Skip to main content

Three-dimensional printing with sacrificial materials for soft matter manufacturing

  • Christopher S. O’Bryan (a1), Tapomoy Bhattacharjee (a2), Sean R. Niemi (a3), Sidhika Balachandar (a4), Nicholas Baldwin (a5), S. Tori Ellison (a6), Curtis R. Taylor (a7), W. Gregory Sawyer (a8) and Thomas E. Angelini (a9)...

Three-dimensional (3D) printing has expanded beyond the mere patterned deposition of melted solids, moving into areas requiring spatially structured soft matter—typically materials composed of polymers, colloids, surfactants, or living cells. The tunable and dynamically variable rheological properties of soft matter enable the high-resolution manufacture of soft structures. These rheological properties are leveraged in 3D printing techniques that employ sacrificial inks and sacrificial support materials, which go through reversible solid–fluid transitions under modest forces or other small perturbations. Thus, a sacrificial material can be used to shape a second material into a complex 3D structure, and then discarded. Here, we review the sacrificial materials and related methods used to print soft structures. We analyze data from the literature to establish manufacturing principles of soft matter printing, and we explore printing performance within the context of instabilities controlled by the rheology of soft matter materials.

Hide All
1. Bhattacharjee, T., Zehnder, S.M., Rowe, K.G., Jain, S., Nixon, R.M., Sawyer, W.G., Angelini, T.E., Sci. Adv. 1 , e1500655 (2015).
2. Lee, J.-S., Hong, J.M., Jung, J.W., Shim, J.-H., Oh, J.-H., Cho, D.-W., Biofabrication 6, 024103 (2014).
3. Ouyang, L., Highley, C.B., Rodell, C.B., Sun, W., Burdick, J.A., ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1743 (2016).
4. Shim, J.-H., Lee, J.-S., Kim, J.Y., Cho, D.-W., J. Micromech. Microeng. 22, 085014 (2012).
5. Bertassoni, L.E., Cecconi, M., Manoharan, V., Nikkhah, M., Hjortnaes, J., Cristino, A.L., Barabaschi, G., Demarchi, D., Dokmeci, M.R., Yang, Y., Lab Chip 14, 2202 (2014).
6. Kang, H.-W., Lee, S.J., Ko, I.K., Kengla, C., Yoo, J.J., Atala, A., Nat. Biotechnol. 34, 312 (2016).
7. Hinton, T.J., Hudson, A., Pusch, K., Lee, A., Feinberg, A.W., ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1781 (2016).
8. Muth, J.T., Vogt, D.M., Truby, R.L., Mengüç, Y., Kolesky, D.B., Wood, R.J., Lewis, J.A., Adv. Mater. 26, 6307 (2014).
9. O’Bryan, C.S., Bhattacharjee, T., Hart, S., Kabb, C.P., Schulze, K.D., Chilakala, I., Sumerlin, B.S., Sawyer, W.G., Angelini, T.E., Sci. Adv. 3, e1602800 (2017).
10. Bhattacharjee, T., Gil, C.J., Marshall, S.L., Urueña, J.M., O’Bryan, C.S., Carstens, M., Keselowsky, B., Palmer, G.D., Ghivizzani, S., Gibbs, C.P., ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1787 (2016).
11. Pati, F., Shim, J.-H., Lee, J.-S., Cho, D.-W., Manuf. Lett. 1, 49 (2013).
12. Xu, C., Chai, W., Huang, Y., Markwald, R.R., Biotechnol. Bioeng. 109, 3152 (2012).
13. Wood, G., Keech, M., Biochem. J. 75, 588 (1960).
14. Yang, Y.-L., Kaufman, L.J., Biophys. J. 96, 1566 (2009).
15. Yang, Y.-L., Motte, S., Kaufman, L.J., Biomaterials 31, 5678 (2010).
16. de Gennes, P.G., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 31, 842 (1992).
17. Bellan, L.M., Singh, S.P., Henderson, P.W., Porri, T.J., Craighead, H.G., Spector, J.A., Soft Matter 5, 1354 (2009).
18. Jin, Y., Compaan, A., Bhattacharjee, T., Huang, Y., Biofabrication 8, 025016 (2016).
19. Hanson Shepherd, J.N., Parker, S.T., Shepherd, R.F., Gillette, M.U., Lewis, J.A., Nuzzo, R.G., Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 47 (2011).
20. Homan, K.A., Kolesky, D.B., Skylar-Scott, M.A., Herrmann, J., Obuobi, H., Moisan, A., Lewis, J.A., Sci. Rep. 6, 34845 (2016).
21. Kolesky, D.B., Truby, R.L., Gladman, A., Busbee, T.A., Homan, K.A., Lewis, J.A., Adv. Mater. 26, 3124 (2014).
22. Highley, C.B., Rodell, C.B., Burdick, J.A., Adv. Mater. 27, 5075 (2015).
23. Rodell, C.B., Kaminski, A.L., Burdick, J.A., Biomacromolecules 14, 4125 (2013).
24. Habas, J.-P., Pavie, E., Lapp, A., Peyrelasse, J., J. Rheol. 48, 1 (2004).
25. Perreur, C., Habas, J.-P., Peyrelasse, J., François, J., Lapp, A., Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63, 031505 (2001).
26. Dimitriou, C.J., Ewoldt, R.H., McKinley, G.H., J. Rheol. 57, 27 (2013).
27. LeBlanc, K.J., Niemi, S.R., Bennett, A.I., Harris, K.L., Schulze, K.D., Sawyer, W.G., Taylor, C., Angelini, T.E., ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1796 (2016).
28. Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) , Version 1.2 (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016).
29. Hinton, T.J., Jallerat, Q., Palchesko, R.N., Park, J.H., Grodzicki, M.S., Shue, H.-J., Ramadan, M.H., Hudson, A.R., Feinberg, A.W., Sci. Adv. 1, e1500758 (2015).
30. Landers, R., Hübner, U., Schmelzeisen, R., Mülhaupt, R., Biomaterials 23, 4437 (2002).
31. Landers, R., Pfister, A., Hübner, U., John, H., Schmelzeisen, R., Mülhaupt, R., J. Mater. Sci. 37, 3107 (2002).
32. Miller, J.S., Stevens, K.R., Yang, M.T., Baker, B.M., Nguyen, D.-H.T., Cohen, D.M., Toro, E., Chen, A.A., Galie, P.A., Yu, X., Nat. Mater. 11, 768 (2012).
33. Miller, J.S., PLoS Biol. 12, e1001882 (2014).
34. Therriault, D., Shepherd, R.F., White, S.R., Lewis, J.A., Adv. Mater. 17, 395 (2005).
35. Therriault, D., White, S.R., Lewis, J.A., Nat. Mater. 2, 265 (2003).
36. Coutanceau, M., Defaye, J.-R., Appl. Mech. Rev. 44, 255 (1991).
37. Taneda, S., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 11, 1104 (1956).
38. Thom, A., Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 141, 651 (1933).
39. Wu, W., DeConinck, A., Lewis, J.A., Adv. Mater. 23, 24 (2011).
40. Compaan, A.M., Christensen, K., Huang, Y., ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. (2016), doi:10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00432.
41. Visser, J., Peters, B., Burger, T.J., Boomstra, J., Dhert, W.J., Melchels, F.P., Malda, J., Biofabrication 5, 035007 (2013).
42. Kolesky, D.B., Homan, K.A., Skylar-Scott, M.A., Lewis, J.A., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 3179 (2016).
43. Lee, V.K., Kim, D.Y., Ngo, H., Lee, Y., Seo, L., Yoo, S.-S., Vincent, P.A., Dai, G., Biomaterials 35, 8092 (2014).
44. Lee, W., Lee, V., Polio, S., Keegan, P., Lee, J.-H., Fischer, K., Park, J.-K., Yoo, S.-S., Biotechnol. Bioeng. 105, 1178 (2010).
45. Sooppan, R., Paulsen, S.J., Han, J., Ta, A.H., Dinh, P., Gaffey, A.C., Venkataraman, C., Trubelja, A., Hung, G., Miller, J.S., Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 22, 1 (2015).
46. Zhao, L., Lee, V.K., Yoo, S.-S., Dai, G., Intes, X., Biomaterials 33, 5325 (2012).
47. Stokes, G.G., On the Effect of the Internal Friction of Fluids on the Motion of Pendulums (Pitt Press, 1851), vol. 9.
48. Pairam, E., Le, H., Fernández-Nieves, A., Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 90, 021002 (2014).
49. Shanahan, M., Degennes, P., C.R. Acad. Sci. II 302, 517 (1986).
50. Style, R.W., Isa, L., Dufresne, E.R., Soft Matter 11, 7412 (2015).
51. Style, R.W., Jagota, A., Hui, C.-Y., Dufresne, E.R., Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 8, 99 (2016).
52. Chang, Y.-W., Fragkopoulos, A.A., Marquez, S.M., Kim, H.D., Angelini, T.E., Fernández-Nieves, A., New J. Phys. 17, 033017 (2015).
53. Binks, B.P., Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 7, 21 (2002).
54. Pickering, S.U., J. Chem. Soc. Trans. 91, 2001 (1907).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

O’Bryan supplementary material
O’Bryan supplementary material

 PDF (1.0 MB)
1.0 MB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 84
Total number of PDF views: 424 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1090 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 10th August 2017 - 18th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.