Clean and ordered chalcopyrite CuInSe2 surfaces are a precondition for the study of the electronic structure by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The preparation of welldefined CuInSe2(001) surfaces by the combination of molecular beam epitaxy and a selenium capping and decapping process is described. The surface structure of CuInSe2 epilayers with different bulk composition is compared and analysed by low-energy electron diffraction.
Employing near-stoichiometric surfaces, the valence electronic structure of CuInSe2 was investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at the synchrotron source BESSY 2. This is the first study of the valence band structure of a copper chalcopyrite semiconductor material by photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band dispersion along τT, i.e. the  direction, was investigated by a variation of the excitation energy from 10 to 35 eV under normal emission, and the band dispersion along τT, i.e. the  direction, was analysed by angular scans with hv = 13 eV.
The valence bands derived from antibonding and bonding Se4p-Cu3d hybrid orbitals, nonbonding Cu3d states and In-Se hybrid states are clearly indentified. The strongest dispersion is found for the topmost valence band with a bandwidth of ∼0.7 eV from τ to T. From τ to N, the observed dispersion was 0.5 eV. The experimental valence bands are discussed in relation to calculated band structures in the literature.