1 For a general description of the Ch'ing Civil Service Examination in English, see Parker, E. H., ‘The Educational Curriculum of the Chinese’, The China Review, Vol. IX, No. 1, pp. 1–13. For further reference, see Chung-li, Chang, The Chinese Gentry, Seattle, Washington, 1955.
2 See Reischauer, Edwin O. and Fairbank, John K., East Asia, The Great Tradition, Cambridge, Mass., 1960, p. 366.
4 The Canons of Filial Piety, as the name implies, is a collection of exhortations, advising scholars ‘to think of their ancestors, reproducing their virtues etc.’ see Giles, H. A., A History of Chinese Literature, New York and London, 1930, p. 48, and Kaltenmark, Odile, Chinese Literature, New York, 1964, p. 32.
5 The ‘verdict-writing’, the ‘address to the emperor’ and the ‘imperial declaration’ were self-explanatory by their names. They had to be written in a clear and concise manner.
6 ‘The elucidation problems’ were questions on the Classics, Chinese history and politics which the candidate had to answer clearly one by one with no need to copy the questions. Though there was a fixed form which the candidate had to follow at the beginning and the end of the answer, he was given the chance to express his own opinions. For an actual example, see Chung-ju, ChangCh'ing-tai kao-shih chih-tu, (2 vols. Shanghai, 1932), Vol. 2, p. 26. The syllabus of the Provincial Examination was prescribed in an edict of 1644 (Ta-Ch'ing li-ch'ao shih-lu compiled by Man-chou ti-kuo kuo-wu yüan 4664 chüan, Tokuo: Okura shuppan kabushiki kaisha 1937–38, shih-tsu 15: 15a-b; Ch'ing-shih-kao edited by Chao Erh-sun and others, 536 chüan in 65 ts'e, 1928 ed, hsüan-chu-chih 3:1b).
10 Ch'en, LiTung-shu chi(6 chüan in 6 ts'e), 2: 12b–13a.
11 Ch'ing-chih, Ch'enChung-kuo chiao-yü shih Taiwan, p. 460.
12 See Hsieh, Pao Chao, The Government of China (1644–1911), Baltimore, 1925, pp. 148, 156, 162–3. Also see Chung-li, Chang, The Chinese Gentry, Seattle and London, 1967, pp. 90–91, 168–70.
13 Tung-yüan, Ch'enChung-kuo chiao-yü shih Commercial Press, 1931, p. 404.
14 Ch'ing-shih kao (hsüan-chü chih), I:2b.
15 See Yen-liu, Shang, Ch'ing-tai k'o-chu k'ao-shih shu-lu Peking, 1956, p. 63.
16 Ch'ing-ch'ao wen-hsien t'ung-k'ao, 51:3b; Ch'ing-shih kao (hsüan-chü chih), 3:3b; Huang-ch'ao chang ku hui-pien, nei-pien, 35:16a.
17 For Sung rationalism see Yu-lan, Feng, A Short History of Chinese Philosophy, edited by Derek, Bodde, 2 vols., New York, 1948, pp. 407–571.
18 Ch'ing-shih kao (hsüan-chü chih), 3:3b.
19 See T'ung-tsu, Ch'ü, Local Government in China under the Ch'ing, Cambridge, Mass., 1962, pp. 93–115.