Skip to main content

Breaking time reversal symmetry in topological insulators

  • Cui-Zu Chang (a1), Peng Wei (a2) and Jagadeesh S. Moodera (a3)

A wide class of materials that were discovered to carry a topologically protected phase order has led to a highly active area of research called topological insulators (TIs). This phenomenon has radically changed our thinking because of the robust quantum coherent behavior showing two-dimensional Dirac-type metallic surface states (SSs) and simultaneously insulating bulk states. The Dirac SSs are induced by the strong spin–orbit coupling as well as protected by time reversal symmetry (TRS). Breaking TRS in a TI with ferromagnetic perturbation can lead to many exotic quantum phenomena, such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect, topological magnetoelectric effect, as well as image magnetic monopole. This article presents an overview of the current status of TRS breaking in TIs and outlines the prospects for future studies.

Hide All
1.Hasan, M.Z., Kane, C.L., Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).
2.Qi, X.L., Zhang, S.C., Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057 (2011).
3.Moore, J.E., Nature 464, 194 (2010).
4.Zhang, H.J., Liu, C.X., Qi, X.L., Dai, X., Fang, Z., Zhang, S.C., Nat. Phys. 5, 438 (2009).
5.Xia, Y., Qian, D., Hsieh, D., Wray, L., Pal, A., Lin, H., Bansil, A., Grauer, D., Hor, Y.S., Cava, R.J., Hasan, M.Z., Nat. Phys. 5, 398 (2009).
6.Chen, Y.L., Analytis, J.G., Chu, J.H., Liu, Z.K., Mo, S.K., Qi, X.L., Zhang, H.J., Lu, D.H., Dai, X., Fang, Z., Zhang, S.C., Fisher, I.R., Hussain, Z., Shen, Z.X., Science 325, 178 (2009).
7.Qi, X.L., Hughes, T.L., Zhang, S.C., Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 78, 195424 (2008).
8.Liu, C.-X., Qi, X.-L., Dai, X., Fang, Z., Zhang, S.-C.. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 146802 (2008).
9.Yu, R., Zhang, W., Zhang, H.J., Zhang, S.C., Dai, X., Fang, Z., Science 329, 61 (2010).
10.Essin, A.M., Moore, J.E., Vanderbilt, D., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 146805 (2009).
11.Qi, X.L., Li, R., Zang, J., Zhang, S.C., Science 323, 1184 (2009).
12.Ohno, H., Chiba, D., Matsukura, F., Omiya, T., Abe, E., Dietl, T., Ohno, Y., Ohtani, K., Nature 408, 944 (2000).
13.Dietl, T., Ohno, H., Matsukura, F., Cibert, J., Ferrand, D., Science 287, 1019 (2000).
14.Dietl, T., Nat. Mater. 9, 965 (2010).
15.Xu, S.Y., Neupane, M., Liu, C., Zhang, D., Richardella, A., Wray, L.A., Alidoust, N., Leandersson, M., Balasubramanian, T., Barriga, J.S., Radar, O., Landolt, G., Slomski, B., Dil, J.H., Osterwalder, J., Chang, T., Jeng, H., Lin, H., Bansil, A., Samarth, N., Hasan, M.Z., Nat. Phys. 8, 616 (2012).
16.Chen, Y.L., Chu, J.-H., Analytis, J.G., Liu, Z.K., Igarashi, K., Kuo, H.H., Qi, X.L., Mo, S.K., Moore, R.G., Lu, D.H., Hashimoto, M., Sasagawa, T., Zhang, S.C., Fisher, I.R., Hussain, Z., Shen, Z.X., Science 329, 659 (2010).
17.Haazen, P.P.J., Laloë, J.-B., Nummy, T.J., Swagten, H.J.M., Jarillo-Herrero, P., Heiman, D., Moodera, J.S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 082404 (2012).
18.Chang, C.Z., Tang, P., Wang, Y.L., Feng, X., Li, K., Zhang, Z., Wang, Y., Wang, L., Chen, X., Liu, C.X., Duan, W., He, K., Ma, X., Xue, Q.K., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 056801 (2014).
19.Liu, M., Zhang, J., Chang, C.Z., Zhang, Z., Feng, X., Li, K., He, K., Wang, L., Chen, X., Dai, X., Fang, Z., Xue, Q.K., Ma, X., Wang, Y., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 036805 (2012).
20.Hor, Y.S., Roushan, P., Beidenkopf, H., Seo, J., Qu, D., Checkelsky, J.G., Wray, L.A., Hsieh, D., Xia, Y., Xu, S.-Y., Qian, D., Hasan, M.Z., Ong, N.P., Yazdani, A., Cava, R.J., Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 81, 195203 (2010).
21.Zhang, J., Chang, C.Z., Tang, P., Zhang, Z., Feng, X., Li, K., Wang, L., Chen, X., Liu, C.X., Duan, W., He, K., Xue, Q.K., Ma, X., Wang, Y., Science 339, 1582 (2013).
22.Chang, C.Z., Zhang, J., Liu, M., Zhang, Z., Feng, X., Li, K., Wang, L., Chen, X., Fang, Z., Qi, X., Zhang, S.C., Wang, Y., He, K., Ma, X., Xue, Q.K., Adv. Mater. 25, 1065 (2013).
23.Chang, C.Z., Zhang, J., Feng, X., Shen, J., Zhang, Z., Guo, M., Li, K., Ou, Y., Wei, P., Wang, L., Ji, Z., Feng, Y., Ji, S., Chen, X., Jia, J., Dai, X., Fang, Z., Zhang, S.C., He, K., Wang, Y., Lv, L., Ma, X., Xue, Q.K., Science 340, 167 (2013).
24.Liu, Q., Liu, C.-X., Xu, C., Qi, X.-L., Zhang, S.-C., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 156603 (2009).
25.Vobornik, I., Manju, U., Fujii, J., Borgatti, F., Torelli, P., Krizmancic, D., Hor, Y.S., Cava, R.J., Panaccione, G., Nano Lett. 11, 4079 (2011).
26.He, H.-T., Wang, G., Zhang, T., Sou, I.-K., Wong, G.K.L., Wang, J.-N., Lu, H.-Z., Shen, S.-Q., Zhang, F.-C., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 166805 (2011).
27.Wei, P., Katmis, F., Assaf, B.A., Steinberg, H., Jarillo-Herrero, P., Heiman, D., Moodera, J.S., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 186807 (2013).
28.Yang, Q.I., Dolev, M., Zhang, L., Zhao, J., Fried, A.D., Schemm, E., Liu, M., Palevski, A., Marshall, A.F., Risbud, S.H., Kapitulnik, A., Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 88, 081407 (2013).
29.Kandala, A., Richardella, A., Rench, D.W., Zhang, D.M., Flanagan, T.C., Samarth, N., Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 202409 (2013).
30.Fu, L., Kane, C.L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 096407 (2008).
31.Akhmerov, A.R., Nilsson, J., Beenakker, C.W.J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 216404 (2009).
32.Hao, X., Moodera, J.S., Meservey, R., Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1342 (1991).
33.Moodera, J.S., Santos, T.S., Nagahama, T., J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 165202 (2007).
34.Freeman, A.J., Wu, R., J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 100, 497 (1991).
35.Chappert, C., Bruno, P., J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5736 (1988).
36.Shan, Z.S., Sellmyer, D.J., Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 42, 10433 (1990).
37.Liu, X., Hsu, H.C., Liu, C.X., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 086802 (2013).
38.Chang, C.Z., He, K., Wang, L., Ma, X., Liu, M., Zhang, Z., Chen, X., Wang, Y., Xue, Q.K., SPIN 1, 21 (2011).
39.Jiang, Y.P., Sun, Y.Y., Chen, M., Wang, Y.L., Li, Z., Song, C.L., He, K., Wang, L.L., Chen, X., Xue, Q.K., Ma, X.C., Zhang, S.B., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 066809 (2012).
40.Zhang, J.S., Chang, C.Z., Zhang, Z.C., Wen, J., Feng, X., Li, K., Liu, M.H., He, K., Wang, L.L., Chen, X., Xue, Q.K., Ma, X.C., Wang, Y.Y., Nat. Commun. 2, 574 (2011).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 41
Total number of PDF views: 183 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 495 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.