Skip to main content Accessibility help

Three-dimensional electrodes and battery architectures

  • Timothy S. Arthur (a1), Daniel J. Bates (a2), Nicolas Cirigliano (a3), Derek C. Johnson (a4), Peter Malati (a5), James M. Mosby (a6), Emilie Perre (a7), Matthew T. Rawls (a8), Amy L. Prieto (a9) and Bruce Dunn (a10)...


Three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures have emerged as a new direction for powering microelectromechanical systems and other small autonomous devices. Although there are few examples to date of fully functioning 3D batteries, these power sources have the potential to achieve high power density and high energy density in a small footprint. This overview highlights the various architectures proposed for 3D batteries, the advances made in the fabrication of components designed for these devices, and the remaining technical challenges. Efforts directed at establishing design rules for 3D architectures and modeling are providing insight concerning the energy density and current uniformity achievable with these architectures. The significant progress made on the fabrication of electrodes and electrolytes designed for 3D batteries is an indication that a number of these battery architectures will be successfully demonstrated within the next few years.



Hide All
1.Goodenough, J.B., Abruña, H.D., Buchanan, M.V., Basic Research Needs for Electrical Energy Storage: Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Electrical Energy Storage (U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, 2007).
2.Sato, H., Berry, C.W., Casey, B.E., Lavella, G., Yao, Y., VandenBrooks, J.M., Maharbiz, M.M., IEEE 21st Intl. Conf. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems 2008 (MEMS 2008), pp. 164167.
3.Lemmerhirt, D., Wise, K., Proc. IEEE 94, 1138 (2006).
4.Mohseni, P., Najafi, K., Eliades, S., Wang, X., IEEE Trans. 13, 263 (2005).
5.Johannessen, E., Wang, L., Cui, L., Tang, T.B., Ahmadian, M., Astaras, A., Reid, S.W.J., Yam, P.S., Murray, A.F., Flynn, B.W., Beaumont, S.P., Cumming, D.R.S., Cooper, J.M., IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 525 (2004).
6.Roberts, M., Johns, P., Owen, J., Brandell, D., Edstrom, K., El Enany, G., Guery, C., Golodnitsky, D., Lacey, M., Lecoeur, C., Mazor, H., Peled, E., Perre, E., Shaijumon, M.M., Simon, P., Taberna, P.-L., J. Mater. Chem. (2011), in press.
7.Mazor, H., Golodnitsky, D., Burstein, L., Peled, E., Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12, A232 (2009).
8.Whittingham, M.S., Dalton Trans. 5424 (2008).
9.Dunn, B., Long, J.W., Rolison, D.R., Interface 17, 49 (2008).
10.Rolison, D.R., Long, J.W., Lytle, J.C., Fischer, A.E., Rhodes, C.P., McEvoy, T.M., Bourga, M.E., Lubers, A.M., Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 226 (2009).
11.Nathan, M., Golodnitsky, D., Yufit, V., Strauss, E., Ripenbein, T., Shechtman, I., Menkin, S., Peled, E., J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 879 (2005).
12.Notten, P., Roozeboom, F., Niessen, R., Baggetto, L., Adv. Mater. 19, 4564 (2007).
13.Chamran, F., Yeh, Y., Min, H.S., Dunn, B., Kim, C.J., J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 844 (2007).
14.Long, J.W., Dunn, B., Rolison, D.R., White, H.S., Chem. Rev. 104, 4463 (2004).
15.Taberna, P.L., Mitra, S., Poizot, P., Simon, P., Tarascon, J.M., Nat. Mater. 5, 567 (2006).
16.Ergang, N.S., Fierke, M.A., Wang, Z., Smyrl, W.H., Stein, A., J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, A1135 (2007).
17.Kotobuki, M., Suzuki, Y., Munakata, H., Kanamura, K., Sato, Y., Yamamoto, K., Yoshida, T., Electrochim. Acta 56, 1023 (2011).
18.Long, J.W., Rolison, D.R., Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 854 (2007).
19.Hart, R.W., White, H.S., Dunn, B., Rolison, D.R., Electrochem. Commun. 5, 120 (2003).
20.Zadin, V., Kasemägi, H., Aabloo, A., Brandell, D., J. Power Sources 195, 6218 (2010).
21.Nishizawa, M., Mukai, K., Kuwabata, S., Martin, C.R., Yoneyama, H., J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 1923 (1997).
22.Wu, M.S., Chiang, P.C.J., Lee, J.T., Lin, J.C., J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 23279 (2005).
23.Cui, L.F., Yang, Y., Hsu, C.M., Cui, Y., Nano Lett. 9, 3370 (2009).
24.Li, N.C., Martin, C.R., Scrosati, B., Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 3, 316 (2000).
25.Teixidor, G.T., Zaouk, R.B., Park, B.Y., Madou, M.J., J. Power Sources 183, 730 (2008).
26.Cheah, S.K., Perre, E., Rooth, M., Fondell, M., Harsta, A., Nyholm, L., Boman, M., Gustafsson, T., Lu, J., Simon, P., Edstrom, K., Nano Lett. 9, 3230 (2009).
27.Shaijumon, M.M., Perre, E., Daffos, B., Taberna, P.-L., Tarascon, J.-M., Simon, P., Adv. Mater. 22, 4978 (2010).
28.Min, H.-S., Park, B.Y., Taherabadi, L., Wang, C., Yeh, Y., Zaouk, R., Madou, M.J., Dunn, B., J. Power Sources 178, 795 (2008).
29.Chamran, F., Min, H.-S., Dunn, B., Kim, C.-J., IEEE 20th Int. Conf. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems 2007 (2007), pp. 871874.
30.Cheng, F., Tao, Z., Liang, J., Chen, J., Chem. Mater. 20, 667 (2008).
31.Park, M.S., Kang, Y.M., Wang, G.X., Dou, S.X., Liu, H.K., Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 455 (2008).
32.Li, W.Y., Xu, L.N., Chen, J., Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 851 (2005).
33.Lan, Y., Gao, X.P., Zhu, H.Y., Zheng, Z.F., Yan, T.Y., Wu, F., Ringer, S.P., Song, D.Y., Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1310 (2005).
34.Li, N.C., Martin, C.R., J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, A164 (2001).
35.Chan, C.K., Peng, H., Liu, G., McIlwrath, K., Zhang, X.F., Huggins, R.A., Cui, Y., Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 31 (2008).
36.Chen, J., Cheng, F., Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 713 (2009).
37.Bruce, P.G., Scrosati, B., Tarascon, J.M., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 2 (2008).
38.Che, G., Jirage, K.B., Fisher, E.R., Martin, C.R., Yoneyama, H., J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 4296 (1997).
39.Winter, M., Besenhard, J.O., Electrochim. Acta 45, 31 (1999).
40.Rhodes, C.P., Long, J.W., Doescher, M.S., Dening, B.M., Rolison, D.R., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 350, 73 (2004).
41.Agrawal, R.C., Pandey, G.P., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 223001 (2008).
42.Lee, S.W., Yabuuchi, N., Gallant, B.M., Chen, S., Kim, B.S., Hammond, P.T., Shao-Horn, Y., Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 531 (2010).
43.Bohnke, O., Frand, G., Rezrazi, M., Rousselot, C., Truche, C., Solid State Ionics 66, 105 (1993).
44.Gowda, S.R., Reddy, A.L.M., Shaijumon, M.M., Zhan, X., Ci, L., Ajayan, P.M., Nano Lett. 11, 101 (2011).
45.Rhodes, C.P., Long, J.W., Doescher, M.S., Fontanella, J.J., Rolison, D.R., J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13079 (2004).
46.Rhodes, C.P., Long, J.W., Rolison, D.R., Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, A579 (2005).
47.El-Enany, G., Lacey, M.J., Johns, P.A., Owen, J.R., Electrochem. Commun. 11, 2320 (2009).
48.Rhodes, C.P., Long, J.W., Pettigrew, K.A., Stroud, R.M., Rolison, D.R., Nanoscale 3 (2011); DOI:10.1039/c0nr00731e.
49.Lytle, J.C., Wallace, J.M., Sassin, M.B., Barrow, A.J., Long, J.W., Dysart, J.L., Renninger, C.H., Saunders, M.P., Brandell, N.L., Rolison, D.R., Energy Environ. Sci. 4 (2011); DOI: 10.1039/c0ee00351d.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed