Skip to main content

Surface Interaction of Inflammatory Species with Titanium and Titanium Oxide

  • R. Suzuki (a1), G. Hirata (a2), J. McKittrick (a2) and J.A. Frangos (a1)

Titanium has been successfully used for decades in dental and orthopedic implants, but the mechanism for this metal's biocompatible properties have not been determined. Our hypothesis is that this biocompatibility involves interaction between the surface layer of titanium dioxide on the metal implant and reactive oxygen mediators of the inflammatory response. The affect of different titanium surface oxide layers on the reactive oxygen mediators produced during the inflammatory response has never been examined. Peroxynitrite is a highly reactive and unstable compound produced in vivo by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide. We investigated if titanium oxides affect the stability of peroxynitrite by promoting its breakdown. Peroxynitrite levels can be measured by its absorbance at 302 nm. At pH= 13.2, we found a 100% increase in the rate of degradation of peroxynitrite in the presence of titanium particles. Peroxynitrite is capable of nitrating 4-hydroxyphenolacetic acid (4-HPA). The nitrated form of 4-HPA can be measured by its absorbance at 432nm. 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a nitric oxide donor, has been shown to produce superoxide during its breakdown resulting in the formation of peroxynitrite. At physiological pH (7.4), a solution of 0.5mM 4-HPA was exposed to 5mM SIN- 1 on passivated titanium surfaces. There was a decrease of 58% nitrated 4-HPA in the solution exposed to passivated titanium compared to controls. Unpassivated titanium surfaces resulted in only a 10% decrease of nitrated 4-HPA while titanium treated with hydrogen peroxide resulted in a 70% decrease in nitrated 4-HPA concentrations compared to controls. Zirconium and palladium were also tested. These experiments suggest that titanium is capable of enhancing the breakdown of the inflammatory compound peroxynitrite which may account for the metal's biocompatible properties.

Hide All
1 Bothe, R., Beaton, L.E. & Davenport, H.A. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 71, pp. 598602 (1940).
2 Laing, P.G., Ferguson, A.B.J. & Hodge, E.S. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 1, pp. 135–49 (1967).
3 Albrektsson, T., Branemark, P.I., Hansson, H.A., Kasemo, B., Larsson, K., Lundstrom, I., McQueen, D.H. & Skalak, R. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 11, pp. 127 (1983).
4 Mild, E.E. & Bannon, B.P. in Titanium Alloys in Surgical Implants ed. Luckey, H.A., Kubli, F. (ASTM, Philadelphia, 1981) p. 715.
5 Brown, S.A. & Lemons, J.E. Medical Applications of Titanium and Its Alloys: The Material and Biological Issues (ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 1996)
6 Kasemo, B. & Lausmaa, J. in The Bone-Biomaterial Interface ed. Davies, J.E. (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1991) p. 1932.
7 Anderson, J. & Miller, K. Biomaterials 5, pp. 510 (1984).
8 Thomsen, P. & Ericson, L.E. in The Bone-Biomaterial Interface ed. Davies, J.E. (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1991) p. 153164.
9 Huie, R.E. & Padmaja, S. Free Rad. Res. Comms. 18, pp. 195199 (1993).
10 Miller, M.J., Thompson, J.H., Zhang, X.J., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Kakkis, J.L., Munshi, U.K., Sandoval, M., Rossi, J.L., Eloby-Childress, S., Beckman, J.S. & et al. Gastroenterology 109, pp. 1475–83 (1995).
11 Rachmilewitz, D., Stamler, J.S., Karmeli, F., Mullins, M.E., Singel, D.J., Loscalzo, J., Xavier, R.J. & Podolsky, D.K. Gastroenterology 105, pp. 1681–8 (1993).
12 Royall, J.A., Kooy, N.W. & Beckman, J.S. New Horizons 3, pp. 113122 (1995).
13 Crow, J.F. & Beckman, J.S. Advances in Pharmacology 34, pp. 1743 (1995).
14 Koppenol, W.H., Moreno, J.J., Pryor, W.A., Ischiropoulos, H. & Beckman, J.S. Chemical Research in Toxicology v.5, pp. 834842. (1992).
15Szabo, C. Shock 6, pp. 7988 (1996).
16 Williams, D. in Fundamental Aspects of Biocompatiblity ed. Williams, D. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1981) p. 1142.
17 Effah, E., Bianco, P. & Ducheyne, P. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 29, pp. 7380 (1995).
18 Sundgren, J.E., Bodo, P. & Lundstrom, I. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 110, pp. 920 (1986).
19 Tengvall, P., Elwing, H. & Lundstrom, I. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 130, pp. 405413 (1989).
20 Tengvall, P., Lundstrom, I., Sjoqvist, L., Elwing, H. & Bjursten, L. Biomaterials 10, pp. 166–75 (1989).
21 Tengvall, P., Walivaara, B., Westerling, J. & Lundstrom, I. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 143, pp. 589592 (1991).
22 Tengvall, P., Elwing, H., Sjoqvist, L., Lundstrom, I. & Bjursten, L. Biomaterials 10, pp. 118–20 (1989).
23 Pan, J., Thierry, D. & Leygraf, C. J Biomed Mater Res 28, pp. 113–22 (1994).
24 Beckman, J.S., Beckman, T.W., Chen, J., Marshall, P.A. & Freeman, B.A. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.87, pp. 16201624. (1990).
25 Feelisch, M. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 17, pp. S25–S33 (1991).
26 Beckman, J.S., Chen, J., Ischiropoulos, H. & Crow, J.P. Methods in Enzymology 233, pp. 229241 (1994).
27 Crow, J.P., Beckman, J.S. & McCord, J.M. Biochemistry 34, pp. 3544–52 (1995).
28 Beckman, J.S., Ischiropoulos, H., Zhu, L. Van der, Woerd, M., Smith, C., Chen, J., Harrison, J., Martin, J.C. & Tsai, M. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics v.298, pp. 438445. (1992).
29 Nair, M., Luo, Z.H. & Heller, A. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 32, pp. 23182323 (1993).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Online Proceedings Library (OPL)
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1946-4274
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-online-proceedings-library-archive
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 83 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.