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Transition Metal Impurities in Silicon

  • Eicke R. Weber (a1) and Norbert Wifhl (a1)
Abstract

The properties of transition metals in silicon are reviewed, emphasizing those observations which allow conclusions to be drawn with respect to microscopic defect models. 3d metals diffuse interstitially into silicon and stay predominantly in these sites at high temperatures. 3d elements lighter than Co can be quenched into these interstitial sites, giving rise to well-established energy levels. First theoretic calculations for these ions yield promising results. Co, Ni and Cu vanish out of the interstitial solution during quenching; an appreciable fraction of Cu may form pairs. The understanding of 4d and 5d metals in silicon is much less advanced at present, even for the technologically important elements Au and Pt. Some observations indicate that for Au and Pt pair formation might as well be important.

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