Metamaterials are artificial materials with emerging physical properties that go well beyond those of their individual constituents, providing interesting opportunities to tailor interactions between waves and matter. This article provides an overview of recent research activity in electromagnetics, nano-optics, acoustics and mechanics, showing how suitably tailored meta-elements and their arrangements open exciting venues to manipulate and control waves in unprecedented ways. Theoretical and experimental efforts to realize metamaterials for scattering suppression, nanostructures and metasurfaces to control wave propagation and radiation, large nonreciprocity in bulk materials without magnetism, giant nonlinear responses in properly tailored metasurfaces, and metasurfaces with balanced loss and gain are discussed. Physical insights into the exotic phenomena behind the metamaterial responses, new devices based on these concepts, and their impact on technology are also discussed.
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