Skip to main content Accessibility help

Non-doped and unsorted single-walled carbon nanotubes as carrier-selective, transparent, and conductive electrode for perovskite solar cells

  • Takahiro Sakaguchi (a1), Il Jeon (a1), Takaaki Chiba (a1), Ahmed Shawky (a1) (a2), Rong Xiang (a1), Shohei Chiashi (a1), Esko I. Kauppinen (a3), Nam-Gyu Park (a4), Yutaka Matsuo (a1) (a5) and Shigeo Maruyama (a1) (a6)...


Lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a structure of glass/FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as the transparent top electrodes, followed by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) over-coating were fabricated. The SWNT-based PSCs do not require expensive metal electrodes and hole-transporting materials yet produce a decent power conversion efficiency of 11.8%, owing to the densifying effect of SWNTs by PMMA. The resulting devices demonstrate reduced hysteresis, improved stability, and increased power conversion efficiency.


Corresponding author

Address all correspondence to Nam-Gyu Park at, Yutaka Matsuo at, Shigeo Maruyama at


Hide All

These authors contributed equally to this work.



Hide All
1.Jorio, A., Dresselhaus, G., and Dresselhaus, M.S.: Carbon Nanotubes—Advanced Topics in the Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008).
2.Green, M.A., Ho-Baillie, A., and Snaith, H.J.: The emergence of perovskite solar cells. Nat. Photonics 8, 506 (2014).
3.Kojima, A., Teshima, K., Shirai, Y., and Miyasaka, T.: Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6050 (2009).
4.Kim, H.-S., Lee, C.-R., Im, J.-H., Lee, K.-B., Moehl, T., Marchioro, A., Moon, S.-J., Humphry-Baker, R., Yum, J.-H., Moser, J.E., Grätzel, M., and Park, N.-G.: Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%. Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
5.Yang, W.S., Park, B.-W., Jung, E.H., Jeon, N.J., Kim, Y.C., Lee, D.U., Shin, S.S., Seo, J., Kim, E.K., Noh, J.H., and Seok, S.I.: Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide-based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells. Science 356, 1376 (2017).
6.Jeon, I., Chiba, T., Delacou, C., Guo, Y., Kaskela, A., Reynaud, O., Kauppinen, E.I., Maruyama, S., and Matsuo, Y.: Single-walled carbon nanotube film as electrode in indium-free planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells: investigation of electron-blocking layers and dopants. Nano Lett. 15, 6665 (2015).
7.Ahn, N., Jeon, I., Yoon, J., Kauppinen, E.I., Matsuo, Y., Maruyama, S., and Choi, M.: Carbon-sandwiched perovskite solar cell. J. Mater. Chem. A 6, 1382 (2018).
8.Li, Z., Kulkarni, S.A., Boix, P.P., Shi, E., Cao, A., Fu, K., Batabyal, S.K., Zhang, J., Xiong, Q., Wong, L.H., Mathews, N., and Mhaisalkar, S.G.: Laminated carbon nanotube networks for metal electrode-free efficient perovskite solar cells. ACS Nano 8, 6797 (2014).
9.Aitola, K., Sveinbjörnsson, K., Correa-Baena, J.-P., Kaskela, A., Abate, A., Tian, Y., Johansson, E.M.J., Grätzel, M., Kauppinen, E.I., Hagfeldt, A., and Boschloo, G.: Carbon nanotube-based hybrid hole-transporting material and selective contact for high efficiency perovskite solar cells. Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 461 (2016).
10.Chen, H. and Yang, S.: Carbon-based perovskite solar cells without hole transport materials: the front runner to the market? Adv. Mater. 29, 1603994 (2017).
11.Wu, Z., Song, T., and Sun, B.: Carbon-based materials used for perovskite solar cells. Chem. Nano Mat. 3, 75 (2017).
12.Jeon, I., Matsuo, Y., and Maruyama, S.: Single-walled carbon nanotubes in solar cells. Top. Curr. Chem. 376, 1 (2018).
13.Schulz, P., Dowgiallo, A.-M., Yang, M., Zhu, K., Blackburn, J.L., and Berry, J.J.: Charge transfer dynamics between carbon nanotubes and hybrid organic metal halide perovskite films. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 418 (2016).
14.Ahn, N., Son, D.-Y., Jang, I.-H., Kang, S.M., Choi, M., and Park, N.: Highly reproducible perovskite solar cells with average efficiency of 18.3% and best efficiency of 19.7% fabricated via Lewis Base adduct of lead(II) iodide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 8696 (2015).
15.Nasibulin, A.G., Kaskela, A., Mustonen, K., Anisimov, A.S., Ruiz, V., Kivistö, S., Rackauskas, S., Timmermans, M.Y., Pudas, M., Aitchison, B., Kauppinen, M., Brown, D.P., Okhotnikov, O.G., and Kauppinen, E.I.: Multifunctional free-standing single-walled carbon nanotube films. ACS Nano 5, 3214 (2011).
16.Jeon, I., Seo, S., Sato, Y., Delacou, C., Anisimov, A., Suenaga, K., Kauppinen, E.I., Maruyama, S., and Matsuo, Y.: Perovskite solar cells using carbon nanotubes both as cathode and as anode. J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 25743 (2017).
17.Jeon, I., Delacou, C., Kaskela, A., Kauppinen, E.I., Maruyama, S., and Matsuo, Y.: Metal-electrode-free window-like organic solar cells with p-doped carbon nanotube thin-film electrodes. Sci. Rep. 6, 31348 (2016).
18.Laban, W.A. and Etgar, L.: Depleted hole conductor-free lead halide iodide heterojunction solar cells. Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 3249 (2013).
19.Jeon, I., Cui, K., Chiba, T., Anisimov, A., Nasibulin, A.G., Kauppinen, E.I., Maruyama, S., and Matsuo, Y.: Direct and dry deposited single-walled carbon nanotube films doped with MoOx as electron-blocking transparent electrodes for flexible organic solar cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 7982 (2015).
20.Ahn, N., Kwak, K., Jang, M.S., Yoon, H., Lee, B.Y., Lee, J., Pikhitsa, P.V, Byun, J., and Choi, M.: Trapped charge-driven degradation of perovskite solar cells. Nat. Commun. 7, 13422 (2016).
21.Gan, X., Lv, R., Zhu, H., Ma, L.-P., Wang, X., Zhang, Z., Huang, Z.-H., Zhu, H., Ren, W., Terrones, M., and Kang, F.: Polymer-coated graphene films as anti-reflective transparent electrodes for Schottky junction solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 13795 (2016).
22.Yue, G., Chen, D., Wang, P., Zhang, J., Hu, Z., and Zhu, Y.: Low-temperature prepared carbon electrodes for hole-conductor-free mesoscopic perovskite solar cells. Electrochim. Acta 218, 84 (2016).
23.Li, Z., Boix, P.P., Xing, G., Fu, K., Kulkarni, S.A., Batabyal, S.K., Xu, W., Cao, A., Sum, T.C., Mathews, N., and Wong, L.H.: Carbon nanotubes as an efficient hole collector for high voltage methylammonium lead bromide perovskite solar cells. Nanoscale 8, 6352 (2016).
24.Pirkle, A., Chan, J., Venugopal, A., Hinojos, D., Magnuson, C.W., McDonnell, S., Colombo, L., Vogel, E.M., Ruoff, R.S., and Wallace, R.M.: The effect of chemical residues on the physical and electrical properties of chemical vapor deposited graphene transferred to SiO2. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 122108 (2011).
25.Farmer, D.B., Chiu, H.-Y., Lin, Y.-M., Jenkins, K.A., Xia, F., and Avouris, P.: Utilization of a buffered dielectric to achieve high field-effect carrier mobility in graphene transistors. Nano Lett. 9, 4474 (2009).
26.Jeon, I., Yoon, J., Ahn, N., Atwa, M., Delacou, C., Anisimov, A., Kauppinen, E.I., Choi, M., Maruyama, S., and Matsuo, Y.: Carbon nanotubes versus graphene as flexible transparent electrodes in inverted perovskite solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 5395 (2017).
27.Dabera, G.D.M.R., Jayawardena, K.D.G.I., Prabhath, M.R.R., Yahya, I., Tan, Y.Y., Nismy, N.A., Shiozawa, H., Sauer, M., Ruiz-Soria, G., Ayala, P., Stolojan, V., Adikaari, A.A.D.T., Jarowski, P.D., Pichler, T., and Silva, S.R.P.: Hybrid carbon nanotube networks as efficient hole extraction layers for organic photovoltaics. ACS Nano 7, 556 (2013).
28.Cui, K. and Maruyama, S.: Carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells: improving performance for next-generation energy systems. IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. 10, 34 (2016).
29.Li, R., Di, J., Yong, Z., Sun, B., and Li, Q.: Polymethylmethacrylate coating on aligned carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells for performance improvement. J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 4140 (2014).
30.Im, J.-H., Lee, C.-R., Lee, J.-W., Park, S.-W., and Park, N.-G.: 6.5% efficient perovskite quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell. Nanoscale 3, 4088 (2011).
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Sakaguchi et al. supplementary material
Sakaguchi et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (845 KB)
845 KB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed