Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Embodying the nation: football,1 emotions and the construction of collective identity

  • Sven Ismer (a1)

Abstract

The article intends to combine contemporary debates about nations and nationalism with a sociological perspective on collective emotions in its attempt to gain a better understanding of the process of constructing national identity. It will further present interdisciplinary evidence that collective emotions evoked in rituals instigate a number of group-related sociocognitive processes that reinforce enduring feelings of belonging and an emotional priming of collective representations. I will suggest that states of “collective effervescence” (Durkheim) do not only tie individuals to a community, but also provide a strong frame for the creation of symbols and the embodiment of shared meanings defining a community. The second part of the article analyzes examples taken from the football media coverage of the FIFA World Cups 2006 and 1974 (both were held in Germany) in order to provide a comparative case study exemplifying the proposed theoretical approach. The sample illuminates some interesting changes that invite further hypotheses about corresponding changes of national identity in a larger context.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Alkemeyer, Thomas. Körper, Kult und Politik: Von der “Muskelreligion” Pierre de Coubertins zur Inszenierung von Macht in den Olympischen Spielen von 1936. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 1996. Print.
Anderson, Benedict R. Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1991. Print.
Becker, Julia, Wagner, Ulrich, and Christ, Oliver. “Nationalismus und Patriotismus als Ursache von Fremdenfeindlichkeit.” Deutsche Zustände. Ed. Heitmeyer, Wilhelm. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2007: 131–49. Print.
(Bild am Sonntag)., BamS Viertelfinale 2006 Deutschland – Argentinien 5:3 N.E. Die Fuβball-WM Klassikersammlung. Deutsche Triumphe, deutsche Tragödien. De Agostini, 2006. DVD.
Billig, Michael. Banal Nationalism. London: Sage, 1995. Print.
Blain, Neil, Boyle, Raymond, and O'Donnell, Hugh. Sport and National Identity in the European Media. Leicester: Leicester UP, 1993. Print.
Blank, Thomas, and Schmidt, Peter. “National Identity in a United Germany: Nationalism or Patriotism? An Empirical Test with Representative Data.” Political Psychology 24 (2003): 289312. Print.
Blank, Thomas, and Schmidt, Peter. ‘The Interpretation of Pictures and the Documentary Method.” Qualitative Analysis and Documentary Method. Eds. Bohnsack, Ralf, Pfaff, Nicolle, and Weller, Wivian. Opladen: Barbara Budrich, 2010: 267–93. Print.
Bohnsack, Ralf. Qualitative Bild- und Videointerpretation. Opladen: Barbara Budrich, 2009. Print.
Bornmann, Elirea. “National Symbols and Nation-Building in the Post-Apartheid South Africa.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30.3 (2006): 383–99. Print.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Entwurf einer Theorie der Praxis. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1979. Print.
Bower, Gordon H.Mood Congruity of Social Judgments.” Emotion and Social Judgments. Ed. Forgas, Joseph P. Oxford: Pergamon, 1991: 3154. Print.
Boyle, Raymond, and Haynes, Richard. Sport, the Media and Popular Culture. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2009. Print.
Brinkmann, Tomas. “Sport und Medien – Die Auflösung einer ursprünglichen Interessengemeinschaft.” Media Perspektiven 11 (2000): 491–98. Print.
Bromberger, Christian. “Fuβball als Weltsicht und als Ritual.” Ritualtheorien. Ein Einführendes Handbuch. Eds. Belliger, Andréa, and Krieger, David. Opladen: Westdeutscher, 1998: 285301. Print.
Brubaker, Rogers. “Ethnicity, Race, and Nationalism.” Annual Review of Sociology 35 (2009): 2142. Print.
BuaNews. “Counting the World Cup Benefits.” 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2011 <http://www.southafrica.info/2010/benefits-020710.htm>.
Calhoun, Craig J. Nationalism. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1997. Print.
Castells, Manuel. The Power of Identity. The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture. Vol. 2. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. Print.
Cialdini, R. B.Descriptive Social Norms as Underappreciated Sources of Social Control.” Psychometrika 72.2 (2007): 263–68. Print.
Clore, Gerald L., Schwarz, Norbert, and Conway, Michael. “Affective Causes and Consequences of Social Information Processing.” Handbook of Social Cognition Eds. Wyer, Robert S., and Srull, Thomas K. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1994. Print.
Couldry, Nick. Media Rituals: A Critical Approach. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.
Crolley, Liz, and Hand, David. Football and European Identities. London: Routledge, 2006. Print.
Crolley, Liz, and Hand, David. Football, Europe and the Press. London: Frank Cass, 2002. Print.
Dauncey, Hugh, and Hare, Geoff. “World Cup France ‘98. Metaphors, Meaning and Values.” International Review for the Sociology of Sport 35.3 (2000): 331–47. Print.
Dayan, Daniel, and Katz, Elihu. Media Events. The Live Broadcasting of History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1992. Print.
De Rivera, Joseph H.Emotional Climate: Social Structure and Emotional Dynamics.” International Review of Studies on Emotion. Ed. Strongman, Kenneth T. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992: 197218. Print.
Dekker, Henk, Malova, Darina, and Hoogendoorn, Sander. “Nationalism and its Explanations.” Political Psychology 24 (2003): 345–76. Print.
Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. Print.
Eason, Kevin. “South Africa Keen to Discover Their World Cup Identity.” Times Online, 1 Dec. 2009. Web. 13 Apr. 2011.
Eisenberg, Christiane. “Deutschland (Zur Kultur- und Sozialgeschichte des Fuβballsports).” Fuβball, Soccer, Calcio. Ein englischer Sport auf seinem Weg um die Welt. Ed. Eisenberg, Christiane. München: DTV, 1997: 94129. Print.
Ekman, Paul. “Universals and Cultural Differences in Facial Expressions of Emotion.” Nebraska Symposium of Motivation. Ed. James K Cole. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1972: 207–83. Print.
Ekman, Paul, and Friesen, Wallace F.The Repertoire of Nonverbal Behaviour: Categories, Origin, Usage and Coding.” Semiotica 1.1 (1969): 4998. Print.
Forgas, Joseph P.Feeling Is Believing? The Role of Processing Strategies in Mediating Affective Influences on Beliefs.” Emotions and Beliefs. Eds. Frijda, Nico H., Manstead, Anthony S.R., and Bern, Sacha. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000: 108–43. Print.
Gebauer, Gunter. “Fernseh- und Stadionfuβball als religiöses Phänomen. Idole, Heilige und Ikonen am' Himmeĺ von Fangemeinden.” Fuβball als Kulturphänomen. Kunst - Kultur - Kommerz. Ed. Herzog, Markwart. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2002: 305–14. Print.
Gebauer, Gunter. “Fuβball: Nationale Repräsentation durch Körperinszenierungen.” Sport in der Gesellschaft des Spektakels. Ed. Gebauer, Gunter. Sankt Augustin: Akademia, 2002. Print.
Gerhards, Jürgen. Soziologie Der Emotionen. Fragestellungen, Systematik Und Perspektiven. Weinheim: Juventa, 1988. Print.
Goig, Ramón Llopis. “Identity, Nation-State and Football in Spain. The Evolution of Nationalist Feelings in Spanish Football.” Soccer & Society 9 (2008): 5663. Print.
Guibernau, Montserrat. “Anthony D. Smith on Nations and National Identity: A Critical Assessment.” Nations and Nationalism 10.1-2 (2004): 125–41. Print.
Hawkey, Kim. “Südafrika nach der WM. durch Fuβball vereint.” ZEIT ONLINE, 13 July 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2011.
Hay, Roy, and Joel, Tony. “Football's World Cup and its Fans – Reflections on National Styles: A Photo Essay on Germany 2006.” Soccer and Society 8 (2007): 132. Print.
Hearn, Jonathan. “National Identity: Banal, Personal and Embedded.” Nations & Nationalism 13.4 (2007): 657–74. Print.
Hebeker, Ernst. Fröhlicher Patriotismus? Eine Wm-Nachlese. München: Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung, 2007. Print.
Hermanns, Stefan. “Zum Ersten Mal Stand Das Land Zusammen.” Tagesspiegel Online. 8 June 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2011.
Hobsbawm, Eric J. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1984. Print.
Hochschild, Arlie R.Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social-Structure.” American Journal of Sociology 85.3 (1979): 551–75. Print.
Horky, Thomas. “Emotion, Spannung und Anschlusskommunikation – Zur Unterhaltungsfunktion der Sportjournalistik aus systemtheoretischer Perspektive.” Die Fuβballweltmeisterschaft als Kommunikationsthema. Ed. Horky, Thomas. Norderstedt: Print on Demand, 2003. Print.
Horne, John D., and Manzenreiter, Wolfram. “Accounting for Mega-Events. Forecast and Actual Impacts of the 2002 Football World Cup Finals on the Host Countries Japan/Korea.” International Review for the Sociology of Sport 39.2 (2004): 187203. Print.
Hutchinson, John. “Nations and Culture.” Understanding Nationalism. Eds. Guibernau i Berdún, Maria M., Guibernau, Montserrat, and Hutchinson, John. Cambridge: Polity, 2001: 7496. Print.
Ismer, Arne. “'Pokal des Friedens’ oder kommerzielles Medienereignis? Die Fuβballweltmeisterschaft 1974 im Kontext westdeutscher Selbstdarstellung.” Master's Thesis. Universität zu Köln, 2007. Print.
Ismer, Sven. “Nationalism and the Janus Face of Football.” Nationalities Blog: Nationalities Papers, 11 July 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2011.
Ismer, Sven. “The Staging and (Re-)Construction of Collective, Nation-State-Related Emotions in the Media Coverage of World Cup Soccer Matches.” Local Sport in Europe. Eds. Jütting, Dieter H., Schulze, Bernd, and Ulrike, Müller. Münster: Waxmann, 2008: 180–89. Print.
Jarren, Ottfried. “Gesellschaftliche Integration durch Medien? Zur Begründung normativer Anforderungen an Medien.” Medien & Kommunikationswissenschaft 48 (2000): 2241. Print.
Joas, Hans. Die Entstehung der Werte. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1997. Print.
Kersting, Norbert. “Sport and National Identity: A Comparison of the 2006 and 2010 Fifa World CupsTM.” Politicon – South African Journal of Political Studies 34.3 (2007): 277–93. Print.
King, Anthony. The European Ritual: Football and the New Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003. Print.
Lardellier, Pascal. “Ritual Media. Historical Perspectives and Social Functions.” Media Anthropology. Eds. Rothenbuhler, Eric, and Mihai, Coman. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005: 7078. Print.
Lewis, Michael. Shame: The Exposed Self. New York: Free, 1992. Print.
Ludwig, Andrea. Sport als Unterhaltung. Mediensport im TV. Norderstedt: Grin, 2008. Print.
MacAloon, John J. This Great Symbol. Pierre De Coubertin and the Origins of the Modern Olympic Games. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1981. Print.
MacAloon, John J. Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle. Rehearsals toward a Theory of Cultural Performance. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1984. Print.
Marievoet, Salomé. “Sports Mega-Events, Power, Spectacle and the City.” Sociological Review 54.2 (2006): 125–43. Print.
McCarthy, E. Doyle. “Emotional Performances as Dramas of Authenticity.” Authenticity in Culture, Self, and Society. Eds. Vannini, Phillip, and Patrick Williams, J. Farnham: Ashgate, 2009: 241–56. Print.
Merkel, Udo. “The 1974 and 2006 World Cups in Germany: Commonalities, Continuities and Changes.” Soccer and Society 7 (2006): 1428. Print.
Münch, Richard. Globale Dynamik, lokale Lebenswelten: Der schwierige Weg in die Weltgesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1998. Print.
NDR. Der Triumph von München. Die Fuβballweltmeisterschaft 1974. Norddeutscher Rundfunk, 2004. 2DVD.
Olaveson, Tim. “Collective Effervescence and Communitas: Processual Models of Ritual and Society in Emile Durkheim and Victor Turner.” Dialectical Anthropology 26 (2001): 89124. Print.
Oswald, Rudolf. “Das ‘Wunder von Bern’ und die deutsche Fuβball-Volksgemeinschaft 1954.” Auswärtige Repräsentationen. Deutsche Kulturdiplomatie nach 1945. Ed. Johannes Paulmann. Köln: Böhlau, 2005: 87103. Print.
Özkirimli, Umut. Contemporary Debates on Nationalism. A Critical Engagement. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print.
Pornschlegel, Clemens. “Wie kommt die Nation an den Ball? Bemerkungen zur identifikatorischen Funktion des Fuβballs.” Warum Fuβball? Kulturwissenschaftliche Beschreibungen eines Sports. Ed. Martinez, Matias. Bielefeld: AISTHESIS, 2002: 103–12. Print.
Prosser, Michael. “'Fuβballverzückung'beim Stadionbesuch. Zum rituell festiven Charakter von Fuβballveranstaltungen in Deutschland.” Fuβball als Kulturphänomen. Kunst -Kultur- Kommerz. Ed. Herzog, Markwart. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2002: 269–92. Print.
Riedl, Lars. Spitzensport und Publikum. Überlegungen zu einer Theorie der Publikumsbildung. Schondorf: Hofmann, 2006. Print.
Röttger-Rössler, Birgitt, and Markowitsch, Hans. “Introduction.” Emotions as Bio-Cultural Processes. Eds. Röttger-Rössler, Birgitt, and Markowitsch, Hans. New York: Springer, 2009. Print.
Ruchatz, Jens. “Du bist Deutschland und die Popularität des Stars. Muster für Inklusion und Individualisierung.” Das Populäre der Gesellschaft Systemtheorie und Populärkultur. Eds. Huck, Christian, and Zorn, Carsten. Wiesbaden: VS, 2007: 168–94. Print.
Salmela, Mikko, and Mayer, Verena E.Introduction.” Emotions, Ethics, and Authenticity. Eds. Salmela, Mikko, and Mayer, Verena E. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins, 2009. Print.
Schediwy, Dagmar. Sommermärchen im Blätterwald. Die Fuβball-WM 2006 im Spiegel der Presse. Marburg: Tectum, 2008. Print.
Schulze-Marmeling, Dietrich, and Dahlkamp, Hubert. Die Geschichte der Fuβballweltmeisterschaft 1930-2006. Göttingen: Werkstatt, 2002. Print.
Schwier, Jürgen. “Globaler Fuβball und nationale Identität.” Spectrum 18 (2006): 4053. Print.
Smith, Anthony D. The Ethnic Origin of Nations. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1986. Print.
Speth, Rudolph. “Nation und Emotion. Von der vorgestellten zur emotional erfahrenen Gemeinschaft.” Masse – Macht – Emotionen. Zu einer politischen Soziologie der Emotionen. Eds. Klein, Ansgar and Nullmeier, Frank. Opladen: Westdeutscher, 1999: 287307. Print.
Tomlinson, Alan, and Young, Christopher, eds. National Identity and Global Sport Events. Culture, Politics, and Spectacle in the Olympics and the Football World Cup. Albany: State U of New York P, 2006. Print.
Turner, Victor. Das Ritual. Struktur und Anti-Struktur. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 1969. Print.
Turner, Victor. The Forest of Symbols. Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1967.
Verdery, Katherine. “Wither ‘Nation’ and ‘Nationalism'?Mapping the Nation. Ed. Balakrishnan, Gopal. London: Verso, 1996: 226–34. Print.
Von Scheve, Christian. “Emotionen, Normkonformität und das Problem sozialer Ordnung.” Regel, Norm, Gesetz: Eine interdisziplinäre Bestandsaufnahme Eds. Iorio, Marco, and Reisenzein, Rainer. Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2010: 285308. Print.
Von Scheve, Christian. Emotionen und soziale Strukturen. Die affektiven Grundlagen sozialer Ordnung. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 2009. Print.
Von Scheve, Christian, and von Luede, Rolf. “Emotion and Social Structures: Towards an Interdisciplinary Approach.” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 35 (2005): 304–28. Print.
Wenner, Lawrence, ed. Mediasport. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.
Wodak, Ruth, et al. Zur diskursiven Konstruktion nationaler Identität Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1998. Print.
Zerubavel, Eviatar. Social Mindscapes. An Invitation to Cognitive Sociology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1997. Print.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Embodying the nation: football,1 emotions and the construction of collective identity

  • Sven Ismer (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.