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Cross-Country Empirical Studies of Systemic Bank Distress: A Survey

  • Asli Demirgüç-Kunt and Enrica Detragiache (a1)


A rapidly growing empirical literature is studying the causes and consequences of bank fragility in contemporary economies. The paper reviews the two basic methodologies adopted in cross-country empirical studies, the signals approach and the multivariate probability model, and their application to study the determinants of banking crises. The use of these models to provide early warnings for crises is also reviewed, as are studies of the economic effects of banking crises and of the policies to forestall them. The paper concludes by identifying directions for future research.



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This paper was prepared for this special edition of the National Institute Economic Review. We would like to thank Robert Cull for helpful suggestions and Baybars Karacaovali for excellent research assistance. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF, the World Bank, their Executive Directors, or the countries they represent.



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Cross-Country Empirical Studies of Systemic Bank Distress: A Survey

  • Asli Demirgüç-Kunt and Enrica Detragiache (a1)


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