Two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) microcavity structures were fabricated using epitaxial ferroelectric thin film as the optical media and their resonant optical properties were measured. The PhC structures are utilized in order to achieve strong light localization to enhance the interaction between the incident light and the nonlinear optical barium titanate (BTO). Fluorescence measurements were used to assess the resonant properties. Two types of resonant structures were investigated consisting of either dopant or vacancy PhC arrays. The nano patterning on BTO thin films was achieved using dual beam focused ion beam (FIB). For the dopant type PhC microcavity structure, a larger air hole is generated in every 5 x 5 unit cells forming a super cell. The spatial profiles of PhC microcavity structures are characterized by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Structures with a feature size approaching the optical diffraction limit are clearly resolved. Fluorescence measurements on PhCs coated with a fluorescent dye were carried out to determine the relationship between the degree of light localization and the photonic band structure. Enhanced fluorescence at wavelengths 550-600 nm is observed in the dye covered PhCs with lattice period a =200 nm and a =400 nm. The large fluorescence enhancement results from the presence of PhC stop bands that increase the emission extraction efficiency due to the strong light confinement. Since the only allowed propagation direction for the scattered fluorescence light is out-of-plane, this enhances the vertically fluorescent extraction efficiency. These BTO optical microcavity structures can potentially serve as active nano-photonic components in bio-sensors and integrated photonic circuits.
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