Gilmour D. A. and Fisher R. J., Villagers, Forests, and Foresters: The Philosophy, Process, and Practice of Community Forestry in Nepal, Sahayogi Press, Kathmandu, 1991.
Graner E. and Gurung G., ‘Arabko lahures: Nepalese labour migration to Arabian countries’, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, vol. 28, 2003, pp. 295325.
Grossman-Thompson B. H. (ed.), Studies in Nepali History and Society, Special issue: ‘New Research on Gender and Contemporary Experience in Nepal’, vol. 18, no. 2, 2013.
Guneratne A., Many Tongues, One People: The Making of Tharu Identity in Nepal, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 2002.
Guneratne A. (ed.), Culture and the Environment in the Himalaya, Routledge, Abingdon, 2009.
Guneratne A. (ed.), Dalits of Nepal: Towards Dignity, Citizenship, and Justice, Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2010.
Guneratne A. (ed.), The Tarai: History, Society, Environment, Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2011.
Gurung O., ‘Evolution of indigeneity, identity and autonomy in federal Nepal’, in Ethnicity and Federalisation in Nepal, Mishra C. and Gurung O. (eds), Central Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, 2012, pp. 193209.
Gurung O., Tamang M. S., and Turin M. (eds), Perspectives on Social Inclusion and Exclusion in Nepal, Central Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, 2014.
Gyawali D., Water in Nepal, Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2001.
Gyawali D. and Dixit A., ‘Water and science: hydrological uncertainties, developmental aspirations and uningrained scientific culture’, Futures, vol. 33, no. 8, 2001, pp. 689708.
Hachhethu K. and Gellner D. N., ‘Nepal: trajectories of democracy and restructuring of the state’, in Routledge Handbook of South Asian Politics, Brass P. (ed.), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 131146.
Hangen S., Creating a ‘New Nepal’: The Ethnic Dimension, East-West Center, Washington, DC, Policy Studies, no. 34, 2007.
Hangen S., The Rise of Ethnic Politics in Nepal: Democracy in the Margins, Routledge, Abingdon, 2010.
Harper I., Development and Public Health in the Himalaya: Reflections on Healing in Contemporary Nepal, Routledge, London, 2014.
Hausner S. and Sharma J., ‘On the way to India: Nepali rituals of border crossing’, in Borderland Lives in Northern South Asia, Gellner D. N. (ed.), Duke University Press, Durham, 2013, pp. 94116.
Herzog E.. Patrons of Women: Literacy Projects and Gender Development in Rural Nepal, Berghahn, New York, 2011.
Hindman H., Mediating the Global: Expatria's Forms and Consequences in Kathmandu, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 2013.
Hocart A. M., Caste: A Comparative Study, Methuen, London, 1950.
Hoffman M., ‘In the shadows of the Maoist revolution: On the role of the “People's War” in facilitating the occupation of symbolic space in Western Nepal’, Critique of Anthropology, vol. 35, no. 4, 2015, pp. 389406.
Hoftun M., Raeper W., and Whelpton J., People, Politics and Ideology: Democracy and Social Change in Nepal, Mandala Book Point, Kathmandu, 1999.
Holmberg D., Order in Paradox: Myth and Ritual Among Nepal's Tamang, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1989.
Holmberg D., ‘All politics is local’, in Views from the Field: Anthropological Perspectives on the Constituent Assembly Elections, Holmberg D., Pettigrew J., and Tamang M. S., Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2009, pp. 922.
Hutt M. (ed.), Himalayan People's War: Nepal's Maoist Rebellion, Hurst and Company, London, 2004.
Hutt M., ‘Nepal and Bhutan in 2005: monarchy and democracy, can they co-exist?’, Asian Survey, vol. 46, no. 1, 2006, pp. 120124.
Immerzeel W. W., Van Beek L. P. H., and Bierkens M. F. P., ‘Climate change will affect the Asian water towers’, Science, vol. 328, no. 5984, 2010, pp. 13821385.
International Crisis Group, Nepal's Political Rites of Passage, International Crisis Group Asia Report, Kathmandu/Brussels, 2006.
International Crisis Group, Nepal's Constitution (I): Evolution Not Revolution, International Crisis Group Asia Report, Kathmandu/Brussels, 2012.
International Crisis Group, Nepal's Constitution (II): The Expanding Political Matrix, International Crisis Group Asia Report, Kathmandu/Brussels, 2012.
Ishii H., Gellner D. N., and Nawa K. (eds), Social Dynamics in Northern South Asia (Vols 1 and 2), Manohar, Delhi, 2007.
Ismail F. and Shah A., ‘Class struggle, the Maoists, and the indigenous question in Nepal and India’, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 50, no. 35, 2015, pp. 112123.
Jha P., Battles of the New Republic: A Contemporary History of Nepal, Aleph Book Company, New Delhi, 2014.
Jianchu X., Shrestha A., Vaidya R., Eriksson M., and Hewitt K., The Melting Himalayas: Regional Challenges and Local Impacts of Climate Change on Mountain Ecosystems and Livelihoods, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, 2007.
Jones P. S., ‘Powering up the people? The politics of indigenous rights implementation: International Labour Convention 169 and hydroelectric power in Nepal’, International Journal of Human Rights, vol. 16, no. 4, 2012, pp. 624627.
Joshi M., ‘Between clientelistic dependency and liberal market economy: rural support for the Maoist insurgency in Nepal’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 92111.
Joshi B. L. and Rose L. E., Democratic Innovations in Nepal: A Case Study of Political Acculturation, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1966; reprinted by Mandala Publications, Kathmandu, 2004.
Karki A. and Seddon D. (eds), The People's War in Nepal: Left Perspectives, Adroit, Delhi, 2003.
Khanal N. R., ‘Territorial changes in Nepal: proposals for a federal state’, in Territorial Changes and Territorial Restructuring in the Himalayas, Smadja J. (ed.), Adroit Publishers, New Delhi, 2014, pp. 107120.
Kisan Y. B., The Nepal Dalit Social Movement, L. Vasily (trans.), Legal Rights Protection Society, Kathmandu, 2005.
Knight K., ‘Outliers: Sunil Babu Pant, the Blue Diamond Society, and queer organizing in Nepal’, Studies in Nepal History and Society, vol. 19, no. 1, 2014.
Kohrt B. and Harper I., ‘Navigating diagnoses: understanding mind–body relations, mental health, and stigma in Nepal’, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, vol. 32, no. 4, 2008, pp. 462491.
Kohrt B. and Hruschka D., ‘Nepali concepts of psychological trauma: the role of idioms of distress, ethnopsychology, and ethnophysiology in alleviating suffering and preventing stigma’, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 2, 2010, pp. 322352.
Kumar D. (ed.), State, Leadership, and Politics in Nepal, Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, 1995.
Kunreuther L., Voicing Subjects: Public Intimacy and Mediation in Kathmandu, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2014.
Lakier G., ‘The myth of the state is real: notes on the study of the state in Nepal’, Studies in Nepali History and Society, vol. 10, no. 1, 2005, pp. 135170.
Lal C. K., ‘Ramraja Prasad Singh: the warrior revolutionary’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 7596.
Lawoti M., ‘The Maoists and minorities: overlap of interests or a case of exploitation?’, Studies in Nepali History and Society, vol. 8, 2003, pp. 6797.
Lawoti M., Towards a Democratic Nepal: Inclusive Political Institutions for a Multicultural Society, Sage Publications, London, 2005.
Lawoti M., ‘Ethnic dimensions of the Maoist insurgencies: indigenous groups’ participation and insurgency trajectories in Nepal, Peru, and India’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 135155.
Lawoti M., ‘Bullets, ballots, and bounty’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 287303.
Lawoti M. and Hangen S. (eds), Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization after 1990, Routledge, London, 2013.
Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Routledge, New York, 2010.
Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K., ‘Violent conflict and change’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 304326.
Lecomte-Tilouine M., ‘Utopia and ideology among the Magars: Lakhan Thapa versus Mao Dzedong?’, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, vol. 19, no. 3, 2000, pp. 73100.
Lecomte-Tilouine M., Hindu Kingship, Ethnic Revival, and Maoist Rebellion in Nepal, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2009.
Lecomte-Tilouine M., ‘Ruling social groups, from species to nations: reflections on changing conceptualizations of caste and ethnicity in Nepal’, in Gellner D. N. (ed.) Ethnic Activism and Civil Society in South Asia, Sage, Delhi, 2009, pp. 291336.
Lecomte-Tilouine M., ‘Political change and cultural revolution in a Maoist model village, mid-western Nepal’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 115131.
Lecomte-Tilouine M., ‘Terror in a Maoist village in mid-western Nepal’, in Windows into a Revolution: Ethnographies of Maoism in India and Nepal, Shah A. and Pettigrew J. (eds), Social Science Press, New Delhi, 2012.
Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013.
Lecomte-Tilouine M., ‘Introduction’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 126.
Lecomte-Tilouine M., ‘Maoists despite themselves: amid the People's War in a Maoist model village, northern Gulmi’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 212257.
Letizia C., ‘Shaping secularism in Nepal’, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, vol. 39, 2012, pp. 66104.
Letizia C., ‘The goddess Kumari at the Supreme Court: divine kinship and secularism in Nepal’, Focaal—Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology, vol. 67, 2013, pp. 3246.
Letizia C., ‘Buddhist activism, new sanghas, and the politics of belonging among some Tharu and Magar communities of southern Nepal’, in Facing Globalisation in the Himalayas: Belonging and the Politics of the Self, Toffin G. and Pfaff-Czarnecka J. (eds), Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2014, pp. 286322.
Leve L., ‘Subjects, selves, and the politics of personhood in Theravada Buddhism in Nepal’, The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 61, no. 3, 2002, pp. 833860.
Leve L., ‘Identity’, Current Anthropology, vol. 52, no. 4, 2011, pp. 513535.
Leve L., ‘Women's empowerment and rural revolution: rethinking “failed development”’, in Windows into a Revolution: Ethnographies of Maoism in India and Nepal, Shah A. and Pettigrew J. (eds), Social Science Press, New Delhi, 2012.
Leve L., ‘Cruel optimism, Christianity, and the post-conflict optic’, Fieldsights - Hot–Spots, Cultural Anthropology Online, 24 March 2014, http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/509-cruel-optimism-christianity-and-the-post-conflict-optic, [accessed 2 July 2016].
Leve L., ‘Strength, security, resilience and Nepal's great earthquake’, Anthropology News, vol. 56, no. 6, 2015, pp. e1e7.
Levine N., ‘Caste, state, and ethnic boundaries in Nepal’, Journal of Asian Studies vol. 46, no. 1, 1987, pp. 7188.
Levine S. and Gellner D. N., Rebuilding Buddhism: The Theravada Movement in Twentieth Century Nepal. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2005.
Liechty M., Out Here in Kathmandu: Modernity on the Global Periphery, Martin Chautari Press, Kathmandu, 2010.
Lohani-Chase R., ‘Protesting women in the People's War movement in Nepal’, Signs, vol. 40, no. 1, 2014, pp. 2936.
Luitel N. P., Jordans M. J., Sapkota R. P., Tol W. A., Kohrt B. A., Thapa S. B., Komproe I. H., and Sharma B., ‘Conflict and mental health: a cross-sectional epidemiological study in Nepal’, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 48, no. 2, 2013, pp. 183193.
Macours K., ‘Increasing inequality and civil conflict in Nepal’, Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 63, no. 1, 2011, pp. 126.
Malagodi M., Constitutional Nationalism and Legal Exclusion: Equality, Identity Politics, and Democracy in Nepal (1990–2007), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013.
Manandhar P. and Seddon D. (eds), In Hope and in Fear: Living Through the People's War in Nepal, Adroit, New Delhi, 2010.
Chautari Martin, The Debilitating Dynamics of Nepal's Constituent Assembly (2008–2012), Martin Chautari Policy Brief, Kathmandu, 2013.
Mathema K. B., Madheshi Uprising: The Resurgence of Ethnicity, Mandala Book Point, Kathmandu, 2011.
Mehta A. and Lawoti M., ‘Military dimensions of the “People's War”’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 175194.
Metz J. J., ‘Downward spiral? Interrogating narratives of environmental change in the Himalaya’, in Culture and the Environment in the Himalaya, Guneratne A. (ed.), Routledge, New York, 2009, pp. 1739.
Michael B. A., Statemaking and Territory in South Asia: Lessons from the Anglo-Gorkha War (1814–1816), Anthem Press, New York, 2012.
Mihaly E. B., Foreign Aid and Politics in Nepal, a Case Study, Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2002 [1965].
Mishra C., Essays on the Sociology of Nepal, FinePrint Books, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2007.
Mishra C. and Gurung O. (eds), Ethnicity and Federalisation in Nepal, Central Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, 2012.
Mocko A., Demoting Vishnu: Ritual, Politics, and the Unraveling of Nepal's Hindu Monarchy, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2015.
Moore B., Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World, Penguin Press, London, 1967.
Mottin M., ‘Catchy melodies and clenched fists: performance as politics in Maoist cultural programs’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 5272.
Murshed M. and Gates S., ‘Spatial–horizontal inequality and the Maoist insurgency in Nepal’, Review of Development Economics, vol. 9, no. 1, 2005, pp. 121134.
Nightingale A. J., ‘The experts taught us all we know: professionalisation and knowledge in Nepalese community forestry’, Antipode, vol. 34, no. 3, 2005, pp. 581604.
Nightingale A. J., ‘Bounding difference: intersectionality and the material production of gender, caste, class and environment in Nepal’, Geoforum, vol. 42, no. 2, 2011, pp. 153162.
Nightingale A. J., ‘Challenging the romance with resilience’, in Practising Feminist Political Ecologies, Harcourt W. and Nelson I. (eds), Zed Books, London, 2015, pp. 182208.
Nightingale A. J. and Ojha H. R., ‘Rethinking power and authority: symbolic violence and subjectivity in Nepal's Terai forests’, Development and Change, vol. 44, 2013, pp. 2951.
Nightingale A. and Rankin K. N., ‘Politics of social marginalization and inclusion: the challenge of adapting to climate change’, in Inclusive Urbanization: Rethinking Policy, Practice and Research in the Age of Climate Change, Shrestha K. K., Ojha H. R., McManus P., Rubbo A., and Dhote K. K. (eds), Routledge, Abingdon, 2014, pp. 5363.
Nightingale A. J. and Rankin K., ‘Political transformations: collaborative feminist scholarship in Nepal’, Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies, vol. 34, no. 1, 2014, pp. 105117.
Ogura K., ‘Realities and images of Nepal's Maoists after the attack on Beni’, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, vol. 27, 2004, pp. 67125.
Ogura K., ‘Maoists, people, and the state as seen from Rolpa and Rukum’, in Social Dynamics in Northern South Asia, Ishii H., Gellner D. N., and Nawa K. (eds), Manohar, Delhi, 2007.
Ogura K., ‘Maoist People's Governments, 2001–05: the power in wartime’, in Local Democracy in South Asia: Microprocesses of Democratization in Nepal and its Neighbours, Gellner D. N. and Hachhethu K. (eds), Sage, Delhi, 2008, pp. 175231.
Ogura K., Seeking State Power: The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management, Berlin, 2008.
Ojha H., Reframing Governance: Understanding Deliberative Politics in Nepal's Terai Forestry, Adroit Publishers, New Delhi, 2008.
Onta P., ‘The growth of the Adivasi Janajati Movement in Nepal after 1990: the non-political institutional agents’, Studies in Nepali History and Society, vol. 11, no. 2, 2006, pp. 303354.
Onta P., ‘Expansion of the public sphere amidst market challenges: Janajati magazines in Nepal in the 1990s’, in The Politics of Ethnicity in India, Nepal and China, Carrin M., Kanungo P., and Toffin G. (eds), Indian Council of Social Science Research/Primus Books, Delhi, 2014, pp. 255278.
Pahari A. K., ‘The continuum of “People's War” in Nepal and India’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 195215.
Panday D. R., Looking at Development and Donors: Essays from Nepal, Martin Chautari, Kathmandu, 2011.
Panday D. R., ‘The legacy of Nepal's failed development’, in Nepal in Transition: From People's War to Fragile Peace, von Einsiedel S., Malone D., and Pradhan S. (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, pp. 8199.
Pandey B., ‘Because it is there: foreign money, foreign advice and Arun III’, Himal South Asia, vol. 8, 1995, pp. 2935.
Parvati (H. Yami), ‘Women's participation in People's War’, in The People's War in Nepal: Left Perspectives, Karki A. and Seddon D. (eds), Adroit, Delhi, 2003, pp. 171173.
Pasipanodya T., ‘A deeper justice: economic and social justice as transitional justice in Nepal’, International Journal of Transitional Justice, vol. 2, no. 3, 2008, pp. 378397.
Pettigrew J., ‘Observations during the State-of-Emergency: Kathmandu, December 2001’, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, vols 20 and 21, no. 6, 2001, pp. 125131.
Pettigrew J., ‘Observing the elections in central Nepal’, in Views from the Field: Anthropological Perspectives on the Constituent Assembly Elections, Holmberg D., Pettigrew J., and Tamang M. S., Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2009, pp. 2334.
Pettigrew J., Maoists at the Hearth: Everyday Life in Nepal's Civil War, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 2013.
Pettigrew J. and Adhikari K., ‘Fear and everyday life in rural Nepal’, in Windows into a Revolution: Ethnographies of Maoism in India and Nepal, Shah A. and Pettigrew J. (eds), Social Science Press, New Delhi, 2012.
Pettigrew J. and Shneiderman S., ‘Women and the Maobadi: ideology and agency in Nepal's Maoist movement’, Himal Southasian, 2004, pp. 1929.
Pettigrew J., Shneiderman S. and Harper I., ‘Relationships, complicity and representation: conducting research in Nepal during the Maoist insurgency’, Anthropology Today, vol. 20, no. 1, 2004, pp. 2025.
Pfaff-Czarnecka J. and Toffin G. (eds), The Politics of Belonging in the Himalayas: Local Attachments and Boundary Dynamics, Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2011.
Pigg S. L., ‘Inventing social categories through place: social representations and development in Nepal’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 34, no. 3, 1992, pp. 491513.
Pigg S. L., ‘Unintended consequences: the ideological impact of development in Nepal’, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, vol. 13, nos 1-2, 1993, pp. 4558.
Pokharel B. and Rana S., Nepal Votes for Peace, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013.
Pyakurel U. P., ‘A debate on Dalits and affirmative action in Nepal’, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 46, no. 40, 2011, pp. 7178.
Rademacher A., Reigning the River: Urban Ecologies and Political Transformation in Kathmandu, Duke University Press, Durham, 2011.
Rai K., ‘The dynamics of social inequality in the Kali Gandaki “A” Dam Project in Nepal: the politics of patronage’, Hydro Nepal: Journal of Water, Energy and Environment, vol. 1, 2008, pp. 2228.
Raj Y., History as Mindscapes: A Memory of the Peasants' Movement of Nepal, Martin Chautari, Kathmandu, 2010.
Raj Y. (ed.), Ruptures and Repairs in South Asia: Historical Perspectives, Martin Chautari, Kathmandu, 2013.
Ramirez P., De la Disparition des Chefs: une Anthropologie Politique Népalaise, CNRS Éditions, Paris, 2000.
Ramnarain S., ‘Universalized categories, dissonant realities: gendering postconflict reconstruction in Nepal’, Gender, Place and Culture, vol. 22, no. 9, 2015, pp. 13051322.
Rasul G., ‘Food, water, and energy security in South Asia: a nexus perspective from the Hindu Kush Himalayan region’, Environmental Science and Policy, vol. 39, no. 1, 2014, pp. 3548.
Rawski F. and Sharma M., ‘A comprehensive peace? Lessons from human rights monitoring in Nepal’, in Nepal in Transition: From People's War to Fragile Peace, von Einsiedel S., Malone D., and Pradhan S. (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, pp. 175200.
Regmi M. C., Landownership in Nepal, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1976.
Rest M., ‘Generating power: debates on development around the Nepalese Arun-3 hydropower project’, Contemporary South Asia, vol. 20, no. 1, 2012, pp. 105111.
Riaz A. and Basu S., Paradise Lost?: State Failure in Nepal, Lexington Books, Lanham, 2007.
Richardson D., Poudel M., and Laurie N., ‘Sexual trafficking in Nepal: constructing citizenship and livelihoods’, Gender, Place and Culture, vol. 16, no. 3, 2009, pp. 259278.
Ripert B., ‘Redefining belonging and bonds to territory: multiple forms of mobility and itineraries among the Tamangs of central Nepal’, in Territorial Changes and Territorial Restructuring in the Himalayas, Smadja J. (ed.), Adroit Publishers, New Delhi, 2014, pp. 289300.
Ripert B., ‘Improbable globalization: individualization and Christianization among the Tamangs’, in Facing Globalization in the Himalayas: Belonging and the Politics of the Self, Toffin G. and Pfaff-Czarnecka J. (eds), Sage, New Delhi, 2014, pp. 4562.
Robins S., ‘Towards victim-centred transitional justice: understanding the needs of families of the disappeared in postconflict Nepal’, International Journal of Transitional Justice, vol. 5, no. 1, 2011, pp. 7598.
Robins S., ‘Transitional justice as an elite discourse’, Critical Asian Studies, vol. 44, no. 1, 2012, pp. 330.
Robins S., Families of the Missing: A Test for Contemporary Approaches to Transitional Justice, Routledge, Abingdon, 2013.
Rothchild J.. Gender Troublemakers: Education and Empowerment in Nepal, Routledge, London, 2006.
Rupakheti S., ‘Reconsidering state–society relations in South Asia: a Himalayan case study’, Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies, vol. 35, no. 2, 2016, pp. 7386.
Sajjad T., Transitional Justice in South Asia: A Study of Afghanistan and Nepal, Routledge, London, 2013.
de Sales A., ‘The Kham-Magar country, Nepal: between ethnic claims and Maoism’, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, vol. 19, 2000, pp. 4172.
de Sales A., ‘Remarks on revolutionary songs and iconography’, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, vol. 24, 2003, pp. 524.
de Sales A., ‘Biography of a Magar communist’, in Varieties of Activist Experience: Civil Society in South Asia, Gellner D. N. (ed.), Sage, New Delhi, 2010, pp. 1745.
de Sales A., ‘From ancestral conflicts to local empowerment: two narratives from a Nepalese community’, in Windows into a Revolution: Ethnographies of Maoism in India and Nepal, Shah A. and Pettigrew J. (eds), Social Science Press, New Delhi, 2012, pp. 185206.
de Sales A., ‘Thabang: the crucible of revolution’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 164211.
Sapkota C., ‘Remittances in Nepal: boon or bane?’, The Journal of Development Studies, vol. 49, no. 10, 2013, pp. 13161331.
Schumpeter J. A., ‘The crisis of the tax state’, International Economic Papers, vol. 4, 1918, pp. 538.
Scott J. C., The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2009.
Seddon D., Blaikie P., and Cameron J., Peasants and Workers in Nepal, Aris and Phillips, Warminster, 1979.
Shah A. and Pettigrew J. (eds), Windows into a Revolution: Ethnographies of Maoism in India and Nepal, Social Science Press, New Delhi, 2012.
Shah A. and Shneiderman S., ‘The practices, policies and politics of transforming inequality in South Asia: ethnographies of affirmative action’, Focaal—Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology, vol. 65, 2013, pp. 312.
Shah S., ‘Revolution and reaction in the Himalayas: cultural resistance and the Maoist “New Regime” in western Nepal’, American Ethnologist, vol. 35, no. 3, 2008, pp. 481499.
Shakya M., ‘Nepali economic history through the ethnic lens: changing state relationships with entrepreneurial elites’, in Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization after 1990, Lawoti M. and Hangen S. (eds) Routledge, London, 2013, pp. 5882.
Shakya M., ‘Ethnicity in Nepal's new constitution: From politics of culture to politics of justice’, www.focaalblog.com/2015/09/28/mallika-shakya-ethnicity-in-nepals-new-constitution/, 28 September 2015, [accessed 2 July 2016].
Shakya S., ‘The Maoist movement in Nepal: an analysis from the women's perspective’, in The People's War in Nepal: Left Perspectives, Karki A. and Seddon D. (eds), Adroit, Delhi, 2003.
Sharma J., ‘Migration, marginality and modernity: hill men's journey to Mumbai’, in Facing Globalisation in the Himalayas: Belonging and the Politics of the Self, Toffin G. and Pfaff-Czarnecka J. (eds), Sage Publications, Delhi, 2014, pp. 119133.
Sharma M. and Prasain D., ‘Gender dimensions of the People's War: some reflections on the experiences of rural women’, Himalayan People's War: Nepal's Maoist Rebellion, Hutt M. (ed.), Hurst and Company, London, 2004, pp. 152164.
Sharma P., Unravelling the Mosaic: Spatial Aspects of Ethnicity in Nepal, Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2008.
Sharrock J., ‘Review of: von Einsiedel, Sebastian, David M. Malone and Suman Pradhan, eds. 2012. Nepal in Transition: From People's War to Fragile Peace ’, Studies in Nepali History and Society, vol. 17, no. 2, 2013, pp. 379388.
Shneiderman S., ‘Are the Central Himalayas in Zomia? Some scholarly and political considerations across time and space’, Journal of Global History, vol. 5, no. 2, 2010, pp. 289312.
Shneiderman S., ‘The formation of political consciousness in rural Nepal’, in Windows into a Revolution: Ethnographies of Maoism in India and Nepal, Shah A. and Pettigrew J. (eds), Social Science Press, New Delhi, 2012.
Shneiderman S., ‘Developing a culture of marginality: Nepal's current classificatory moment’, Focaal—Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology, vol. 65, 2013, pp. 4255.
Shneiderman S., Rituals of Ethnicity: Thangmi Identities Between Nepal and India, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 2015.
Shneiderman S. and Snellinger A., ‘Framing the issues: the politics of “post-conflict”’, Fieldsights—Hot Spots, Cultural Anthropology Online, 24 March 2014, http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/500-framing-the-issues-the-politics-of-post-conflict, [accessed 2 July 2016].
Shneiderman S. and Tillin L., ‘Restructuring states, restructuring ethnicity: looking across disciplinary boundaries at federal futures in India and Nepal’, Modern Asian Studies, vol. 49, no. 1, 2015, pp. 139.
Shrestha-Schipper S., ‘The political context and influence of the People's War in Jumla’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 258300.
Sijapati M. A., Islamic Revival in Nepal: Religion and a New Nation, Routledge, London, 2011.
Sijapati B., ‘In pursuit of recognition: regionalism, Madhesi identity and the Madhes Andolan’, in Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict: Identities and Mobilization after 1990, Lawoti M. and Hangen S. (eds), Routledge, Abingdon, 2013, pp. 145172.
Sijapati B. and Limbu A., Governing Labour Migration in Nepal: An Analysis of Existing Policies and Institutional Mechanisms, Centre for the Study of Labour and Mobility (CESLAM), Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2012.
Singh S. P., Bassignana-Khadka I., Karky B. S., and Sharma E., Climate Change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: The State of Current Knowledge, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, 2011.
Skinner D., Pach III A. I., and Holland D. (eds), Selves in Time and Place: Identities, Experience and History in Nepal, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, 1998.
Skocpol T., States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1979.
Smadja J. (ed.), Territorial Changes and Territorial Restructuring in the Himalayas, Adroit Publishers, New Delhi, 2014.
Snellinger A., ‘The production of possibility through an impossible ideal: consensus as a political value in Nepal's Constituent Assembly’, Constellations, vol. 22, 2015, pp. 233245.
Stirr A., ‘Tears for the revolution’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 367392.
Stiller L. F., The Rise of the House of Gorkha: A Study in the Unification of Nepal, 1768–1816, Manjusri Publishing House, New Delhi, 1973.
Sugden F., ‘Neo-liberalism, markets and class structures on the Nepali lowlands: the political economy of agrarian change’, Geoforum, vol. 40, no. 4, 2009, pp. 634644.
Sugden F., ‘Pre-capitalist reproduction on the Nepal Tarai: semi-feudal agriculture in an era of globalisation’, Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 43, no. 3, 2013, pp. 519545.
Tacoli C., ‘Crisis or adaptation? Migration and climate change in a context of high mobility’, Environment and Urbanization, vol. 21, no. 2, 2009, pp. 513525.
Tamang M. S., ‘Culture, caste and ethnicity in the Maoist movement’, Studies in Nepali History and Society, vol. 11, no. 2, 2006.
Tamang M. S., ‘A fiesta at the polls: participant-observation notes’, in Views from the Field: Anthropological Perspectives on the Constituent Assembly Elections, Holmberg D., Pettigrew J., and Tamang M. S., Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2009, pp. 3547.
Tamang M. S., ‘Tamang activism, history, and territorial consciousness’, in Ethnic Activism and Civil Society in South Asia, Gellner D. N. (ed.), Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2009, pp. 269289.
Tamang S., ‘The politics of conflict and difference or the difference of conflict in politics: the women's movement in Nepal’, Feminist Review, vol. 91, 2009, pp. 6180.
Thapa D. (ed.), Understanding the Maoist Movement of Nepal, Martin Chautari, Kathmandu, 2003.
Thapa D., ‘Promissory note: Nepal's left movement and the Janajatis’, in The Politics of Ethnicity in India, Nepal and China, Carrin M., Kanungo P., and Toffin G. (eds), Indian Council of Social Science Research/Primus Books, Delhi, 2014, pp. 169186.
Thapa D., Ogura K., and Pettigrew J., ‘The social fabric of the Jelbang killings’, in Windows into a Revolution: Ethnographies of Maoism in India and Nepal, Shah A. and Pettigrew J. (eds), Social Science Press, New Delhi, 2012.
Thapa D. with Sijapati B., A Kingdom Under Siege: Nepal's Maoist Insurgency 1996–2004, Martin Chautari, Kathmandu, 2003.
Thieme S., Social Networks and Migration: Far West Nepalese Migrants in Delhi, LIT Verlag Münster, Münster, 2006.
Thompson M., Warburton M. and Hatley T., Uncertainty on a Himalayan Scale: An Institutional Theory of Environmental Perception and a Strategic Framework for the Sustainable Development of the Himalaya, Himal Books, Kathmandu, 2012 (first published Ethnographica, London, 1986).
Tilly C., Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1990, Blackwell B., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1990.
Tiwari B. N., ‘An assessment of the causes of conflict in Nepal’, in The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Lawoti M. and Pahari A. K. (eds), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 241262.
Toffin G. and Pfaff-Czarnecka J. (eds), Facing Globalization in the Himalayas: Belonging and the Politics of the Self, Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2014.
Tol W. A., Kohrt B. A., Jordans M. J. D., Thapa S. B., Pettigrew J., Upadhaya N., and de Jong J. T. V. M., ‘Political violence and mental health: a multi-disciplinary review of the literature on Nepal’, Social Science and Medicine, vol. 70, no. 1, 2010, pp. 3544.
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), ‘Conflict-related disappearances in Bardiya district’, 2008, http://nepal.ohchr.org/en/resources/Documents/English/reports/HCR/2008_12_19_Bardiya_Report_Final_E.pdf, [accessed 25 July 2016].
Vasily L. A., ‘Struggles against domination: forms of Nepali Dalit activism’, in Ethnic Activism and Civil Society in South Asia, Gellner D. N. (ed.), Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2009, pp. 215239.
Vollan K., ‘Group representation and the system of representation in the Constituent Assembly and future parliaments of Nepal’, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, vol. 18, 2011, pp. 343368.
Warner C., Hindman H., and Snellinger A. (eds), ‘Aftershocked: Reflections on the 2015 Earthquakes in Nepal’, Fieldsights—Hot Spots , Cultural Anthropology Online, 14 October 2015, http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/741-aftershocked-reflections-on-the-2015-earthquakes-in-nepal, [accessed 2 July 2016].
Whelpton J., A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
Whelpton J., ‘Political violence in Nepal from unification to janandolan I’, in Revolution in Nepal: An Anthropological and Historical Approach to the People's War, Lecomte-Tilouine M. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2013, pp. 2774.
Wilson R., The Politics of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: Legitimizing the Post-Apartheid State, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001.
World Bank, ‘Large-scale migration and remittance in Nepal: issues, challenges, and opportunities’, Report No. 44390-NP, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Sector Unit, South Asia Region, 2011.
World Bank/DFID, Unequal Citizens: Gender, Caste and Ethnic Exclusion in Nepal—Summary, World Bank and DFID, Kathmandu, 2006.
Zharkevich I., ‘De-mythologizing “the Village of Resistance”: how rebellious were the peasants in the Maoist base area of Nepal?’, Dialectical Anthropology, vol. 39, no. 4, 2015, pp. 353379.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Modern Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0026-749X
  • EISSN: 1469-8099
  • URL: /core/journals/modern-asian-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 36
Total number of PDF views: 383 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2774 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 22nd November 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.