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‘I Have Come to Abolish Sacrifices’ (Epiphanius, Pan. 30.16.5): Re-examining a Jewish Christian Text and Tradition*

  • Simon J. Joseph (a1)
Abstract

The Gospel of the Ebionites is a ‘text’ that only exists as fragments cited in and extrapolated from the heresiological writings of Epiphanius (Pan. 30). Like Recognitions 1.27–71, the Gospel of the Ebionites is one of a number of second- and third-century Jewish Christian sources, texts and traditions alleging that Jesus rejected animal sacrifice. In this article, I seek to review the history of research on this particular text and tradition and explore its significance as a case study in the use of non-canonical gospel traditions in New Testament studies.

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I would like to thank Professors Francis Watson and Paul Trebilco for the invitation to submit an article to this journal in light of my recent monograph on the relationship(s) between the historical Jesus, sacrifice, and the Temple. See Simon J. Joseph, Jesus and the Temple: The Crucifixion in its Jewish Context (SNTSMS 165; Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016). Special thanks also to Prof. Watson for his editorial comments and suggestions on this paper.

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1 Tuckett C. M., ‘What is “New Testament Study”? The New Testament and Early Christianity’, NTS 60 (2014) 157–84. See also Koester H., ‘Apocryphal and Canonical Gospels’, HTR 73 (1980) 105–30.

2 Watson F., Gospel Writing: A Canonical Perspective (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2013).

3 Kloppenborg J. S., ‘A New Synoptic Problem: Mark Goodacre and Simon Gathercole on Thomas’, JSNT 36 (2014) 202–3.

4 See Quispel G., ‘The Gospel of Thomas and the New Testament’, VC 11 (1957) 189207 ; idem, L'Évangile selon Thomas et les Clémentines’, VC 12 (1958) 181–96; idem, Some Remarks on the Gospel of Thomas’, NTS 5 (1959) 276–90; idem, “The Gospel of Thomas” and the “Gospel of Hebrews”’, NTS (1966) 371–82.

5 Painter J., Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1997) 163 ; Myllykoski M., ‘James the Just in History and Tradition: Perspectives of Past and Present Scholarship (Part ii)’, CBR 6 (2007) 50–2; Luomanen P., Recovering Jewish Christian Sects and Gospels (VCSup 110; Leiden: Brill, 2012) 5 .

6 Klijn A. F. J., ‘Das Hebräer – und das Nazoräerevangelium’, ANRW 2.25/5 (1988) 39974033 .

7 Watson, Gospel Writing, 234. See also Luomanen P., ‘The Jewish-Christian Gospels and the Gospel of Thomas ’, Das Thomasevangelium: Entstehung-Rezeption-Theologie (ed. Frey J., Popkes E. and Schröter J.; BZNW; Berlin/New York: de Gruyter, 2008) 119–53.

8 Watson, Gospel Writing, 512.

9 Tuckett, ‘What is “New Testament Study?’”, 172. So also Watson, Gospel Writing, 610.

10 Mimouni S. C., Le Judéo-christianisme ancien: Essais historiques (Paris: Cerf, 1998) 70 ; Jackson-McCabe M., ed., Jewish Christianity Reconsidered: Rethinking Ancient Groups and Texts (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2007); Skarsaune O. and Hvalvik R., eds., Jewish Believers in Jesus: The Early Centuries (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2007); Paget J. C., Jews, Christians, and Jewish Christians in Antiquity (WUNT 251; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010).

11 Boyarin D., ‘Rethinking Jewish Christianity: An Argument for Dismantling a Dubious Category (to which is Appended a Correction of my Border Lines)’, JQR, 99.1 (2009) 736 , at 7.

12 King K. L., What is Gnosticism? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003).

13 Boyarin, ‘Rethinking Jewish Christianity’, 23.

14 Hort F. J. A., Judaistic Christianity (Cambridge University Press, 1894); Simon Marcel, Verus Israel: Étude sur les relations entre Chrétiens et Juifs dans l'Empire Romain (135–425) (Paris: Editions de Boccard, 1948).

15 Segal A. F., ‘Jewish Christianity’, Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism (ed. Attridge H. W. and Hata G.; Leiden: Brill, 1992) 326–51, at 348.

16 Justin, Dial. 47.1–2.

17 Epiphanius, Pan. 29.7.5–6; trans. Williams F., The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Book i (Sects 1–46) (Leiden: Brill, 1987) 117–18.

18 Jerome, Letter 112, 13, cited in Klijn A. F. J. and Reinink G. J., Patristic Evidence for Jewish-Christian Sects (NovTSup 36; Leiden: Brill, 1973) 198203 .

19 Dunn J. D. G., Neither Jew Nor Greek: A Contested Identity, vol. iii: Christianity in the Making (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2015) 589 notes that Jewish Christian groups ‘featured strongly in the second century’ and that ‘[t]heir claim to be the most directly continuous with James and the mother church of Jerusalem was harder to deny than the heresiologists would have acknowledged’ (p. 806).

20 Koester H., Introduction to the New Testament, vol. i: History, Culture, and Religion of the Hellenistic Age (Berlin/New York: de Gruyter/Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982) 203 .

21 Bauer W., Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity (trans. by the Philadelphia Seminar on Christian Origins; ed. Kraft R. A. and Krodel G., with Appendices by G. Strecker; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971 2) 236 ; originally published as Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im ältesten Christentum (BHT 10; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1934).

22 Brown R. E., ‘Not Jewish Christianity and Gentile Christianity but Types of Jewish/Gentile Christianity’, CBQ 45 (1983) 74–9; Longenecker R., ‘Jews, Hebrews and Christians: Some Needed Distinctions’, NovT 24 (1983) 194208 .

23 Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 3.27.1–6, cited in Klijn and Reinink, Patristic Evidence, 141.

24 Pritz R. A., Nazarene Jewish Christianity: From the End of the New Testament Period until its Disappearance in the Fourth Century (Jerusalem: Brill/Magnes, 1988).

25 Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 1.7.14; 3.11–12, 19–20; 32.5–6; 4.22.4. See also Bauckham R., Jude and the Relatives of Jesus in the Early Church (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1990).

26 Jones F. S., An Ancient Jewish Christian Source on the History of Christianity: Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions i.27–71 (Atlanta: Scholars, 1995) 164 n. 21.

27 Bauckham R., ‘The Origin of the Ebionites’, The Image of the Judaeo-Christians in Ancient Jewish and Christian Literature (ed. Tomson P. J. and Lambers-Petry D.; WUNT 158; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003) 162–81, at 165, 168.

28 G. Stanton, ‘Jewish Christian Elements in the Pseudo-Clementine Writings’, Jewish Believers in Jesus, 324; Skarsaune O., The Proof from Prophecy: A Study in Justin Martyr's Proof-Text Tradition. Text-Type, Provenance, Theological Profile (NovTSup 56; Leiden: Brill, 1987) 252–3; Jones, An Ancient Jewish Christian Source, 164–6. Bourgel J., ‘ Reconnaissances 1.27–71, ou la réponse d'un groupe judéo-chrétien de Judée au désastre du soulèvement de Bar-Kokhba’, NTS 61 (2015) 3949 , at 41 argues that the author of Rec. 1.27–71's ‘opposition farouche aux sacrifices sanglants’ is post-135 ce.

29 Jones, An Ancient Jewish Christian Source, 65–6.

30 Martyn J. L., ‘Clementine Recognitions 1,33–71, Jewish Christianity, and the Fourth Gospel’, God's Christ and his People: Studies in Honour of Nils Alstrup Dahl (ed. Jervell J. and Meeks W. A.; Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1977) 265–95, 274; Stötzel A., ‘Die Darstellung der ältesten Kirchengeschichte nach den Pseudo-Clementinen’, VC 36 (1982) 2437 , at 29; Van Voorst R. E., The Ascents of James: History and Theology of a Jewish-Christian Community (SBLDS 112; Atlanta: Scholars, 1989).

31 Klijn and Reinink, Patristic Evidence, 71: ‘The group whence came the sources of Pseudo-Clementine literature showed some particular beliefs, for example with regard to the eating of meat and to sacrifices, which may be explained by their origin among groups of Jews.’ For the Jewish (Christian) identity of the Pseudo-Clementines, see Boyarin D., ‘Justin Martyr Invents Judaism’, CH 70 (2001) 459 ; Reed A. Y., ‘“Jewish Christianity” as Counter-history? The Apostolic Past in Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History and the Pseudo-Clementine Homilies’, Antiquity in Antiquity: Jewish and Christian Pasts in the Greco-Roman World (ed. Gardner G. and Osterloh K.; TSAJ 123; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008) 204–13.

32 Stanton, ‘Jewish Christian Elements in the Pseudo-Clementine Writings’, 305.

33 Bauckham, ‘The Origin of the Ebionites’, 163; Paget J. C., ‘The Ebionites in Recent Research’, idem, Jews, Christians, and Jewish Christians in Antiquity (WUNT 251; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010) 338–9. On Epiphanius’ association of the Pseudo-Clementines and the Ebionites, see also Magnin J., ‘Notes sur l'Ébionitisme’, Proche-Orient Chrétien 23 (1973) 233–65; Martyn, ‘Clementine Recognitions 1, 33–71’, 265–95; Häkkinen S., ‘Ebionites’, A Companion to Second-Century ‘Heretics’ (ed. Marjanen A. and Luomanen P.; Leiden: Brill, 2005) 247–8, at 257.

34 Kelley N., Knowledge and Religious Authority in the Pseudo-Clementines: Situating the Recognition in Fourth-Century Syria (WUNT ii/213; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006) 126 .

35 E.g. Boustan R. and Reed A. Yoshiko, ‘Blood and Atonement in the Pseudo-Clementines and The Story of the Ten Martyrs: The Problem of Selectivity in the study of “Judaism” and “Christianity”’, Henoch 30 (2008), 333–64, at 362.

36 Reed, ‘“Jewish Christianity”’, 211. Bauckham, ‘The Origin of the Ebionites’, 167. For the tendency to date Jewish Christianity to the second or third century, see Munck J., ‘Jewish Christianity in Post-Apostolic Times’, NTS 6 (1960) 103–16; idem, Primitive Jewish Christianity and Later Jewish Christianity: Continuation or Rupture?’, Aspects du Judéo-Christianisme: Colloque de Strasbourg 23–25 avril 1964 (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1960) 7793 .

37 C. A. Evans, ‘The Jewish Christian Gospel Tradition’, Jewish Believers in Jesus: The Early Centuries, 241–77, at 252–3. Casey P. M., ‘Culture and Historicity: The Cleansing of the Temple’, CBQ 59 (1997) 306–32, at 322 dismisses the idea as ‘culturally inappropriate’. So also Bond H. K., The Historical Jesus: A Guide for The Perplexed (London: T&T Clark, 2012) 139–40.

38 G. A. Koch, ‘A Critical Investigation of Epiphanius’ Knowledge of the Ebionites: A Translation and Critical Discussion of Panarion 30’ (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1976) 344, and Rec. 1.39, 64.

39 Luomanen, Recovering, 164 n. 40.

40 See Petersen W. L., ‘Constructing the Matrix of Judaic Christianity from Texts’, Le Judéo-Christianisme dans tous ses états: acts du colloque de Jérusalem 6–10 Juillet 1998 (ed. Jones F. S. and Mimouni S. C.; Paris: Cerf, 2001) 126–45, at 136–7.

41 Hengel M., The Atonement: The Origins of the Doctrine in the New Testament (trans. Bowden J.; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981), 56–7.

42 Mimouni S. C., Early Judaeo-Christianity: Historical Essays (Interdisciplinary Studies in Ancient Culture and Religion 13; trans. Fréchet R.; Leuven: Peeters, 2012) 66 ; Baur F. C., Über den Ursprung des Episcopats in der christlichen Kirche (Tübingen: Ludwig Friedrich Fues, 1838) 123 ; idem, Das Christentum und die christliche Kirche der drei ersten Jahrhunderte (Tübingen: Ludwig Friedrich Fues, 1860) 174 ; Schoeps H.-J., Jewish Christianity: Factional Disputes in the Early Church (trans. Hare D. R. A.; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969) 108 ; Painter, Just James, 229; Lüdemann G., Heretics: The Other Side of Early Christianity (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1996) 52–3; Goulder M. D., St. Paul versus St. Peter: A Tale of Two Missions (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1995) 134 .

43 Haer. 1.26.2; 3.11.7.

44 Haer. 7.34.1–2; 10.22.

45 Praescr. 30.11.

46 Cels. 2.1; 5.65; Hom. Gen. 3.5; Hom. Jer. 19.12.2; Hom. Luc. 17; In epist. ad Titum; Comm. in Matt. 79; Princ. 4.3.8.

47 Hist. eccl. 3.27.1–6; 6.17.

48 Pan. 30.16.7; 3.2–6; 18.4–5.

49 Origen, Princ. 4.22; Cels. 2.1; Hom. Gen. 3.5; Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 3.27; Epiphanius, Pan. 30.17.

50 Mimouni, Early Judaeo-Christianity, 220–1.

51 Fitzmyer J. A., ‘The Qumran Scrolls, the Ebionites and their Literature’, TS 16 (1955) 335–72.

52 Brandt W., Elchasai, ein Religionsstifter und sein Werk: Beiträge zur jüdischen, christlichen und allgemeinen Religionsgeschichte (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1912).

53 Hippolytus, Ref. 9.14.1; Pseudo-Clementine Adjuration 1.1; Epiphanius, Pan. 19.5.1; 30.17.5.

54 Hippolytus, Ref. 19.16.3.

55 Epiphanius, Pan. 19.3.5–7.

56 Epiphanius, Pan. 19.3.6; 53.1.4.

57 Epiphanius, Pan. 19.3.3–7.

58 Jones F. S., ‘The Book of Elchasai in its Relevance for Manichaean Institutions with a Supplement: The Book of Elchasai Reconstructed and Translated’, ARAM 16 (2004) 179215 , at 200, argues that ‘there is a solid, reliable kernel to Epiphanius' remarks' (based on the discovery of the manuscript containing Hippolytus’ Refutatio omnium haeresium 4–10) because ‘Hippolytus and Epiphanius strikingly agree verbatim in certain of their excerpts’ but Epiphanius ‘also has citations not found in Hippolytus … it is virtually certain that he [Epiphanius] … had access to the Book itself’. Accordingly, we can continue to search for reliable information in Epiphanius’ report and not ‘doubt Epiphanius's remarks without some substantial basis’.

59 Luttikhuizen G. P., The Revelation of Elchasai: Investigations into the Evidence for a Mesopotamian Jewish Apocalypse of the Second Century and its Reception by Judeo-Christian Propagandists (TSAJ 8; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1985). Jones, ‘The Book of Elchasai’, 212, describes the Book as ‘a very early church order … the first datable witness to Christianity in northern Mesopotamia’, while the date itself ‘hinges on the reference to Trajan's victory’ (214).

60 Luttikhuizen G. P., ‘The Book of Elchasai: A Jewish Apocalypse’, Aula Orientalis 5 (1987) 103 .

61 Luttikhuizen, ‘The Book of Elchasai’, 101; Luomanen, Recovering, 42.

62 Bauckham, ‘The Origin of the Ebionites’, 163: there is ‘good reason to think that this Gospel of the Ebionites was used by the Ebionites of whom Irenaeus knew’. Mimouni (Early Judaeo-Christianity, 223) dates it ‘between the year ca 100 and the year ca 135’.

63 As a post-Synoptic harmony, see Bertrand D. A., ‘L'Evangile des Ebionites: une harmonie évangélique antérieure au Diatessaron’, NTS 26 (1980) 548–63, at 550–1, 562; Petersen W. L., ‘From Justin to Pepys: The History of the Harminonised Gospel Tradition’, StPatr 30 (1997) 71–6, at 73. See also Boismard M.-E., ‘Evangile des Ebionites et problème synoptique (Mc 1, 2-6 and par.)’, RB 73 (1966) 321–52; Howard G., The Gospel of the Ebionites’, ANRW 2.25.5 (1988) 4034–53; Vielhauer P. and Strecker G., ‘The Gospel of the Ebionites’, New Testament Apocrypha, vol. i (ed. Schneemelcher W.; Cambridge: James Clarke and Co., 1991) 167–8.

64 Mimouni, Early Judaeo-Christianity, 223.

65 Pan. 30.13.1–8; 30.14.5; 30.16.4–5; 30.22.4.

66 Pan. 30.3.7; 30.16.5.

67 Gregory A., ‘Prior or Posterior? The Gospel of the Ebionites and the Gospel of Luke’, NTS 51 (2005) 344–60; Bertrand, ‘L’Évangile des Ébionites’, 548–63. But see Edwards J. R., ‘The Gospel of the Ebionites and the Gospel of Luke’, NTS 48 (2002) 568–86; Amphoux C.-B., ‘L’Évangile selon les Hébreux: Source de L’Évangile de Luc’, Apocrypha 6 (1995) 6777 .

68 Pan. 13.2–3.

69 See Koch, ‘A Critical Investigation of Epiphanius’ Knowledge of the Ebionites’, 316–58; Mimouni, Le judéo-christianisme ancien, 258–72; Bauckham, ‘The Origin of the Ebionites’, 172.

70 Pan. 30.14.5; cf. Luke 8.20, 21; Matt 12.47, 49, 50; Mark 3.33. Epiphanius claims that here ‘again they deny that he is a man, supposedly on the basis of the words the Saviour spoke when he was told, “Behold your mother and your brother stand outside”’ (Pan. 30.14.5).

71 Pan. 30.13.6, cited in Klijn and Reinink, Patristic Evidence, 179–81 (cf. 30.14.3).

72 Gregory, ‘Prior or Posterior?’, 349.

73 Pan. 30.13.4, cited in Klijn and Reinink, Patristic Evidence, 178–9.

74 Pan. 30.13.5, cited in Klijn and Reinink, Patristic Evidence, 178–9.

75 On John's diet, see Kelhoffer J. A., The Diet of John the Baptist: ‘Locusts and Wild Honey’ in Synoptic and Patristic Interpretation (WUNT 176; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005).

76 Epiphanius claims that Ebionites abstained from animal meat ‘because it is the product of the intercourse of the mixing of bodies’ (Pan. 30.15.4), cited in Klijn and Reinink, Patristic Evidence, 183.

77 Pan. 30.22.3, cited in Klijn and Reinink, Patristic Evidence, 188–9.

78 Pan. 30.22.4, cited in Klijn and Reinink, Patristic Evidence, 188–9.

79 Pan. 30.16.4–5, cited in Klijn and Reinink, Patristic Evidence, 182–3.

80 Edwards, ‘The Gospel of the Ebionites and the Gospel of Luke’, 579.

81 Theissen G. and Merz A., The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide (trans. Bowden J.; Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998) 525 . See Arens E., The ΗΛΘΟΝ-Sayings in the Synoptic Tradition (OBO 10; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1976). On the Synoptic ‘I have come’ sayings, see also Gathercole Simon J., The Preexistent Son: Recovering the Christologies of Matthew, Mark, and Luke (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006) 83189 .

82 Luke 12.49.

83 Luke 12.51.

84 Matt 10.35.

85 Thomas L. 16, cited in Kloppenborg J. S., Meyer M. W., Patterson S. J. and Steinhauser M. G., Q Thomas Reader (Sonoma: Polebridge, 1990) 133 .

86 Betz H. D., The Sermon on the Mount (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995) 175–6.

87 Loader W. R. G., Jesus’ Attitude towards the Law: A Study of the Gospels (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002) 507 , 516.

88 Edwards, ‘The Gospel of the Ebionites and the Gospel of Luke’, 584.

89 Mimouni, Early Judaeo-Christianity, 224 proposes that the Gospel of the Ebionites and the Synoptics ‘have drawn on a common tradition (oral or written)’.

90 Becker J., Mündliche und schriftliche Autorität im frühen Christentum (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012).

91 Edwards, ‘The Gospel of the Ebionites and the Gospel of Luke’, 584. See also Edwards J. R., The Hebrew Gospel and the Development of the Synoptic Tradition (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2009). For criticism, see Foster P., Review of Edwards, The Hebrew Gospel, ExpT 121.9 (2010) 454–5.

92 Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 3.39.16. Although see Klijn A. F. J., ‘Patristic Evidence for Jewish Christian and Aramaic Gospel Tradition’, Text and Interpretation: Studies in the New Testament Presented to Matthew Black (ed. Best E. and Wilson R. McL.; Cambridge University Press, 1979) 169–77.

93 Edwards, ‘The Gospel of the Ebionites and the Gospel of Luke’, 582.

94 Klijn A. F. J., Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition (VC Sup 17; Leiden: Brill, 1992); Bertrand, ‘L'Évangile’.

95 Gregory, ‘Prior or Posterior?’, 353–4.

96 Gregory, ‘Prior or Posterior?’, 349. See also Gregory A., The Reception of Luke and Acts in the Period before Irenaeus: Looking for Luke in the Second Century (WUNT ii/169; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003) 92103 .

97 Gregory, Reception, 93.

98 Gregory, Reception, 92.

99 Gregory, ‘Prior or Posterior?’, 357, 360.

100 Gregory, Reception, 93 n. 178.

101 Gregory, Reception, 99.

102 Verbin J. S. Kloppenborg, Excavating Q: The History and Setting of the Sayings Gospel (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2000]) 379 : ‘Q's approach to these issues is significantly different from those of Paul (and his immediate predecessors) and the Markan and post-Markan gospels’ (emphasis added).

103 Rom 3.25–6.

104 1 Cor 15.3; Rom 5.6, 8; 14.9; 2 Cor 5.14, 15; Gal 2.21; 1 Thess 5.10.

105 Bryan S. M., Jesus and Israel's Traditions of Judgement and Restoration (SNTSMS 117; Cambridge University Press, 2002) 234 .

106 Ehrman B. D., The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings (Oxfrod: Oxford University Press, 2012 5) 3 .

107 On Jesus’ death remembered ‘around Passover’, see Bond H. K., ‘Dating the Death of Jesus: Memory and the Religious Imagination’, NTS 59 (2013) 461–75.

108 Myllykoski, ‘James the Just in History and Tradition’, 17–19.

109 The Epistle of Barnabas (ca. 130 ce), with its overtly supersessionist and allegorical readings of Mosaic Law, is yet another direction Christian discourse on sacrifice could take.

110 Schoeps H. J., Theologie und Geschichte des Judenchristentums (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1949) 241 proposes an early Jewish Christian/Ebionite antipathy towards the Temple.

111 Meyer B. F., The Aims of Jesus (London: SCM, 1979) 71 ; Goodacre M., The Synoptic Problem: A Way through the Maze (London: T&T Clark, 2001) 25 .

112 Schoeps, Jewish Christianity, 74–5. Skarsaune O., In the Shadow of the Temple: Jewish Influences on Early Christianity (Downer's Grove: InterVarsity, 2002) 156 : ‘the view of the sacrifices held by the author of Recognitions 1.27–71 … does not differ radically … from that of the pre-70 Jerusalem community’. See also Gaston L., No Stone on Another: Studies in the Significance of the Fall of Jerusalem in the Synoptic Gospels (NovTSup 23; Leiden: Brill, 1970) 240–1.

113 Schoeps, Theologie und Geschichte des Judenchristentums, 76.

114 Stroumsa G. G., The End of Sacrifice: Religious Transformations in Late Antiquity (trans. Emanuel S.; University of Chicago Press, 2009) 72 .

* I would like to thank Professors Francis Watson and Paul Trebilco for the invitation to submit an article to this journal in light of my recent monograph on the relationship(s) between the historical Jesus, sacrifice, and the Temple. See Simon J. Joseph, Jesus and the Temple: The Crucifixion in its Jewish Context (SNTSMS 165; Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016). Special thanks also to Prof. Watson for his editorial comments and suggestions on this paper.

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