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Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage

  • M. Stanley Whittingham (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2011

During the past two decades, the demand for the storage of electrical energy has mushroomed both for portable applications and for static applications. As storage and power demands have increased predominantly in the form of batteries, the system has evolved. However, the present electrochemical systems are too costly to penetrate major new markets, still higher performance is required, and environmentally acceptable materials are preferred. These limitations can be overcome only by major advances in new materials whose constituent elements must be available in large quantities in nature; nanomaterials appear to have a key role to play. New cathode materials with higher storage capacity are needed, as well as safer and lower cost anodes and stable electrolyte systems. Flywheels and pumped hydropower also have niche roles to play.

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