Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Recent Advances in Solid Hydrogen Storage Systems

  • B.S. Chao (a1), R.C. Young (a1), V. Myasnikov (a1), Y. Li (a1), B. Huang (a1), F. Gingl (a1), P.D. Ferro (a1), V. Sobolev (a1) and S.R. Ovshinsky (a1)...
Abstract

Hydrogen energy offers great promise as an energy alternative. Hydrogen technologies can reduce and eliminate the release of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion, the main cause of global warming. One of the main challenges is hydrogen storage. Storing hydrogen in the solid-state hydride form holds a volumetric advantage over compressed and liquid hydrogen states. Solid hydrogen storage systems also have features of low-pressure operation, compactness, safety, tailorable delivery pressure, excellent absorption /desorption kinetics, modular design for easy scalability, and long cycle life.

In this paper, solid hydrogen storage systems (such as portable power canisters, lightweight fiber wrapped vessels, and aluminum tubular vessels, developed by Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC) will be discussed. A system of four canisters each storing approximately 80 grams of reversible hydrogen is shown to run a 1 kW PEM fuel cell for more than 247 minutes at full power. Canisters show no plastic deformation after more than 500 charge/discharge cycles. The measured strain on canister surfaces indicates that DOT stress limits are not exceeded. The canisters are in the early commercialization stage for uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and auxiliary power unit (APU) applications.

A lightweight fiber-wrapped vessel engineered with metal hydride and internal heat exchanger is being developed for onboard applications. At the system level, the vessel has a volumetric energy density of 50 grams of hydrogen per liter and a gravimetric density of 1.6 wt.%. The vessel is capable of storing 3 kg of hydrogen with a fast refueling capability. Ninety percent of the storable hydrogen can be refueled in 10 minutes at 1500 psig. The vessel can easily release the hydrogen at a rate of 350 slpm at 70°C.

Aluminum tubular vessels are being designed and tested for bulk storage and infrastructure applications including stationary power, hydrogen shipment and hydrogen service stations. The tubular vessel dimensions may be designed for specific applications. For example, a tubular vessel 6 inches in diameter and 62 inches in length can store up to 1 kg of hydrogen.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1. Phillips, Owen, The Last Chance Energy Book, The Johns Hopkins University Press (1979).
2. Gregory, D.P., Electrochemistry of Cleaner Environments, Chapter 8, Plenum Press, editor Bockris, J.O'M. (1972).
3. Jones, L.W., Science 174, 367370 (1971).
4. Bockris, J.O'M., Science 176, 1323 (1972).
5. Hartley, R.M. (Ed.), Hydrogen Progress, 2nd Quarter 1977 (Billings Energy Corp., Provo. UT).
6. Ergenics, Inc., 247 Margaret King Avenue, Ringwood N.J. 07456, USA.
7. Hydrogen Consultants, Inc., (now Hydrogen Components, Inc.) 12420 N. Dumont Way, Littleton CO 80125 USA.
8. Mccue, J.C., J. Less-Common Met. 74, 333 (1980).
9. HWT Gesellschaft fur Hydrid – und Wasserstofftechnik mbH, Postfach 100827, 4330 Mulheim a.d. Ruhr, FRG.
10. Suzuki Shokan Co., 3–1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda–ku, Tokyo 102, Japan.
11. Strickland, G., Reilly, J.J., Wiswall, R.H. Jr, Proc. Of the Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy (THEME) Conference (Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 1974) pp. S49–S4–21.
12. Burger, J.M., Lewis, P.A., Isler, R.J., Salzano, F.J., King, J.M. Jr, Porc. 9th Intersociety Energy conversion Engineering Conf. (ASME, New York 1974) pp 428434.
13. Baker, N., Huston, L., Lynch, F., Olavson, L., Sandrock, G., Final Phase I Report for U.S. Bureau of Mines Contract H0202034 (Eimco Mining Machinery International, Salt Lake City, UT 1981), pp. 127129.
14. See for example, HYDROGEN POWER, by Williams, L.O., Pergamom Press Inc. New York, 1980.
Turillon, P.P., Proceedings of the 4th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, CA, USA, p. 1289 (1982).
15. Hoffman, K.C., Wische, W.E., Wiswall, R.H., Reilly, J.J., Sheehan, T.V., and Waide, C.H., SAE paper 690232 presented at the International Automotive Engineering Conference, Detroit, USA (1969).
16. Lynch, F.E., and Snape, E., Alternative Energy Sources, Vol. 3, p 1479. Veziorglu T.N. Ed., Hemisphere Publishing, Washington D.C. (1978).
17. Strickland, G., Alternative Energy Sources, Vol. 8, p 3699. Veziorglu T.N. Ed., Hemisphere Publishing, Washington D.C. (1978).
18. See for example; the DOE web site: www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/
19. Ovshinsky, S.R., Fetcenko, M.A., Ross, J., Science 260, 176 (1993).
20. Chao, B.S., Young, R.C., Ovshinsky, S.R., Pawlik, D.A., Huang, B., Im, J.S. and Chakoumakos, B.C., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 575, 193 (2000).
21. Young, R.C., Huang, B., Chao, B.S., and Ovshinsky, S.R., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 575, 187 (2000).
22. Young, R.C., Chao, B.S., Li, Y., Myasnikov, V., Huang, B., and Ovshinsky, S.R., submitted to 2004 SAE conference.
23. Geiss, R., Webster, B., Ovshinsky, S.R., Stempel, R., Young, R.C., Li, Y., Myasnikov, V., Falls, B., and Lutz, A., submitted to 2004 SAE conference.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Online Proceedings Library (OPL)
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1946-4274
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-online-proceedings-library-archive
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 4 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 103 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.