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The Politics of Order and Disturbance: Public authority, sovereignty, and violent contestation in South Asia

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1 Arias, E. D. and Goldstein, D. M. (eds) (2010) Violent democracies in Latin America. Durham: Duke University Press; Hansen, T. B. and Stepputat, F. (eds) (2005) Sovereign bodies: Citizens, migrants and states in the postcolonial world. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press; Lund, C. (2006) ‘Twilight institutions: Public authority and local politics in Africa’, Development and Change, 37 (4), pp. 685705; Spencer, J. (2007) Anthropology, politics, and the state: Democracy and violence in South Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2 Wimmer, A. and Schiller, N. Glick (2002) ‘Methodological nationalism and beyond: Nation-state building, migration and the social sciences’, Global Networks, 2 (4), pp. 301334.

3 N. Martin ‘Corruption and factionalism in contemporary Punjab: An ethnographic account from rural Malwa’ in this special issue.

4 A. Malik ‘Public authority and local resistance: Abdur Rehman and the industrial workers of Lahore, 1969–1974’ in this special issue.

5 N. Terpstra and G. Frerks ‘Governance practices and symbolism: De facto sovereignty and public authority in “Tigerland”’ in this special issue.

6 A. J. Nightingale, A. Bhattarai, H. R. Ojha, T. Sigdel and K. N. Rankin ‘Fragmented public authority and state un/making in the “new” Republic of Nepal’ in this special issue.

7 B. Klem and S. Maunaguru ‘Public authority under sovereign encroachment: Leadership in two villages during Sri Lanka's war’ in this special issue.

8 S. Byrne ‘“From our side rules are followed”: Authorizing bureaucracy in Nepal's “permanent transition”’ in this special issue.

9 B. Suykens ‘“A hundred per cent good man cannot do politics”: Violent self-sacrifice, student authority, and party-state integration in Bangladesh’ in this special issue.

10 A. Sen ‘Torture and laughter: Naxal insurgency, custodial violence, and inmate resistance in a women's correctional facility in 1970s Calcutta’ in this special issue.

11 A. Snellinger ‘From (violent) protest to policy: Rearticulating authority through the National Youth Policy in post-war Nepal’ in this special issue.

12 Hagmann, T. and Péclard, D. (2010) ‘Negotiating statehood in Africa: Propositions for an alternative approach to state and political authority’, Development and Change, 41 (4), pp. 539562; Lund, ‘Twilight institutions’; K. Hoffmann and T. Kirk (2013) ‘Public authority and the provision of public goods in conflict-affected and transitioning regions’, JSRP Paper 7, Justice and Security Research Programme.

13 Arias and Goldstein, Violent democracies; Joseph, G. and Nugent, D. (eds) (1994) Everyday forms of state formation: Revolution and the negotiation of rule in modern Mexico. Durham: Duke University Press; Nugent, D. (1994) ‘Building the state, making the nation: The bases and limits of state centralization in “modern” Peru’, American Anthropologist, 96 (2), pp. 333369.

14 Appadurai, A. (2006) Fear of small numbers: An essay on the geography of anger. Durham: Duke University Press; Brass, P. (2003) The production of Hindu–Muslim violence in contemporary India. Seattle: University of Washington Press; Corbridge, S., Williams, G., Srivastava, M., and Véron, R. (2005) Seeing the state: Governance and governmentality in India. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press; Das, V. and Poole, D. (eds) (2004) Anthropology in the margins of the state. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; Fuller, C. and Bénéï, V. (eds) (2009 [2001]) The everyday state and society in modern India. London: Hurst; Gupta, A. (1995) ‘Blurred boundaries: The discourse of corruption, the culture of politics, and the imagined state’, American Ethnologist, 22 (2), pp. 375402; Hansen, T. B. (2001) Wages of violence: Naming and identity in postcolonial Bombay. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press; Sherman, T. C., Gould, W. and Ansari, S. (2011) ‘From subjects to citizens: Society and the everyday state in India and Pakistan, 1947–1970’, Modern Asian Studies Special issue, 45 (1), pp. 16; Spencer, Anthropology, politics, and the state; Tambiah, S. J. (2005) ‘Urban riots and cricket in South Asia: A postscript to “leveling crowds’”, Modern Asian Studies, 39 (4), pp. 897927.

15 For fascinating discussion of circulation, borders, and travelling ideas, see Harper, T. and Amrith, S. S. (2012) ‘Sites of Asian interaction: An introduction’, Modern Asian Studies, 46 (2), pp. 249257.

16 Sikor, T. and Lund, C. (2009) ‘Access and property: A question of power and authority’, Development and Change, 40 (1), p. 8.

17 See also T. B. Hansen ‘Whose public, whose authority? Reflections on the moral force of violence’, Afterword in this special issue.

18 Gilmartin, D. (2015) ‘Rethinking the public through the lens of sovereignty’, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 38 (3), pp. 371386. See also Appadurai, A. and Breckenridge, C. A. (1998) ‘Why public culture?’, Public Culture Bulletin, 1 (1), pp. 59.

19 Lund, ‘Twilight institutions’.

20 Suykens in this special issue.

21 Lund, ‘Twilight institutions’. This is illustrated by Byrne's article, which shows how Nepalese bureaucrats use their authority to overstep their jurisdiction: see Byrne in this special issue. Klem and Maunaguru elaborate how public authority may even be projected across the front line between rebels and the state: see Klem and Maunaguru in this special issue.

22 Breman, J. (1974) Patronage and exploitation: Changing agrarian relations in southern Gujarat. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

23 Chandra, K. (2004) Why ethnic parties succeed: Patronage and ethnic head counts in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Gupta ‘Blurred boundaries’; Lewis, D. and Hossain, A. (2008) Understanding the local power structure in rural Bangladesh. Stockholm: Sida; Piliavsky, A. (ed.) Patronage as politics in South Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Ramirez, P. (2000) De la disparation des chefs: Une anthropologie politique népalaise. Paris: CNRS Editions.

24 A. E. Ruud (2009 [2001]) ‘Talking dirty about politics: A view from a Bengali village’, in Fuller and Bénéï (eds), The everyday state, pp. 115–136; here p. 116.

25 Chatterjee, P. (2004) The politics of the governed: Reflections on popular politics in most of the world. New York: Columbia University Press.

26 Ibid., p. 40.

27 Martin in this special issue.

28 Piliavsky, ‘Introduction’, in Piliavsky (ed.), Patronage as politics, p. 21.

29 Ibid., p. 24.

30 Banerjee, M. (2008) ‘Democracy, sacred and everyday: An ethnographic case from India’, in Paley, J. (ed.) Democracy: Anthropological perspectives. Santa Fe: School of Advanced Research Press, pp. 6396; here p. 73.

31 Spencer, Anthropology, politics, and the state, p. 181.

32 Hansen, T. B. (2004) ‘Politics as permanent performance: The production of political authority in the locality’, in Zavos, J., Wyatt, A. and Hewitt, V. (eds) The politics of cultural mobilization in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 1936; here p. 23.

33 Klem, B. (2015) ‘Showing one's colours: The political work of elections in post-war Sri Lanka’, Modern Asian Studies, 49 (4), pp. 10911121; Strauss, J. C. and O'Brien, D. B. Cruise (2007) ‘Introduction’, in Strauss, J. C. and O'Brien, D. B. Cruise (eds) Staging politics: Power and performance in Asia and Africa. London and New York: I. B. Tauris, pp. 114; Suykens, B. and Islam, A. (2013) ‘Hartal as a complex political performance: General strikes and the organisation of (local) power in Bangladesh’, Contributions to Indian Sociology, 47 (1), pp. 6183.

34 Piliavsky, ‘Introduction’, p. 28.

35 Suykens in this special issue.

36 Snellinger in this special issue.

37 Byrne in this special issue; Nightingale et al. in this special issue.

38 Klem and Maunaguru in this special issue.

39 Ruud, ‘Talking dirty’.

40 Das and Poole, Anthropology in the margins; C. Fuller and J. Harriss (2009 [2001]) ‘For an anthropology of the modern Indian state’, in Fuller and Bénéï (eds), The everyday state, pp. 1–30; Gellner, D. N. (ed.) (2007) Resistance and the state: Nepalese experiences. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books; Gupta, ‘Blurred boundaries’; Gupta, A. (2012) Red tape: Bureaucracy, structural violence, and poverty in India. Durham and London: Duke University Press; Klem, B. (2012) ‘In the eye of the storm: Sri Lanka's front-line civil servants in transition’, Development and Change, 43 (3), pp. 695717; Sherman et al., ‘From subject to citizens’; Spencer, Anthropology, politics, and the state; Vandekerckhove, N. (2011) ‘The state, the rebel and the chief: Public authority and land disputes in Assam, India’, Development and Change, 42 (3), pp. 759779.

41 Abrams, P. (1988 [1977]) ‘Notes on the difficulty of studying the state’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 1 (1), pp. 5889; Hagmann and Péclard, ‘Negotiating statehood in Africa’; Li, T. M. (2005) ‘Beyond “the state” and failed schemes’, American Anthropologist, 107 (3), pp. 383394; Mitchell, T. (1991) ‘The limits of the state: Beyond statist approaches and their critics’, American Political Science Review, 85 (1), pp. 7796; J. Putzel and J. Di John (2012) ‘Meeting the challenges of crisis states’, Crisis States Research Centre Report, London School of Economics and Political Science.

42 Others have simply resorted to ‘state’ as a generic noun (i.e. ‘state’ rather than ‘the state’), but this leads to somewhat unusual grammar and we do not think that leaving out the article solves the problem.

43 See, for example, Byrne in this special issue; Nightingale et al. in this special issue; Suykens in this special issue.

44 Abrams, ‘Notes on the difficulty’.

45 Mitchell, ‘The limits of the state’.

46 Sherman et al., ‘From subject to citizens’.

47 Hansen, T. B. and Stepputat, F. (2001) ‘Introduction: States of imagination’, in Hansen, T. B. and Stepputat, F. (eds) States of imagination: Ethnographic explorations of the postcolonial state. Durham and London: Duke University Press, pp. 140; here p. 5.

48 Ibid., p. 27.

49 In fact, it is not uncommon for non-state forms of order and service delivery to be more efficient that those of the state. For an interesting example, see the discussions on kinship networks and self-organization among refugees in the 1950s and 1960s: Chatterji, J. (2007) ‘“Dispersal” and the failure of rehabilitation: Refugee camp-dwellers and squatters in West Bengal’, Modern Asian Studies, 41 (5), pp. 9951032; Gould, W. (2011) ‘From subjects to citizens? Rationing, refugees and the publicity of corruption over Independence in UP’, Modern Asian Studies Special issue, 45 (1), pp. 3356.

50 Fuller and Harriss, ‘For an anthropology’.

51 Ibid. See the chapters in Fuller and Bénéï (eds), The everyday state. See also Corbridge et al. Seeing the state.

52 Das and Poole, Anthropology in the margins, p. 7.

53 Ibid., p. 14.

54 Spencer, Anthropology, politics, and the state. Spencer draws on ‘radical democracy’ scholars like Chantal Mouffe, who in turn revisits the work of the German political theorist Carl Schmitt.

55 See, for example, Tambiah, ‘Urban riots and cricket’.

56 Ibid., p. 120.

57 Lund, ‘Twilight institutions’.

58 Sen in this special issue.

59 Suykens in this special issue.

60 T. B. Hansen and F. Stepputat (2006) ‘Sovereignty revisited’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 35, pp. 295–315.

61 Ibid., p. 296.

62 For a more thorough elaboration of this argument of sovereignty as citational practice, see Klem, B. and Maunaguru, S. (2017) ‘Insurgent rule as sovereign mimicry and mutation: Governance, kingship and violence in civil wars’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 59 (3), pp. 629656.

63 See the literature on rebel governance: Arjona, A. (2014) ‘Wartime institutions: A research agenda’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 58, pp. 13901418; Arjona, A., Kasfir, N. and Mampilly, Z. (2015) (eds) Rebel governance in civil war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Staniland, P. (2012) ‘Organizing insurgency: Networks, resources and rebellion in South Asia’, International Security, 37 (1), pp. 142177; Weinstein, J. (2007) Inside rebellion: The politics of insurgent violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

64 Kantorowicz, E. (1997 [1957]) The king's two bodies: A study in mediaeval political theology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

65 Heesterman, J. C. (1985) The inner conflict of tradition: Essays in Indian ritual, kingship and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

66 Gilmartin, ‘Rethinking the public’, p. 373.

67 This become particularly clear in the articles by Klem and Maunaguru, and Terpstra and Frerks, both in this special issue.

68 Baruah, S. (2007) Durable disorder: Understanding the politics of Northeast India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; Blom, A. (2009) ‘A patron-client perspective on militia-state relations: The case of Hizb-ul-Mujahidin of Kashmir’, in Gayer, L. and Jaffrelot, C. (eds) Armed militias of South Asia: Fundamentalists, Maoists, and separatists. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 135158; Gayer and Jaffrelot (eds), Armed militias of South Asia; Hughes, D. (2013) Violence, torture and memory in Sri Lanka. London: Routledge; Korf, B. (2004) ‘War, livelihoods and vulnerability in Sri Lanka’, Development and Change, 35 (2), pp. 275295; Lawoti, M. and Pahari, A. K. (eds) (2010) The Maoist insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the twenty-first century. Oxford: Routledge; Lecomte-Tilouine, M. (2010) ‘Political change and cultural revolution in a Maoist model village, mid-western Nepal’, in Lawoti and Pahari (eds), The Maoist insurgency in Nepal, pp. 115132; Onesto, L. (2005) Dispatches from the People's War in Nepal. London: Pluto Press; Mampilly, Z. (2011) Rebel rulers, insurgent governance and civilian life during war. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; Mohsin, A. (2003) The Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh: On the difficult road to peace. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers; Shah, A. (2010) In the shadows of the state: Indigenous politics, environmentalism and insurgency in Jharkhand, India. Durham and London: Duke University Press; Shah, A. and Pettigrew, J. (2009) ‘Windows into a revolution: Ethnographies of Maoism in South Asia’, Dialectical Anthropology, 33 (3), pp. 225251; Suykens, B. (2010) ‘Diffuse authority in the Beedi commodity chain: Naxalite and state governance in tribal Telangana, India’, Development and Change, 41 (1), 153178; Thiranagama, S. (2011) In my mother's house: Civil war in Sri Lanka. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; Vandekerckhove, N. and Suykens, B. (2008) ‘“The liberation of Bodoland”: Tea, forestry and tribal entrapment in Western Assam’, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 31 (3), pp. 450471.

69 Berenschot, W. (2011) Riot politics: Hindu Muslim violence and the Indian state. London: Hurst; Brass, The production of Hindu–Muslim violence; Das, V. (2007) Life and words: Violence and the descent into the ordinary. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press; Michelutti, L. (2010) ‘Wrestling with (body) politics: Understanding muscular political styles in North India’, in Price, Pamela and Ruud, Arild (eds) Power and influence in South Asia: Bosses, lords, and captains. Delhi, London: Routledge, pp. 4469; Peabody, N. (2009) ‘Disciplining the body, disciplining the body-politic: Physical culture and social violence among North Indian wrestlers’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51 (2), pp. 272400; Shani, O. (2005) ‘The rise of Hindu nationalism in India: The case study of Ahmedabad in the 1980s’, Modern Asian Studies, 39 (4), pp. 861896; Spodek, H. (2010) ‘In the Hindutva laboratory: Pogroms and politics in Gujarat, 2002’, Modern Asian Studies, 44 (2), pp. 349399; Tambiah, ‘Urban riots and cricket’; Verkaaik, O. (2004) Migrants and militants: Fun and urban violence in Pakistan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

70 Das and Poole, Anthropology in the margins; Fuller and Bénéï, The everyday state; Gellner, Resistance and the state; Gupta, ‘Blurred boundaries’; Gupta, Red tape; T. B. Hansen (2009 [2001]) ‘Governance and myth of state in Mumbai’, in Fuller and Bénéï (eds), The everyday state, pp. 31–67; Hossain, S. (2011) ‘Informal dynamics of a public utility: Rationality of the scene behind a screen’, Habitat International, 35 (2), pp. 275285; Klem, ‘In the eye of the storm’; Krishna, A. (2011) ‘Gaining access to public services and the democratic state in India: Institutions in the middle’, Studies in Comparative International Development, 46 (1), pp. 98117; Manor, J. (2000) ‘Small-time political fixers in India's states: “Towel over armpit”’, Asian Survey, 40 (5), pp. 816835; Nightingale, A. and Ojha, H. (2013) ‘Rethinking power and authority: Symbolic violence and subjectivity in Nepal's terai forests’, Development and Change, 44 (1), pp. 2951; Pfaff-Czarnecka, J. (2008) ‘Distributional coalitions in Nepal: An essay on democratization, capture, and (lack of) confidence’, in Gellner, D. N. and Hachhethu, K. (eds) Local democracy in South Asia: Microprocesses of democratization in Nepal and its neighbours. Delhi: Sage, pp. 71104; Price and Ruud (eds), Power and influence in India; Ramirez, De la disparation des chefs; Reddy, G. R. and Haragopal, G. (1985) ‘The pyraveekar: “The fixer” in rural India’, Asian Survey, 25 (11), pp. 11481162.

71 Nightingale et al. in this special issue; Snellinger in this special issue.

72 Sen in this special issue.

73 Martin in this special issue.

74 Malik in this special issue.

75 Lecomte-Tilouine, M. (ed.) (2013) Revolution in Nepal: An anthropological and historical approach to the People's War. Delhi: Oxford University Press; K. Ogura (2008) ‘Maoist people's governments 2001–2005: The power in wartime’, in Gellner and Hachhethu (eds), Local democracy in South Asia, pp. 175–231; Thiranagama, In my mother's house.

76 Terpstra and Frerks in this special issue. This notwithstanding, coercion and brutal forms of discipline obviously existed side-by-side with these governance institutions.

77 Appadurai, Fear of small numbers.

78 Price and Ruud, Power and influence in India, p. xxix.

79 Byrne in this special issue.

80 Klem and Maunaguru in this special issue.

81 Martin in this special issue.

82 Klem and Maunaguru, ‘Insurgent rule’; Klem and Maunaguru in this special issue; Terpstra and Frerks in this special issue.

83 Klem, ‘In the eye of the storm’; Korf, B., Engeler, M., Hagmann, T. (2010) ‘The geography of warscape’, Third World Quarterly, 31 (3), pp. 385–399; Mampilly, Rebel rulers.

84 Byrne in this special issue.

85 Shah, In the shadows of the state; Suykens, ‘Diffuse authority’. See also, in relation to Nepal, Pettigrew, J. and Adhikari, K. (2010) ‘“There is nowhere safe”: Intrusion, negotiation and resistance in a hill village in central Nepal’, in Manandhar, P. and Seddon, D. (eds) In hope and fear: Living through the People's War in Nepal. Delhi: Adroit, pp. 134155; S. Shneiderman and M. Turin (2010) ‘Negotiating Nepal's two polities: A view from Dolakha’, in Manandhar and Seddon (eds), In hope and fear, pp. 200–213.

86 Malik in this special issue.

87 Nel Vandekerckhove's research on Assam illustrates the peculiar patterns of negotiation, exchange, and selective contestation between rebel movements and state actors. She shows that, alongside occasional violent contestation, the more common mode of interaction in this area is in fact mutual accommodation and collaboration. Vandekerckhove, ‘The state, the rebel’.

88 Byrne in this special issue; Pettigrew and Adhikari, ‘“There is nowhere safe”’; Shneiderman and Turin, ‘Negotiating Nepal's two polities’. See also Terpstra and Frerks in this special issue; Klem and Maunaguru in this special issue; Klem, ‘In the eye of the storm’; Mampilly, Rebel rulers; Shah, In the shadows of the state; Suykens, ‘Diffuse authority’;

89 For their notion of the state as ‘the great enframer’, see Hansen and Stepputat, ‘Introduction’, p. 27.

90 Suykens in this special issue.

91 Snellinger in this special issue.

92 Hansen, Wages of violence, p. 227.

93 Hansen, T. B. (1999) The saffron wave: Democracy and Hindu nationalism in modern India. Princeton: Princeton University Press, p. 12.

94 See also Jaffrelot, C. (2010) Religion, caste and politics in India. London: Hurst; Sen, A. (2007) Shiv Sena women: Violence and communalism in a Bombay slum. London/Bloomington: Hurst/Indiana University Press.

95 Suykens in this special issue.

96 Martin in this special issue.

97 Malik in this special issue.

98 Snellinger in this special issue.

99 Byrne in this special issue.

100 Klem and Maunaguru in this special issue; Terpstra and Frerks in this special issue.

101 Nightingale et al. in this special issue.

102 Klem and Maunaguru in this special issue.

103 Sen in this special issue.

104 Nightingale et al. in this special issue.

105 Byrne in this special issue.

106 Terpstra and Frerks in this special issue. See also Klem and Maunaguru in this special issue.

107 Malik in this special issue.

108 Suykens in this special issue.

109 Snellinger in this special issue.

110 Martin in this special issue.

111 Byrne in this special issue; Nightingale et al. in this special issue.

112 Klem and Maunaguru in this special issue; Terpstra and Frerks in this special issue.

113 Martin in this special issue; Byrne in this special issue.

114 Sen in this special issue.

115 Martin in this special issue; Suykens in this special issue.

116 Byrne in this special issue.

117 Nightingale et al. in this special issue.

118 Martin in this special issue.

*Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the Modern Asian Studies team, editor-in-chief Joya Chatterji, and editor Norbert Peabody, in charge of this special issue, in particular for their work on the issue. Our co-authors to this special issue have provided valuable feedback to earlier versions of this Introduction. Finally, we want to thank Nel Vandekerckhove who not only provided feedback but was also central in initially formulating the agenda of this special issue.

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