Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Reconciling the Irreconcilable? Left-Wing Ukrainian Nationalism and the Soviet Regime

  • Christopher Gilley (a1)

Abstract

This article examines the attempts by left-wing Ukrainian nationalists to reconcile the seemingly irreconcilable: Ukrainian nationalism and Soviet socialism. It describes how leftist Ukrainian parties active during the Revolution and Civil War in Ukraine 1917–1921 advocated a soviet form of government. Exiled members of the two major Ukrainian parties, the Social Democrats and the Socialist Revolutionaries, then took this position further, arguing in favor of reconciliation with the Bolsheviks and a return to their homeland. After the Entente recognized Polish sovereignty over Eastern Galicia and Soviet Ukraine introduced a policy of Ukrainization in 1923, many West Ukrainian intellectuals took up this call. The Great Famine of 1932–1933 and the Bolsheviks’ purge of Ukrainian Communists and intellectuals all but ended the position. However, it was more the Soviet rejection of the Sovietophiles that ended Ukrainian Sovietophilism than any rejection of the Soviet Union by leftist Ukrainian nationalists. Thus, an examination of the Ukrainian Sovietophiles calls into question the accounts of the relationship between Ukrainian nationalism and the Soviet Union that have common currency in today’s Ukraine.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: gilleycr@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Bachyns’kyi, Iuliian. 1928. Bolshevyts’ka revoliutsiia i Ukraïntsi. Krytychni zamitky. Berlin.
Behei, Ihor. Iuliian Bachyns’kyi: sotsiial-demokrat i derzhavnik. Kyiv: Оsnovni Tsinnosti.
Borshchak, Ilko. 1923. “Polski pliany suproty Ukraïny za Napoleona v svitli suchasnykh podiï.” Nova hromada (3–4): 45-50.
Bruski, Jan-Jacek. 2000. Petlurowcy. Centrum Państowe Ukraińskiej Respubliki Ludowej na wychodźstwie (1919–1924). Krakow: Aracana.
Gilley, Christopher. 2006a. “‘The “Change of Signposts” in the Ukrainian Emigration: Mykhailo Hrushevs’kyi and the Foreign Delegation of the Ukrainian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries.” Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. 54 (3): 345374.
Gilley, Christopher. 2006b. “Volodymyr Vynnychenko’s Mission to Moscow and Kharkov.” The Slavonic and East European Review 84 (3): 508537.
Gilley, Christopher. 2009. The “Change of Signposts” in the Ukrainian Emigration . A Contribution to the History of Sovietophilism in the 1920s. Stuttgart: ibidem.
Gilley, Christopher. 2014. “The Ukrainian Anti-Bolshevik Risings of Spring and Summer 1919: Intellectual History in a Space of Violence.” Revolutionary Russia 27 (2): 109131.
Gilley, Christopher. 2017 “Fighters for Ukrainian Independence? Imposture and Identity among Ukrainian Warlords, 1917–22.” Historical Research 90 (247): 172190.
Hardeman, Hilda. 1994. Coming to Terms with the Soviet Regime. The “Changing Signposts” Movement among Russian Émigés in the Early 1920s. Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press.
Himka, John-Paul. 2013. “Interventions: Challenging the Myths of Twentieth-Century Ukrainian History.” The Convolutions of Historical Politics, edited by Alexei Miller and Maria Lipman, 211238. Budapest and New York: CEU Press.
Himka, John-Paul. 2015. “Legislating Historical Truth: Ukraine’s Laws of 9 April 2015.” http://net.abimperio.net/node/3442/.
Horodyns’kyi, Ivan. 1924. “Pid znakom ‘radianshchyny’.” Nova hromada (2–4): 5555.
Hrushevs’kyi, Mykhailo. 1920a. “Mizh Moskvoiu i Varshovoiu.” Boritesia-poborete! (2): 118.
Hrushevs’kyi, Mykhailo. 1920b. “Ukraïns’ka partiia sotsiialistiv-revoliutsioneriv ta iï zavdannia.” Boritesia-poborete! (1): 151.
Kasianov, Georgiy. 2015. “Ukraine between Revolution, Independence, and Foreign Dominance.” The Emergence of Ukraine. Self-Determination, Occupation, and War in Ukraine, 1917–1922, edited by Wolfram Dornik, 76131. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press.
Kharchenko, A. 1923a. “Do domu!.Nova hromada (1): 1622.
Kharchenko, A. 1923b. “Ukraïns’ka vyzvol’na problema.” Nova hromada (3–4): 4244.
Kharchenko, A. 1924. “Lysty do emihrantiv.” Nova hromada (2–4): 2231.
Krushelnyts’kyi, Antin. 1923. “Shkil’ne pytannia na Ukraïni.” Nova hromada (1): 5475.
Krushelnyts’kyi, Antin. 1930a. “Dva natsionalizmy.” Novi Shliakhy (7–8): 208222.
Krushelnyts’kyi, Antin. 1930b. “Trahediia pomylok.” Novi shliakhy (4): 257298.
Levyns’kyi, Volodymyr. 1920a. Iedyna nedilyma Sovits’ka Rosiia?, Kyiv and Vienna: Nova Doba.
Levyns’kyi., Volodymyr. 1920b. Sotsiialistychna revoliutsiia i Ukraïna. Kyiv and Vienna: Nova Doba.
Lozyns’kyi, Mykhailo. 1927. Uvahy pro Ukraïns’ku derzhavnist. Vienna: Iednist’.
Mace, James E. 1983. Communism and the Dilemmas of National Liberation. National Communism in Soviet Ukraine 1918–1933. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.
Marples, David. 2007. Heroes and Villains. Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. Budapest and New York: CEU Press.
Melnyts’kyi, M. 1923. “Kudy ity?Nova hromada (1): 3340.
Palamar, Hryhorii. 1920. “Svitova reaktsiia i sotsiialistychna revoliutsiia.” Nova doba (2): 12.
Plokhy, Serhii. 2005. Unmaking Imperial Russia. Mykhailo Hrushevsky and the Writing of Ukrainian History. Toronto et al: University of Toronto Press.
Pruts’kyi, A. 1924. “Smienovekhovshchyna.” Nova hromada (5–6): 113.
Rublov, O. S. 1997. “Shliakhamy na Solovky: radianske desiatyrichchia Mykhaila Lozynskoho. Ukraïns’kyi istorychnyi zhurnal (4): 103135.
Rudling, Per Anders. 2011. The OUN, the UPA and the Holocaust: A Study in the Manufacturing of Historical Myths. Pittsburgh, PA: Carl Beck Papers.
Schnell, Felix. 2013. “Die erwartete Nation. Imperien, Bauern und Konjunkturen des Nationalen in der Ukraine (Zarenreich und Sowjetunion).” Journal of Modern European History 11 (3): 375396.
Shkandrij, Myroslav. 1992. Modernists, Marxists and the Nation The Ukrainian Literary Discussion of the 1920s. Edmonton, Canada: CIUS Press.
Shrah, Mykola. 1920. “Slova i dila sotsiialistiv v natsionalnii spravi.” Boritesia-poborete! (2): 1850.
Sukhyi, Oleksii. 1995. Mykhailo Lozyns’kyi: vchenyi, hromads’kyi diiach, polityk, L’viv.
Velychenko, Stephen. 2015. Painting Imperialism and Nationalism Red. The Ukrainian Marxist Critique of Russian Communist Rule in Ukraine 1918–1925. Torontо, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Vityk, Semen. 1923a. “Halychyna i velyka Ukraïna.” Nova hromada (2): 123.
Vityk, Semen. 1923b. “Ukraïna i svitoï podiï.Nova hromada (1): 316.
Vityk, Semen. 1923c. “Zhovten.Nova hromada (3–4): 19.
Vityk, Semen. 1924. “Svoïm chy chuzhim?Nova hromada (2–4): 921.
Vynnychenko, Volodymyr. 1920. Ukraïns’ka derzhavnist. Kyiv and Vienna: Nova Doba.
Vynnychenko, Volodymyr. (1920) 1990. Vidrodzhennia natsiï. 3 vols. Kyiv and Vienna: Nova Doba.
Vysochans’kyi, Petro. 1923. “Suveren zakhidnikh ukraïns’kykh zemel’.” Nova hromada (1): 2233.
Vysots’kyi, Oleksandr. 2004. Ukraïns’kyi sotsial-demokraty ta esery: dosvid peremoh i porazok. Kyiv: Osnovni tsinnosti.
Wehrhahn, Torsten. 2004. Die Westukrainische Volksrepublik. Zu den polnisch-ukrainischen Beziehungen und dem Problem der ukrainischen Staatlichkeit in den Jahren 1918 bis 1923. Berlin: Weißensee.
Westrate, Michael T. 2016. Living Soviet in Ukraine from Stalin to Maidan. Under the Falling Red Star in Kharkiv. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Zakon Ukraïny Pro zasudzhennia komunistychnoho ta natsional-sotsialistychnoho (natsystskoho) totalitarnykh rezhimiv v Ukraïni ta zaboronu propahandy ikh symboliky. http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc34?id=&pf3511=54670&pf35401=336722/.
Zakon Ukraïny Pro pravovyi status ta vshanuvannia pamiati bortsiv za nezalezhnist Ukrainy u XX stolittii. http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc34?id=&pf3511=54689&pf35401=336904/.
Tsentral’nyi Derzhavnyi Arkhiv Hromads’kykh Ob’iednan’, Kyiv [TsDAHO—Central State Archives of Public Organizations, Kyiv]. Fond 1, Opys 16. Protokoly zasidan’ Politbiuro, Orgbiuro i Sekretariatu TsK Kompartiï Ukraïny i materialy do nykh. “Okrema papka” [Minutes of the Sittings of the Politburo, Orgburo and Secretariat of the Executive Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and Material for Them. “Separate File”]. Fond 1, Opys 20. Dokumenty viddiliv TsK KP(b)U [Documents of Sections of the Executive Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine (Bolshevik)]. Fond 8. Tsentraly’ni Komitet Ukraïns’koï Komunistychnoï Partiï (UKP) i ïï Huberns’ki Komitety [The Central Committee of the Ukrainian Communist Party [UKP] and its Regional Committees].
Tsentral’nyi Derzhavnyi Arkhiv Vyshchykh Orhaniv, Kyiv [TsDAVO—Central State Archives of the Supreme Bodies of Power and Government, Kyiv]. Fond 4. Narodnyi komisariat zakordonnykh sprav USSR [People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic].
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nationalities Papers
  • ISSN: 0090-5992
  • EISSN: 1465-3923
  • URL: /core/journals/nationalities-papers
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed