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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 October 2014

Department of History, University of North Carolina E-mail:


During the 1920s, Ukrainian publicist Dmytro Dontsov (1883–1973) created “active nationalism,” a political doctrine that later became the ideology of the radical right-wing Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Yet, before World War I, Dontsov was a fervently internationalist social democrat. Much of his shift rightward occurred during the internecine fighting that beset Ukraine from 1914 to 1922, but he had already adumbrated key components of his mature, “integral nationalist” world view prior to this time, from a vantage point well within the mainstream of the day's social-democratic discourse. His incendiary brand of Ukrainian realpolitik used the language of an early twentieth-century Marxism that had become riddled with various “heterodoxies.” Anticipating a world conflict that would favor the Germans and dismantle the Russian Empire, Dontsov advocated a pro-“Western,” anti-“Muscovite” orientation for Ukrainians, and in 1913 spearheaded a controversial program for Ukraine's separation from Russia and integration into “Europe.”

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51 Like the term ukrainstvo, vseukrainstvo refers to Ukrainian nationalism in the broadest, value-neutral sense, with the addendum that it is explicitly inclusive of Ukrainians living in both the Russian and Austrian empires.

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61 Sosnovs’kyi, Dmytro Dontsov, 95.

62 Quoted in Sosnovs’kyi, Dmytro Dontsov, 109.

63 Dontsov, “Moderne moskvofil'stvo,” in Bahan and Radevych-Vynnyts’kyi, Vybrani tvory, vol. 2, 17–30, 18.

64 Ibid., 30.

65 Dontsov's comrades in the USDRP emerged entirely unscathed even though, as Sosnovs’kyi suggests, they were some of the worst Moscophile offenders among Dontsov's contemporaries. Sosnovs’kyi, Dmytro Dontsov, 95.

66 Dontsov, “Suchasne politychne polozhennia natsii i nashi zavdannia,” in Bahan and Radevych-Vynnyts’kyi, Vybrani tvory, vol. 1, 21–37.

67 The Fourth Universal of the Ukrainian Central Rada declared the UNR's independence from Bolshevik Russia on 25 January 1918, reversing the Rada's former policy of federation with the Provisional Government, in response to the aggressive posturing of the Bolsheviks and their denial of the Rada's legitimacy.

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73 Dontsov, “Engel's, Marx i Liassal’ pro ‘neistorychnyi natsii,’” in Bahan and Radevych-Vynnyts’kyi, Vybrani tvory, vol. 1, 65–89, 75.

74 Ibid., original emphasis.

76 Ibid., 92, original emphasis.

77 Pyotr Struve—a leading Kadet.

78 Lenin, V. I., “Kadety ob ukrainskom voprose,” Rabochaia Pravda, 3 (16 July 1913), in Lenin, V. I., Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, vol. 23 (Moscow, 1961), 337–8Google Scholar, original emphasis. See also the December 1913 editions of Proletarskaia Pravda (in Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, vol. 24 (Moscow, 1961), 209), and O prave natsii na samoopredelenie (in Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, vol. 25 (Moscow, 1961), 281).

79 Lenin, “Kriticheskie zametki po natsional’nomu voprosu,” Rabochaia Pravda (1913) in Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, vol. 24, 125–9.

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82 Rada was the only Ukrainian-language daily in the Russian Empire. Originally the official organ of the liberal nationalist Ukrainian Democratic Radical Party, it ran in Kyiv from 1906 until the summer of 1914.

83 Dontsov, “Z pryvodu odniei eresy,” in Bahan and Radevych-Vynyts’kyi, Vybrani tvory, vol. 1, 36–64, 40.

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