This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2MA Crawford (2010) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human brain evolution. In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 13–31 [SC Cunnane and KM Stewart , editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
3AH Knoll , EJ Javaux , D Hewitt , . (2006) Eukaryotic organisms in Proterozoic oceans. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361, 1023–1038.
4JJ Brocks , GA Logan , R Buick , . (1999) Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes. Science 285, 1033–1036.
5R Buick (2008) When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve? Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363, 2731–2743.
6HD Holland (2006) The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans. Phil Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 361, 903–915.
8SB Eaton & M Konner (1985) Paleolithic nutrition. A consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 312, 283–289.
9SB Eaton , M Konner & M Shostak (1988) Stone Agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective. Am J Med 84, 739–749.
11SB Eaton & L Cordain (1997) Evolutionary aspects of diet: old genes, new fuels. Nutritional changes since agriculture. World Rev Nutr Diet 81, 26–37.
12G Egger & J Dixon (2009) Should obesity be the main game? Or do we need an environmental makeover to combat the inflammatory and chronic disease epidemics? Obes Rev 10, 237–249.
13G Egger & J Dixon (2010) Inflammatory effects of nutritional stimuli: further support for the need for a big picture approach to tackling obesity and chronic disease. Obes Rev 11, 137–149.
14B Wood & A Brooks (1999) Human evolution. We are what we ate. Nature 400, 219–220.
16DJ Barker (1990) The fetal and infant origins of adult disease. BMJ 301, 1111.
18AJ Drake & BR Walker (2004) The intergenerational effects of fetal programming: non-genomic mechanisms for the inheritance of low birth weight and cardiovascular risk. J Endocrinol 180, 1–16.
19PD Gluckman , MA Hanson , SM Morton , . (2005) Life-long echoes – a critical analysis of the developmental origins of adult disease model. Biol Neonate 87, 127–139.
20L Cordain , MR Eades & MD Eades (2003) Hyperinsulinemic diseases of civilization: more than just syndrome X. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136, 95–112.
22GM Pasinetti & JA Eberstein (2008) Metabolic syndrome and the role of dietary lifestyles in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem 106, 1503–1514.
25FAJ Muskiet & RS Kuipers (2010) Lessons from shore-based hunter–gatherer diets in East Africa. In In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 77–103 [SC Cunnane and KM Stewart , editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
26JN Feige , L Gelman , L Michalik , . (2006) From molecular action to physiological outputs: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors at the crossroads of key cellular functions. Prog Lipid Res 45, 120–159.
27T Dobzhansky (1964) Biology, molecular and organismic. Am Zool 4, 443–452.
28N Tinbergen (1963) On the aims and methods of ethology. Zeit Tierpsy 20, 410–463.
29EE Harris & AA Malyango (2005) Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' ‘why’ questions? BMC Med Educ 5, 16.
30AD Purushotham & R Sullivan (2010) Darwin, medicine and cancer. Ann Oncol 21, 199–203.
31GC Williams & RM Nesse (1991) The dawn of Darwinian medicine. Q Rev Biol 66, 1–22.
33SJ Gould & ES Vrba (1982) Exaptation – a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology 8, 4–15.
34SB Eaton , SB Eaton III, AJ Sinclair , . (1998) Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the Paleolithic. World Rev Nutr Diet 83, 12–23.
35SB Eaton , L Cordain & S Lindeberg (2002) Evolutionary health promotion: a consideration of common counterarguments. Prev Med 34, 119–123.
36JH O'Keefe Jr & L Cordain (2004) Cardiovascular disease resulting from a diet and lifestyle at odds with our Paleolithic genome: how to become a 21st-century hunter–gatherer. Mayo Clin Proc 79, 101–108.
37RA Hahn , SM Teutsch , RB Rothenberg , . (1990) Excess deaths from nine chronic diseases in the United States, 1986. JAMA 264, 2654–2659.
38K Hill , AM Hurtado & RS Walker (2007) High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter–gatherers: implications for human evolution. J Hum Evol 52, 443–454.
44S Lindeberg & B Lundh (1993) Apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: a clinical study in Kitava. J Intern Med 233, 269–275.
45S Lindeberg , P Nilsson-Ehle , A Terent , . (1994) Cardiovascular risk factors in a Melanesian population apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease: the Kitava study. J Intern Med 236, 331–340.
49CS Larsen (1995) Biological changes in human populations with agriculture. Annu Rev Anthropol 24, 185–213.
53T McKeown , RG Brown & RG Record (1972) An interpretation of the modern rise of population in Europe. Popul Stud (Camb) 26, 345–382.
55K Hawkes , JF O'Connell & NG Blurton-Jones (2001) Hunting and nuclear families: some lessons from the Hadza about men's work. Curr Anthropol 42, 681–709.
57JF O'Connell , K Hawkes & NG Blurton Jones (1999) Grandmothering and the evolution of Homo erectus. J Hum Evol 36, 461–485.
58R Sear , R Mace & IA McGregor (2000) Maternal grandmothers improve nutritional status and survival of children in rural Gambia. Proc Biol Sci 267, 1641–1647.
60K Hawkes (2010) Colloquium paper: how grandmother effects plus individual variation in frailty shape fertility and mortality: guidance from human–chimpanzee comparisons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, Suppl. 2, 8977–8984.
61D van Bodegom , M Rozing , L May , . (2010) When grandmothers matter. Gerontology 56, 214–216.
62AF Kachel , LS Premo & JJ Hublin (2011) Grandmothering and natural selection. Proc Biol Sci 278, 384–391.
63KB Strier , PB Chaves , SL Mendes , . (2011) Low paternity skew and the influence of maternal kin in an egalitarian, patrilocal primate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 18915–18919.
65M Brunet , F Guy , D Pilbeam , . (2002) A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature 418, 145–151.
69MG Leakey , CS Feibel , I McDougall , . (1998) New specimens and confirmation of an early age for Australopithecus anamensis. Nature 393, 62–66.
70WH Kimbel & LK Delezene (2009) “Lucy” redux: a review of research on Australopithecus afarensis. Am J Phys Anthropol 140, Suppl. 49, 2–48.
71T Harrison (2011) Hominins from the Upper Laetolil and Upper Ndolanya beds, Laetoli. In Paleontology and Geology of Laetoli: Human Evolution in Context: Volume 2: Fossil Hominins and the Associated Fauna, pp. 141–188 [T Harrison , editor]. Dordrecht: Springer.
72M Brunet , A Beauvilain , Y Coppens , . (1995) The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad). Nature 378, 273–275.
73MG Leakey , F Spoor , FH Brown , . (2001) New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages. Nature 410, 433–440.
74B Asfaw , T White , O Lovejoy , . (1999) Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science 284, 629–635.
75AI Herries , PJ Hopley , JW Adams , . (2010) Letter to the Editor: Geochronology and palaeoenvironments of Southern African hominin-bearing localities – a reply to Wrangham et al., 2009. “Shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins”. Am J Phys Anthropol 143, 640–646.
76I Tattersall (2010) Macroevolutionary patterns, exaptation, and emergence in the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 1–11 [SC Cunnane and KM Stewart , editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
77C Stringer (2003) Human evolution: out of Ethiopia. Nature 423, 692–693, 695.
78TD White , B Asfaw , D DeGusta , . (2003) Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 423, 742–747.
79P Brown , T Sutikna , MJ Morwood , . (2004) A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431, 1055–1061.
81C Stringer (2000) Palaeoanthropology. Coasting out of Africa. Nature 405, 24–25, 27.
82A Templeton (2002) Out of Africa again and again. Nature 416, 45–51.
83S Oppenheimer (2009) The great arc of dispersal of modern humans: Africa to Australia. Quat Int 202, 2–13.
84AR Templeton (2005) Haplotype trees and modern human origins. Am J Phys Anthropol 128, Suppl. 41, 33–59.
86AR Templeton (2010) Coherent and incoherent inference in phylogeography and human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, 6376–6381.
87RE Green , J Krause , SE Ptak , . (2006) Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA. Nature 444, 330–336.
89A Knight , PA Underhill , HM Mortensen , . (2003) African Y chromosome and mtDNA divergence provides insight into the history of click languages. Curr Biol 13, 464–473.
90BM Henn , CR Gignoux , M Jobin , . (2011) Hunter–gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 5154–5162.
91DM Behar , R Villems , H Soodyall , . (2008) The dawn of human matrilineal diversity. Am J Hum Genet 82, 1130–1140.
92SH Ambrose (1998) Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans. J Hum Evol 34, 623–651.
93NA Rosenberg , JK Pritchard , JL Weber , . (2002) Genetic structure of human populations. Science 298, 2381–2385.
95LD Sailer , SC Gaulin , JS Voster , . (1985) Measuring the relationship between dietary quality and body size in primates. Primates 26, 14–27.
96S Herculano-Houzel (2009) The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain. Front Hum Neurosci 3, 31.
97RO Deaner , K Isler , J Burkart , . (2007) Overall brain size, and not encephalization quotient, best predicts cognitive ability across non-human primates. Brain Behav Evol 70, 115–124.
98RS Hill & CA Walsh (2005) Molecular insights into human brain evolution. Nature 437, 64–67.
100SC Cunnane (2010) Human brain evolution: a question of solving key nutritional and metabolic constraints on mammalian brain development. In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 33–76 [SC Cunnane and KM Stewart , editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
102A Navarrete , CP van Schaik & K Isler (2011) Energetics and the evolution of human brain size. Nature 480, 91–93.
103R Potts (2011) Evolution: big brains explained. Nature 480, 43–44.
106J Dobbing & J Sands (1973) Quantitative growth and development of human brain. Arch Dis Child 48, 757–767.
107G Roth & U Dicke (2005) Evolution of the brain and intelligence. Trends Cogn Sci 9, 250–257.
108S Herculano-Houzel (2011) Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution. PLoS One 6, e17514.
109S Herculano-Houzel (2011) Not all brains are made the same: new views on brain scaling in evolution. Brain Behav Evol 78, 22–36.
110FA Azevedo , LR Carvalho , LT Grinberg , . (2009) Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain. J Comp Neurol 513, 532–541.
112MC King & AC Wilson (1975) Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science 188, 107–116.
113J Gu & X Gu (2003) Induced gene expression in human brain after the split from chimpanzee. Trends Genet 19, 63–65.
114M Caceres , J Lachuer , MA Zapala , . (2003) Elevated gene expression levels distinguish human from non-human primate brains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100, 13030–13035.
115T Marques-Bonet , M Caceres , J Bertranpetit , . (2004) Chromosomal rearrangements and the genomic distribution of gene-expression divergence in humans and chimpanzees. Trends Genet 20, 524–529.
117CD Stimpson , NA Tetreault , JM Allman , . (2011) Biochemical specificity of von economo neurons in hominoids. Am J Hum Biol 23, 22–28.
118CC Sherwood , F Subiaul & TW Zawidzki (2008) A natural history of the human mind: tracing evolutionary changes in brain and cognition. J Anat 212, 426–454.
119CC Sherwood , AD Gordon , JS Allen , . (2011) Aging of the cerebral cortex differs between humans and chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 13029–13034.
120A Abzhanov , WP Kuo , C Hartmann , . (2006) The calmodulin pathway and evolution of elongated beak morphology in Darwin's finches. Nature 442, 563–567.
122RA Schneider (2007) How to tweak a beak: molecular techniques for studying the evolution of size and shape in Darwin's finches and other birds. Bioessays 29, 1–6.
123AM Kaindl , S Passemard , P Kumar , . (2010) Many roads lead to primary autosomal recessive microcephaly. Prog Neurobiol 90, 363–383.
125PD Evans , JR Anderson , EJ Vallender , . (2004) Adaptive evolution of ASPM, a major determinant of cerebral cortical size in humans. Hum Mol Genet 13, 489–494.
126PD Evans , JR Anderson , EJ Vallender , . (2004) Reconstructing the evolutionary history of microcephalin, a gene controlling human brain size. Hum Mol Genet 13, 1139–1145.
127PD Evans , SL Gilbert , N Mekel-Bobrov , . (2005) Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science 309, 1717–1720.
128PD Evans , EJ Vallender & BT Lahn (2006) Molecular evolution of the brain size regulator genes CDK5RAP2 and CENP. J Gene 375, 75–79.
129JD Speth (1989) Early hominid hunting and scavenging – the role of meat as an energy-source. J Hum Evol 18, 329–343.
130MA Crawford , M Bloom , CL Broadhurst , . (1999) Evidence for the unique function of docosahexaenoic acid during the evolution of the modern hominid brain. Lipids 34, Suppl., S39–S47.
131A Gibbons (2002) American Association of Physical Anthropologists meeting. Humans' head start: new views of brain evolution. Science 296, 835–837.
132MA Crawford (2002) Cerebral evolution. Nutr Health 16, 29–34.
134BA Carlson & JD Kingston (2007) Docosahexaenoic acid, the aquatic diet, and hominin encephalization: difficulties in establishing evolutionary links. Am J Hum Biol 19, 132–141.
135JC Joordens , RS Kuipers & FA Muskiet (2007) Preformed dietary DHA: the answer to a scientific question may in practice become translated to its opposite. Am J Hum Biol 19, 582–584.
136CA Joordens , RS Kuipers & FAJ Muskiet (2005) On breast milk, diet, and large human brains. Curr Anthropol 46, 122–124.
138RA Dart (1925) Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115, 195–199.
143CS Feibel (2011) Anthropology: shades of the savannah. Nature 476, 39–40.
144TE Cerling , JG Wynn , SA Andanje , . (2011) Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 million years. Nature 476, 51–56.
146NM Tanner & AL Zihlmann (1976) Women in evolution, part 1: innovation and selection in human origins. Signs 1, 585–608.
150PS Ungar & M Sponheimer (2011) The diets of early hominins. Science 334, 190–193.
152AE Lebatard , DL Bourles , P Duringer , . (2008) Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali: Mio-Pliocene hominids from Chad. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 3226–3231.
153W Bosworth & CK Morley (1994) Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Anza rift, Kenya. Tectonophysics 236, 93–115.
155P Vignaud , P Duringer , HT Mackaye , . (2002) Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nature 418, 152–155.
156KM Stewart (2010) The case for exploitation of wetlands environments and foods by pre-sapiens hominins. In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 137–171 [SC Cunnane and KM Stewart , editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
158G WoldeGabriel , Y Haile-Selassie , PR Renne , . (2001) Geology and palaeontology of the Late Miocene Middle Awash valley, Afar rift, Ethiopia. Nature 412, 175–178.
159G WoldeGabriel , SH Ambrose , D Barboni , . (2009) The geological, isotopic, botanical, invertebrate, and lower vertebrate surroundings of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326, 65e1–65e5.
161KE Reed (1997) Early hominid evolution and ecological change through the African Plio-Pleistocene. J Hum Evol 32, 289–322.
162C Ward , M Leakey & A Walker (1999) The new hominid species Australopithecus anamensis. Evol Anthropol 7, 197–205.
164KE Reed (2008) Paleoecological patterns at the Hadar hominin site, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia. J Hum Evol 54, 743–768.
166A Veldkamp , E Buis , JR Wijbrands , . (2007) Late Cenozoic fluvial dynamics of the River Tana, Kenya, an uplift dominated record. Quat Sci Rev 26, 2897–2912.
167P Sepulchre , G Ramstein , F Fluteau , . (2006) Tectonic uplift and Eastern Africa aridification. Science 313, 1419–1423.
168MH Trauth , MA Maslin , AL Deino , . (2007) High- and low-latitude forcing of Plio-Pleistocene East African climate and human evolution. J Hum Evol 53, 475–486.
169G Bartoli , M Sarnthein , M Weinelt , . (2005) Final closure of the Panama and the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation. Earth Planetary Sci Lett 237, 33–44.
171BL Pobiner , MJ Rogers , CM Monahan , . (2008) New evidence for hominin carcass processing strategies at 1.5 Ma, Koobi Fora, Kenya. J Hum Evol 55, 103–130.
172GM Ashley , JC Tactikos & RB Owen (2009) Hominin use of springs and wetlands: paleoclimate and archaeological records from Olduvai Gorge (~ 1.79–1.74 Ma). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 272, 1–16.
173NA Drake , RM Blench , SJ Armitage , . (2011) Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 458–462.
174NE Sikes (1994) Early hominid habitat preferences in East-Africa – paleosol carbon isotopic evidence. J Hum Evol 27, 25–45.
175JC Joordens , FP Wesselingh , J de Vos , . (2009) Relevance of aquatic environments for hominins: a case study from Trinil (Java, Indonesia). J Hum Evol 57, 656–671.
177AJ Marshall & RW Wrangham (2007) Evolutionary consequences of fallback foods. Int J Primatol 28, 1218–1235.
178T Nishida (1980) Local differences in responses to water among wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatol 33, 189–209.
180E Kempf (2009) Patterns of water use in primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 80, 275–294.
181R Wrangham , D Cheney , R Seyfarth , . (2009) Shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins. Am J Phys Anthropol 140, 630–642.
182ER Vogel , JT van Woerden , PW Lucas , . (2008) Functional ecology and evolution of hominoid molar enamel thickness: Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii. J Hum Evol 55, 60–74.
183G Suwa , RT Kono , SW Simpson , . (2009) Paleobiological implications of the Ardipithecus ramidus dentition. Science 326, 94–99.
184MF Teaford & PS Ungar (2000) Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 13506–13511.
185A Walker , HN Hoeck & L Perez (1978) Mecrowear of mammalian teeth as an indicator of diet. Science 201, 908–910.
187PS Ungar , RS Scott , FE Grine , . (2010) Molar microwear textures and the diets of Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 365, 3345–3354.
188FE Grine , PS Ungar , MF Teaford , . (2006) Molar microwear in Praeanthropus afarensis: evidence for dietary stasis through time and under diverse paleoecological conditions. J Hum Evol 51, 297–319.
189RS Scott , PS Ungar , TS Bergstrom , . (2005) Dental microwear texture analysis shows within-species diet variability in fossil hominins. Nature 436, 693–695.
190TE Cerling , E Mbua , FM Kirera , . (2011) Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 9337–9341.
191P Ungar (2004) Dental topography and diets of Australopithecus afarensis and early Homo. J Hum Evol 46, 605–622.
193AP Goldstone , CG de Hernandez , JD Beaver , . (2009) Fasting biases brain reward systems towards high-calorie foods. Eur J Neurosci 30, 1625–1635.
195PS Ungar , FE Grine & MF Teaford (2006) Diet in early Homo: a review of the evidence and a new model of adaptive versatility. Annu Rev Anthropol 35, 209–228.
196A Perez-Perez , JMB De Castro & JL Arsuaga (1999) Nonocclusal dental microwear analysis of 300 000-year-old Homo heilderbergensis teeth from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Am J Phys Anthropol 108, 433–457.
197C Lalueza , A PerezPerez & D Turbon (1996) Dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of middle and upper pleistocene human fossils. Am J Phys Anthropol 100, 367–387.
198P Mahoney (2007) Human dental microwear from Ohalo II (22 500–23 500 cal BP), Southern Levant. Am J Phys Anthropol 132, 489–500.
199P Mahoney (2006) Dental microwear from Natufian hunter–gatherers and early neolithic farmers: comparisons within and between samples. Am J Phys Anthropol 130, 308–319.
200K Milton (1999) Nutritional characteristics of wild primate foods: do the diets of our closest living relatives have lessons for us? Nutrition 15, 488–498.
202JL Gittleman & SD Thompson (1988) Energy allocation in mammalian reproduction. Am Zool 28, 863–875.
204LC Aiello & C Key (2002) Energetic consequences of being a Homo erectus female. Am J Hum Biol 14, 551–565.
205LC Aiello & JCK Wells (2002) Energetics and the evolution of the genus Homo. Annu Rev Anthropol 31, 323–338.
206SC Cunnane & MA Crawford (2003) Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136, 17–26.
208LC Aiello & P Wheeler (1995) The expensive-tissue hypothesis – the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Curr Anthropol 36, 199–221.
210JA Kaufman , CM Hladik & P Pasquet (2003) On the expensive-tissue hypothesis: independent support from highly encephalized fish. Curr Anthropol 44, 705–707.
211BM Galdikas & JW Wood (1990) Birth spacing patterns in humans and apes. Am J Phys Anthropol 83, 185–191.
212K Isler & CP van Schaik (2009) The expensive brain: a framework for explaining evolutionary changes in brain size. J Hum Evol 57, 392–400.
213K Isler (2011) Energetic trade-offs between brain size and offspring production: marsupials confirm a general mammalian pattern. Bioessays 33, 173–179.
215RW Wrangham , JH Jones , G Laden , . (1999) The raw and the stolen. Cooking and the ecology of human origins. Curr Anthropol 40, 567–594.
217WS Harris (2008) You are what you eat applies to fish, too. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 1131–1133.
219A Sillen & M Kavanagh (1982) Strontium and paleodietary research: a review. Am J Phys Anthropol 25, 67–90.
220A Sillen (1992) Strontium calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) of Australopithecus robustus and associated fauna from Swartkrans. J Hum Evol 23, 495–516.
221A Sillen , G Hall & R Armstrong (1995) Strontium calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) and strontium isotopic-ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of Australopithecus robustus and Homo sp. from Swartkrans. J Hum Evol 28, 277–285.
222NL Conklin-Brittain , RW Wrangham & KD Hunt (1998) Dietary response of chimpanzees and cercopithecines to seasonal variation in fruit abundance. II. Macronutrients. Int J Primatol 19, 971–998.
223J Lee-Thorp & M Sponheimer (2003) Three case studies used to reassess the reliability of fossil bone and enamel isotope signals for paleodietary studies. J Anthropol Archaeol 22, 208–216.
224M Sponheimer , D de Ruiter , J Lee-Thorp , . (2005) Sr/Ca and early hommin diets revisited: new data from modern and fossil tooth enamel. J Hum Evol 48, 147–156.
226V Balter & L Simon (2006) Diet and behavior of the Saint-Cesaire Neanderthal inferred from biogeochemical data inversion. J Hum Evol 51, 329–338.
227IL Ophel & CD Fraser (1970) Calcium and strontium discrimination by aquatic plants. Ecology 51, 324–327.
228SH Ambrose & MJ Deniro (1986) The isotopic ecology of East-African mammals. Oecologia 69, 395–406.
233TE Cerling , JM Harris , BJ MacFadden , . (1997) Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389, 153–158.
234CR Peters & JC Vogel (2005) Africa's wild C-4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets. J Hum Evol 48, 219–236.
235L Segalen , JA Lee-Thorp & T Cerling (2007) Timing of C-4 grass expansion across sub-Saharan Africa. J Hum Evol 53, 549–559.
239JF Kelly (2000) Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in the study of avian and mammalian trophic ecology. Can J Zool 78, 1–27.
240MJ Schoeninger & MJ Deniro (1984) Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone-collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48, 625–639.
242MJ Schoeninger , MJ Deniro & H Tauber (1983) Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of bone-collagen reflect marine and terrestrial components of prehistoric human diet. Science 220, 1381–1383.
244JA Lee-Thorp , M Sponheimer & J Luyt (2007) Tracking changing environments using stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel: an example from the South African hominin sites. J Hum Evol 53, 595–601.
247M Sponheimer , JE Loudon , D Codron , . (2006) Do “savanna” chimpanzees consume C-4 resources? J Hum Evol 51, 128–133.
248M Sponheimer & JA Lee-Thorp (1999) Oxygen isotopes in enamel carbonate and their ecological significance. J Archaeol Sci 26, 723–728.
250Y Hu , H Shang , H Tong , . (2009) Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 10971–10974.
251MP Richards , PB Pettitt , E Trinkaus , . (2000) Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: the evidence from stable isotopes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 7663–7666.
252MP Richards , PB Pettitt , MC Stiner , . (2001) Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 6528–6532.
253MP Richards (2002) A brief review of the archaeological evidence for Palaeolithic and Neolithic subsistence. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 1270–1278.
254MP Richards , RJ Schulting & RE Hedges (2003) Archaeology: sharp shift in diet at onset of Neolithic. Nature 425, 366.
255MP Richards , R Jacobi , J Cook , . (2005) Isotope evidence for the intensive use of marine foods by Late Upper Palaeolithic humans. J Hum Evol 49, 390–394.
256MP Richards & E Trinkaus (2009) Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 16034–16039.
257NJ van der Merwe , JF Thackeray , JA Lee-Thorp , . (2003) The carbon isotope ecology and diet of Australopithecus africanus at Sterkfontein, South Africa. J Hum Evol 44, 581–597.
258S Semaw , MJ Rogers , J Quade , . (2003) 2.6-Million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. J Hum Evol 45, 169–177.
259SP McPherron , Z Alemseged , CW Marean , . (2010) Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 466, 857–860.
260LA Willis , MI Eren & TC Rick (2008) Does butchering fish leave cut marks? J Archaeol Sci 35, 1438–1444.
261DR Braun , JW Harris , NE Levin , . (2010) Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1·95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, 10002–10007.
262J de Heinzelin , JD Clark , T White , . (1999) Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. Science 284, 625–629.
264SW Simpson , J Quade , NE Levin , . (2008) A female Homo erectus pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia. Science 322, 1089–1092.
265DM Bramble & DE Lieberman (2004) Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432, 345–352.
266CL Broadhurst , Y Wang , MA Crawford , . (2002) Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food resources: potential impact on early African Homo sapiens. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 131, 653–673.
267JM Erlandson (2001) The archaeology of aquatic adaptations: paradigms for a new millennium. J Archaeol Res 9, 287–350.
269KM Stewart (1994) Early hominid utilization of fish resources and implications for seasonality and behavior. J Hum Evol 27, 229–245.
270S Wang , CM Lewis , M Jakobsson , . (2007) Genetic variation and population structure in native Americans. PLoS Genet 3, e185.
273O Bar-Yosef (1994) The lower Paleolithic of the Near East. J World Prehist 8, 211–265.
275RG Klein , G Avery , K Cruz-Uribe , . (1999) Duinefontein 2, an Acheulean Site in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. J Hum Evol 37, 153–190.
276H de Lumley (1969) A Paleolithic camp at Nice. In Scientific American, vol. 220, pp. 42–50.
278CW Marean , M Bar-Matthews , J Bernatchez , . (2007) Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene. Nature 449, 905–908.
279RC Walter , RT Buffler , JH Bruggemann , . (2000) Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial. Nature 405, 65–69.
282JM Erlandson (2010) Food for thought: the role of coastlines and aquatic resources in human evolution. In Human Brain Evolution: The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 125–136 [SC Cunnane and KM Stewart , editors]. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
283RG Klein , K Cruz-Uribe , D Halkett , . (1999) Paleoenvironmental and human behavioral implications of the Boegoeberg 1 late pleistocene hyena den, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Quatern Res 52, 393–403.
284CW Marean , P Goldberg , G Avery , . (2000) Middle Stone Age stratigraphy and excavations at Die Kelders Cave 1 (Western Cape Province, South Africa): the 1992, 1993, and 1995 field seasons. J Hum Evol 38, 7–42.
285C Henshilwood & J Sealy (1997) Bone artifacts from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, southern cape, South Africa. Curr Anthropol 38, 890–895.
286RG Klein , G Avery , K Cruz-Uribe , . (2004) The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 5708–5715.
288C Henshilwood , F d'Errico , M Vanhaeren , . (2004) Middle Stone Age shell beads from South Africa. Science 304, 404.
291CS Henshilwood , JC Sealy , R Yates , . (2001) Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa: preliminary report on the 1992–1999 excavations of the Middle Stone Age levels. J Archaeol Sci 28, 421–448.
293J Allen , C Gosden , R Jones , . (1988) Pleistocene dates for the human occupation of New Ireland, northern Melanesia. Nature 331, 707–709.
294S O'Connor , R Ono & C Clarkson (2011) Pelagic fishing at 42 000 years before the present and the maritime skills of modern humans. Science 334, 1117–1121.
295MJ Morwood , PB O'Sullivan , F Aziz , . (1998) Fission-track ages of stone tools and fossils on the east Indonesian island of Flores. Nature 392, 173–176.
297MJ Morwood , P Brown , Jatmiko, . (2005) Further evidence for small-bodied hominins from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 437, 1012–1017.
298KE Westaway , MJ Morwood , RG Roberts , . (2007) Establishing the time of initial human occupation of Liang Bua, western Flores, Indonesia. Quat Geochronol 2, 337–343.
300JM Sept (1986) Plant foods and early hominids at Site Fxjj 50, Koobi-Fora, Kenya. J Hum Evol 15, 751–770.
301A Gibbons (2007) Paleoanthropology. Food for thought. Science 316, 1558–1560.
302V Wobber , B Hare & R Wrangham (2008) Great apes prefer cooked food. J Hum Evol 55, 340–348.
303N Goren-Inbar , N Alperson , ME Kislev , . (2004) Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel. Science 304, 725–727.
304W Roebroeks & P Villa (2011) On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 5209–5214.
305AG Henry , AS Brooks & DR Piperno (2011) Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 486–491.
306MA Crawford , M Bloom , S Cunnane , . (2001) Docosahexaenoic acid and cerebral evolution. World Rev Nutr Diet 88, 6–17.
310D Nadel , E Weiss , O Simchoni , . (2004) Stone Age hut in Israel yields world's oldest evidence of bedding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 6821–6826.
311E Weiss , W Wetterstrom , D Nadel , . (2004) The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 9551–9555.
312ME Kislev , E Weiss , A Hartmann & A Hartmann (2004) Impetus for sowing and the beginning of agriculture: ground collecting of wild cereals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 2692–2695.
313WH Kimbel , RC Walter , DC Johanson , . (1996) Late Pliocene Homo and Oldowan tools from the Hadar formation (Kada Hadar Member), Ethiopia. J Hum Evol 31, 549–561.
318ML Moss (1993) Shellfish, gender, and status on the Northwest Coast – reconciling archaeological, ethnographic, and ethnohistorical records of the Tlingit. Am Anthropol 95, 631–652.
319KM Godfrey , KA Lillycrop , GC Burdge , . (2007) Epigenetic mechanisms and the mismatch concept of the developmental origins of health and disease. Pediatr Res 61, 5R–10R.
322KA Lillycrop & GC Burdge (2010) Epigenetic changes in early life and future risk of obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, 72–83.
323KM Godfrey , A Sheppard , PD Gluckman , . (2011) Epigenetic gene promoter methylation at birth is associated with child's later adiposity. Diabetes 60, 1528–1534.
324SJ Bensinger & P Tontonoz (2008) Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors. Nature 454, 470–477.
326Y Song , X Yao & H Ying (2011) Thyroid hormone action in metabolic regulation. Protein Cell 2, 358–368.
327R Bouillon , H Bischoff-Ferrari & W Willett (2008) Vitamin D and health: perspectives from mice and man. J Bone Miner Res 23, 974–979.
328MM McGrane (2007) Vitamin A regulation of gene expression: molecular mechanism of a prototype gene. J Nutr Biochem 18, 497–508.
330J Kohrle & R Gartner (2009) Selenium and thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 23, 815–827.
331ME Gilbert , ED McLanahan , J Hedge , . (2011) Marginal iodide deficiency and thyroid function: dose–response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling. Toxicology 283, 41–48.
332B Desvergne & W Wahli (1999) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism. Endocr Rev 20, 649–688.
333AW Norman & R Bouillon (2010) Vitamin D nutritional policy needs a vision for the future. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 235, 1034–1045.
335GV Mann , OA Roels , DL Price , . (1962) Cardiovascular disease in African Pygmies. A survey of the health status, serum lipids and diet of Pygmies in Congo. J Chron Dis 15, 341–371.
339JH O'Keefe Jr, L Cordain , WH Harris , . (2004) Optimal low-density lipoprotein is 50 to 70 mg/dl: lower is better and physiologically normal. J Am Coll Cardiol 43, 2142–2146.
340BI Joffe , WP Jackson , ME Thomas , . (1971) Metabolic responses to oral glucose in the Kalahari Bushmen. Br Med J 4, 206–208.
341TJ Merimee , DL Rimoin & LL Cavalli-Sforza (1972) Metabolic studies in the African pygmy. J Clin Invest 51, 395–401.
342CE Ramsden , KR Faurot , P Carrera-Bastos , . (2009) Dietary fat quality and coronary heart disease prevention: a unified theory based on evolutionary, historical, global, and modern perspectives. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 11, 289–301.
343AB Keys (1980) Seven Countries: A Multivariate Analysis of Death and Coronary Heart Disease. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
344R Clarke , C Frost , R Collins , . (1997) Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ 314, 112–117.
347K Biss , KJ Ho , B Mikkelson , . (1971) Some unique biologic characteristics of the Masai of East Africa. N Engl J Med 284, 694–699.
349B Kaminer & WPW Lutz (1960) Blood pressure in Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert. Circulation 22, 289–295.
350AJ Clement , LL Fosdick & R Plotkin (1956) The formation of lactic acid in dental plaques. II. Oral conditions of primitive Bushmen of the Western Kalahari Desert. J Dent Res 35, 786–791.
353J Blumberg , RP Heaney , M Huncharek , . (2010) Evidence-based criteria in the nutritional context. Nutr Rev 68, 478–484.
358M de Lorgeril , P Salen , JL Martin , . (1999) Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation 99, 779–785.
360R Marchioli , F Barzi , E Bomba , . (2002) Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione. Circulation 105, 1897–1903.
361M Yokoyama , H Origasa , M Matsuzaki , . (2007) Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 369, 1090–1098.
362D Kromhout , EJ Giltay , JM Geleijnse , . (2010) n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 363, 2015–2026.
363JR Hibbeln (1998) Fish consumption and major depression. Lancet 351, 1213.
364JR Hibbeln (2002) Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers' milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord 69, 15–29.
365JR Hibbeln (2009) Depression, suicide and deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids in modern diets. World Rev Nutr Diet 99, 17–30.
366JR Hibbeln (2001) Seafood consumption and homicide mortality. A cross-national ecological analysis. World Rev Nutr Diet 88, 41–46.
367PY Lin & KP Su (2007) A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. J Clin Psychiatry 68, 1056–1061.
368BM Ross , J Seguin & LE Sieswerda (2007) Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid? Lipids Health Dis 6, 21.
370MP Freeman (2000) Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry: a review. Ann Clin Psychiatry 12, 159–165.
371MP Freeman , JR Hibbeln , KL Wisner , . (2006) Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry 67, 1954–1967.
372ME Sublette , SP Ellis , AL Geant , . (2011) Meta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in clinical trials in depression. J Clin Psychiatry 72, 1577–1584.
374JJ Challem (1997) Did the loss of endogenous ascorbate propel the evolution of Anthropoidea and Homo sapiens? Med Hypotheses 48, 387–392.
378RS Kuipers , MF Luxwolda , DA Janneke Dijck-Brouwer , . (2011) Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 85, 245–252.
379MF Luxwolda , RS Kuipers , EN Smit , . (2011) The relation between the omega-3 index and arachidonic acid is bell shaped: synergistic at low EPA+DHA status and antagonistic at high EPA+DHA status. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 85, 171–178.
381DC Kuhn & M Crawford (1986) Placental essential fatty acid transport and prostaglandin synthesis. Prog Lipid Res 25, 345–353.
385M Makrides , RA Gibson , AJ McPhee , . (2010) Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 304, 1675–1683.
386B Doornbos , SA van Goor , DA Dijck-Brouwer , . (2009) Supplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population based sample. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33, 49–52.
387KP Su , SY Huang , TH Chiu , . (2008) Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 69, 644–651.
388JM Wojcicki & MB Heyman (2011) Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk for perinatal maternal depression. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 24, 680–686.
389B Koletzko & M Braun (1991) Arachidonic acid and early human growth: is there a relation? Ann Nutr Metab 35, 128–131.
391SF Olsen , ML Osterdal , JD Salvig , . (2006) Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort. Eur J Epidemiol 21, 749–758.
392SF Olsen , ML Osterdal , JD Salvig , . (2007) Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 976–985.
393CA Malcolm , DL McCulloch , C Montgomery , . (2003) Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and visual evoked potential development in term infants: a double blind, prospective, randomised trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 88, F383–F390.
394CA Malcolm , R Hamilton , DL McCulloch , . (2003) Scotopic electroretinogram in term infants born of mothers supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44, 3685–3691.
395MP Judge , O Harel & CJ Lammi-Keefe (2007) A docosahexaenoic acid-functional food during pregnancy benefits infant visual acuity at four but not six months of age. Lipids 42, 117–122.
396EE Birch , SE Carlson , DR Hoffman , . (2010) The DIAMOND (DHA Intake And Measurement Of Neural Development) Study: a double-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial of the maturation of infant visual acuity as a function of the dietary level of docosahexaenoic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 848–859.
399JA Dunstan , K Simmer , G Dixon , . (2008) Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 93, F45–F50.
400IB Helland , L Smith , K Saarem , . (2003) Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 111, e39–e44.
403DA Dijck-Brouwer , M Hadders-Algra , H Bouwstra , . (2005) Lower fetal status of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and essential fatty acids is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 72, 21–28.
405JS Rao , RN Ertley , JC DeMar Jr, . (2007) Dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation alters expression of enzymes of the arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascades in rat frontal cortex. Mol Psychiatry 12, 151–157.
406SA van Goor , EN Smit , A Schaafsma , . (2008) Milk of women with lifetime consumption of the recommended daily intake of fish fatty acids should constitute the basis for the DHA contents of infant formula. J Perinat Med 36, 548–549.
408B Koletzko , E Lien , C Agostoni , . (2008) The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J Perinat Med 36, 5–14.
409RS Kuipers , EN Smit , J van der Meulen , . (2007) Milk in the island of Chole [Tanzania] is high in lauric, myristic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and low in linoleic acid reconstructed diet of infants born to our ancestors living in tropical coastal regions. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 76, 221–233.
410DL Hachey , GH Silber , WW Wong , . (1989) Human lactation. II: Endogenous fatty acid synthesis by the mammary gland. Pediatr Res 25, 63–68.
411JJ Kabara (1980) Lipids as host-resistance factors of human milk. Nutr Rev 38, 65–73.
412G Bergsson , O Steingrimsson & H Thormar (2002) Bactericidal effects of fatty acids and monoglycerides on Helicobacter pylori. Int J Antimicrob Agents 20, 258–262.
413EM Widdowson , MJ Dauncey , DM Gairdner , . (1975) Body fat of British and Dutch infants. Br Med J 1, 653–655.
414G Ailhaud , F Massiera , P Weill , . (2006) Temporal changes in dietary fats: role of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in excessive adipose tissue development and relationship to obesity. Prog Lipid Res 45, 203–236.
417RA Gibson , B Muhlhausler & M Makrides (2011) Conversion of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), with a focus on pregnancy, lactation and the first 2 years of life. Matern Child Nutr 7, Suppl. 2, 17–26.
418B Koletzko , I Thiel & PO Abiodun (1992) The fatty acid composition of human milk in Europe and Africa. J Pediatr 120, S62–S70.
419K Godfrey , S Robinson , DJ Barker , . (1996) Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and fetal growth. BMJ 312, 410–414.
420SM Innis & HV Kuhnlein (1988) Long-chain n-3 fatty acids in breast milk of Inuit women consuming traditional foods. Early Hum Dev 18, 185–189.
423WC Willett (2002) Balancing life-style and genomics research for disease prevention. Science 296, 695–698.
424J Yudkin (1963) Dietary carbohydrate and ischemic heart disease. Am Heart J 66, 835–836.
426SB Eaton (1992) Humans, lipids and evolution. Lipids 27, 814–820.
427L Cordain , BA Watkins & NJ Mann (2001) Fatty acid composition and energy density of foods available to African hominids. Evolutionary implications for human brain development. World Rev Nutr Diet 90, 144–161.
430AJ Sinclair , K O'Dea & JM Naughton (1983) Elevated levels of arachidonic acid in fish from northern Australian coastal waters. Lipids 18, 877–881.
431RA Gibson , R Kneebone & GM Kneebone (1984) Comparative levels of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in Malaysian fish. Comp Biochem Physiol C 78, 325–328.
432JM Naughton , K O'Dea & AJ Sinclair (1986) Animal foods in traditional Australian aboriginal diets: polyunsaturated and low in fat. Lipids 21, 684–690.
433M Konner & SB Eaton (2010) Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later. Nutr Clin Pract 25, 594–602.
434SB Eaton , SB Eaton III & MJ Konner (1997) Paleolithic nutrition revisited: a twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 207–216.
435SB Eaton & SB Eaton III (2000) Paleolithic vs. modern diets – selected pathophysiological implications. Eur J Nutr 39, 67–70.
440GS Hotamisligil & E Erbay (2008) Nutrient sensing and inflammation in metabolic diseases. Nat Rev Immunol 8, 923–934.
442JS Volek , SD Phinney , CE Forsythe , . (2009) Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Lipids 44, 297–309.
443CE Forsythe , SD Phinney , RD Feinman , . (2010) Limited effect of dietary saturated fat on plasma saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet. Lipids 45, 947–962.
445AP Simopoulos (2001) Evolutionary aspects of diet and essential fatty acids. World Rev Nutr Diet 88, 18–27.
448T Jönsson , Y Granfeldt , B Ahrén , . (2009) Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 8, 35.
449S Lindeberg , T Jonsson , Y Granfeldt , . (2007) A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Diabetologia 50, 1795–1807.
450LA Frassetto , M Schloetter , M Mietus-Synder , . (2009) Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a Paleolithic, hunter–gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 947–955.