We present a study of the energy levels in a FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/Spiro solar cell device. The measurements are performed using a novel ambient pressure photoemission (APS) technique alongside Contact Potential Difference data from a Kelvin Probe. The Perovskite Solar Cell energy band diagram is demonstrated for the device in dark conditions and under illumination from a 150W Quartz Tungsten Halogen lamp. This approach provides useful information on the interaction between the different materials in this solar cell device. Additionally, non-destructive macroscopic DC and AC Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy (SPS) studies are demonstrated of different MAPBI3 device structures to give an indication of overall device performance. AC-SPS measurements, previously used on traditional semiconductors to study the mobility, are used in this case to characterise the ability of a perovskite solar cell device to respond rapidly to chopped light. Two different device structures studied showed very different characteristics: Sample A (without TiO2): (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polyTPD/CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM) had ∼4 times the magnitude of AC-SPS response compared to Sample B (including TiO2): (ITO/TiO2/ CH3NH3PbI3/Spiro). This demonstrates that the carrier speed characteristics of device architecture A is superior to device architecture B. The TiO2 layer has been associated with carrier trapping which is illustrated in this example. However, the DC-SPV performance of sample B is ∼5 times greater than that of sample A. The band gap of the MAPBI3 layer was determined through DC-SPS (1.57 ± 0.07 eV), Voc of the devices measured and qualitative observations made of interface trapping by DC light pulsing. The combination of these (APS, KP, AC/DC-SPV/SPS) techniques offers a more general method for measuring the energy level alignments and performance of Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Devices.
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