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Microfabricated Solid State Thin Film Lithium Batteries

  • Raphael Salot (a1), Raphael Salot (a2) and Jean-Pierre Pereira-Ramos (a3)


This work presents recent advances in the development and the integration of a solid state thin film battery, to work as a high voltage energy source for RF-MEMS powering. Micro-electro-mechanical systems require similarly miniaturized power sources. Up to day, microbatteries are realized with mechanical masks, this method doesn't allow dimensions below several decades of mm2 of active area, and besides the whole process flow is done under controlled atmosphere so as to ensure materials chemical stability (mainly lithiated materials). Within this context, Microelectronics micro-fabrication procedures (photolithography, Reactive Ion Etching…) are used to reach both miniaturisation (100×100 μm2 targeted unit cell active area) and microelectronic IC technological compatibility. The whole process is realized in clean room environment. The thin film battery is composed of three active layers. First the positive electrode layer of crystalline vanadium pentoxide c-V2O5, the next level presents then the solid state electrolyte, a glassy ionic conducting material commonly known as “LiPON”. Finally, a negative electrode top level is realized by the evaporation of metallic lithium. The total stack thickness is of about 10 μm. A final wafer level packaging step is then realized to avoid reactivity with air and moisture. Specific attention will be put on the microfabrication processes developed for the positive electrode and the electrolyte (etching chemistry, resist stripping…). Several electrochemical characterizations (spectroscopic electrochemical impedance, charge-discharge cycling) were performed before and after micro-fabrication process steps so as to evaluate any possible effect on the electrochemical behaviour of the different studied layers.



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[1] Nava, A., Gerrbrand, C., Sadoway, D. R., and Fitzgerald, E. A., “Electrochemically controlled transport of lithium through ultrathin SiO2”, Journal of applied physics, Vol 98, pp. 0235161–7, 2005.
[2] Kushida, K., Kuriyama, K., and Nozaki, T., “Hundred-micron-sized all-solid-state Lithium secondary batteries arrays embedded in a Si substrate”, Applied physics letters, Vol.81(26), pp. 5066–8, 2002.
[3] West, W. C., Whitacre, J. F., and Ratnakumar, B. V., “Fabrication and testing of all solidstate microscale lithium batteries for microspacecraft applications”, Journal of micromechanics and microfabrication, Vol 12, pp. 5862, 2002.
[4] Oukassi, S., Gagnard, X., Salot, R., Bancel, S., and Pereira-Ramos, J. P., “Above IC micropower generators for RF-MEMS”, Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS proceedings, pp 365–68, 2006.



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