The electronic structure of the interfaces between rubrene and various metals, including Au, Ag, Al, and Ca, have been investigated with photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. The formation of the interface dipole is observed at all interfaces. The Fermi level shifts linearly within the band gap as a function of metal workfunction, until it is pinned at the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) by Ca. Strong interactions take place at the interface between rubrene and Ca, evidenced by the evolution of the valence features.
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