This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
C. Abate , L. Patel , F. J. Rauscher & T. Curran (1990). Redox regulation of fos and jun DNA binding activity in vitro. Science 249, 1157–1161.
H. Adlercreutz (1990). Western diet and Western diseases. Some hormonal and biochemical mechanisms and associations. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 50, Suppl. 201, 3–23.
A. J. Alldrick & I. R. Rowland (1988). Caffeine inhibits hepatic-microsomal activation of some dietary genotoxins. Mutagenesis 3, 423–427.
B. N. Ames & L. S. Gold (1990). Chemical carcinogenesis: too many rodent carcinogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 87, 7772–7776.
O. I. Aruoma , B. Halliwell , R. Aeschbach & J. Loligers (1992). Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of active rosemary constituents-carnosol and carnosic acid. Xenobiotica 22, 257–268.
S. D. Aust , L. A. Morehouse & C. E. Thomas (1985). Role of metals in oxygen radical reactions. Journal of Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 1, 3–25.
M. Axelson , J. Sjövall , B. E. Gustafsson & K. D. R. Setchell (1982). Origin of lignans in mammals and identification of a precursor from plants. Nature 298, 659–660.
H. Babich , E. Borenfreund & A. Stern (1993). Comparative cytotoxicities of selected minor dietary non-nutrients with chemopreventive properties. Cancer Letters 73, 127–133.
W. S. Baldwin & G. A. LeBlanc (1992). The anti-carcinogenic plant compound indole-3-carbinol differentially modulates P450-mediated steroid hydroxylase activities in mice. Chemico-Biological Interactions 83, 155–169.
M. J. Berridge & R. F. Irvine (1984). Inositol triphosphate, a novel second messenger in cellular signal transduction. Nature 312, 315–321.
P. C. Billings , P. M. Newberne & A. R. Kennedy (1990). Protease inhibitor suppression of colon and anal gland carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine. Carcinogenesis 11, 1083–1086.
S. M. Black & C. R. Wolf (1991). The role of glutathione-dependent enzymes in drug resistance. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 51, 139–154.
G. Block , B. Patterson & A. Subar (1992). Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention. A review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutrition and Cancer 18, 1–29.
A. B. Bomford & H. N. Munro (1992). Ferritin gene expression in health and malignancy. Pathobiology 60, 10–18.
V. W. Bowry , K. U. Ingold & R. Stocker (1992). Vitamin E in human low-density lipoprotein-when and how this antioxidant becomes a pro-oxidant. Biochemical Journal 288, 341–344.
M. E. Bracke , V. Castronovo , R. M. L. van Cauwenberge , P. Coopman , L. Vakaet , P. Strojny , J.-M. Foidart & M. M. Mareel (1987). The anti-invasive flavonoid (+)-catechin binds to laminin and abrogates the effect of laminin on cell morphology and adhesion. Experimental Cell Research 173, 193–205.
M. E. Bracke , R. M.-L. van Cauwenberge & M. M. Mareel (1984). (+)-Catechin inhibits the invasion of malignant fibrosarcoma cells into chick heart in vitro. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 2, 161–170.
M. E. Bracke , B. M. Vyncke , N. A. van Larebeke , E. A. Bruyneel , G. K. De Bruyne , G. H. De Pestel , W. J. De Coster , M. F. Espeel & M. M. Mareel (1989). The flavonoid tangeretin inhibits invasion of MO4 mouse cells into embryonic chick heart in vitro. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 7, 283–300.
C. A. Bradfield & L. F. Bjeldanes (1991). Modification of carcinogen metabolism by indolylic autolysis products of Brassica oleraceae. In Nutritional and Toxicological Consequences of Food Processing, pp. 153–163 [M. Friedman , editor]. New York: Plenum Press.
C. A. Bradfield , Y. Chang & L. F. Bjeldanes (1985). Effects of commonly consumed vegetables on hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the mouse. Food and Chemical Toxicology 23, 899–904.
J. F. Brady , H. Ishizaki , J. M. Fukuto , M. C. Lin , A. Fadel , J. M. Gapac & C. S. Yang (1991). Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 2E1 by diallyl sulfide and its metabolites. Chemical Research in Toxicology 4, 642–647.
C. H. Brierley & B. Burchell (1993). Human UDP-glucuronosyl transferases – chemical defence, jaundice and gene therapy. Bioessays 15, 749–754.
J. P. Brown (1988). Hydrolysis of glycosides and esters. In Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 109–144 [I. R. Rowland editor]. London: Academic Press.
G. R. Buettner (1993). The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants – lipid peroxidation, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbate. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 300, 535–543.
P. J. Casey , P. A. Solski , C. J. Der & J. E. Buss (1989). p21 ras is modified by a farnesyl isoprenoid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 86, 8323–8327.
M. H. Castillo , E. Perkins , J. H. Campbell , R. Doerr , J. M. Hassett , C. Kandaswami & E. Middleton (1989). The effects of the bioflavonoid quercetin on squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck origin. American Journal of Surgery 158, 351–355.
T. Castillo , D. R. Koop , S. Kamimura , G. Triadafilopoulos & H. Tsukamoto (1992). Role of cytochrome-P-450 2E1 in ethanol-dependent, carbon tetrachloride-dependent and iron-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation. Hepatology 16, 992–996.
C. K. Chow (1990). Mutagenesis and micronutrients relationship. Food Additives and Contaminants 7, Suppl. 1, S44–S47.
L. A. Clejan & A. I. Cederbaum (1991). Role of iron, hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen species in microsomal oxidation of glycerol to formaldehyde. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 285, 83–89.
C. B. Cole , R. Fuller , A. K. Mallett & I. R. Rowland (1985). The influence of the host on expression of intestinal microbial enzyme activities involved in metabolism of foreign compounds. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 59, 549–553.
Y. Dai , J. Rashbastep & A. I. Cederbaum (1993). Stable expression of human cytochrome-P4502E1 in HepG2 cells. Characterization of catalytic activities and production of reactive oxygen intermediates. Biochemistry 32, 6928–6937.
V. Daniel (1993). Glutathione S-transferases. Gene structure and regulation of expression. CRC Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28, 173–207.
A. J. Dannenberg & E. K. Yang (1992). Effect of dietary lipids on levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in liver. Biochemical Pharmacology 44, 335–340.
M. J. De Long , H. J. Prochaska & P. Talalay (1986). Induction of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase in murine hepatoma cells by phenolic antioxidants, azo dyes, and other chemoprotectors: a model system for the study of anticarcinogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 83, 787–791.
M. Derbel , T. Igarashi & T. Satoh (1993). Differential induction of glutathione S-transferase subunits by phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene and ethoxyquin in rat liver and kidney. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1158,175–180.
J. K. Dunnick , J. D. Prejean , J. Haseman , R. B. Thompson , H. D. Giles & E. E. McConnell (1982). Carcinogenesis bioassay of allyl isothiocyanate. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 2, 114–120.
Y. H. Edwards , J. Potter & D. A. Hopkinson (1980). Human FAD-dependent NAD(P)H diaphorase. Biochemical Journal 187, 429–436.
E. S. Fiala , G. Bobotas , C. Kulakis , L. W. Wattenberg & J. H. Weisburger (1977). Effects of disulfiram and related compounds on the metabolism in vivo of the colon carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Biochemical Pharmacology 26, 1763–1768.
L. M. Forrester , C. J. Henderson , M. J. Glancey , D. J. Back , B. K. Park , S. E. Ball , N. R. Kitteringham , A. W. McLaren , J. S. Miles , P. Skett & C. R. Wolf (1992). Relative expression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in human liver and association with the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Biochemical Journal 281, 359–368.
M. R. Franklin (1991). Drug metabolizing enzyme induction by simple diaryl pyridines; 2-substituted isomers selectively increase only conjugation enzyme activities, 4-substituted isomers also induce cytochrome P450. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 111, 24–32.
K. Frenkel , K. Chrzan , C. A. Ryan , R. Wiesner & W. Troll (1987). Chymotrypsin-specific protease inhibitors decrease hydrogen peroxide formation by activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Carcinogenesis 8, 1207–1212.
R. S. Friling , S. Bergelson & V. Daniel (1992). Two adjacent AP-1 like binding sites form the electrophile responsive element of the murine glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89, 668–672.
U. Fuhr , K. Klittich & A. H. Staib (1993). Inhibitory effect of grapefruit juice and its bitter principal, naringenin, on CYP1A2 dependent metabolism of caffeine in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 35, 431–436.
R. K. Gandhi & K. L. Khanduja (1992). Action of caffeine in altering the carcinogen-activating and carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes in mice. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 12, 19–26.
D. E. Godar , D. P. Thomas , S. A. Miller & W. Lee (1993). Long-wavelength UVA radiation induces oxidative stress, cytoskeletal damage and hemolysis. Photochemistry and Photobiology 57, 1018–1026.
F. J. Gonzalez , S. Y. Liu & M. Yano (1993). Regulation of cytochrome-P450 genes—molecular mechanisms. Pharmacogenetics 3, 51–57.
R. A. Goodlad , A. J. Madgwick , M. R. Moffatt , S. Levin , J. L. Allen & N. A. Wright (1989). Prostaglandins and the gastric epithelium: effects of misoprostol on gastric epithelial cell proliferation in the dog. Gut 30, 316–321.
J. S. Goodwin (1984). Immunologic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. American Journal of Medicine 77 (4B), 7–15.
F. Griepentrog (1973). [Pathological-anatomical results on the effect of coumarin in animal experiments.] Toxicology 1, 93–102.
J. Groden , Y. Nakamura & J. German (1990). Molecular evidence that homologous recombination occurs in proliferating human somatic cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 87, 4315–4319.
C. J. Grubbs , I. Eto , M. M. Juliana & L. M. Whitaker (1991). Effect of canthaxanthin on chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis. Oncology 48, 239–245.
F. P. Guengerich (1992 a). Metabolic activation of carcinogens. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 54, 17–61.
F. P. Guengerich (1992 b). Human cytochrome-P-450 enzymes. Life Sciences 50, 1471–1478.
Z. Guo , T. J. Smith , E. Wang , K. I. Eklind , F. L. Chung & C. S. Yang (1993). Structure-activity relationships of arylalkyl isothiocyanates for the inhibition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone metabolism and the modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rats and mice. Carcinogenesis 14, 1167–1173.
B. Halliwell (1990). How to characterize a biological antioxidant. Free Radical Research Communications 9, 1–32.
T. Horie , S. Awazu , Y. Itakura & T. Fuwa (1992). Identified diallyl polysulfides from an aged garlic extract which protects the membranes from lipid peroxidation. Planta Medica 58, 468–469.
M. Z. Hossain , L. R. Wilkens , P. P. Mehta , W. Loewenstein & J. S. Bertram (1989). Enhancement of gap junctional communication by retinoids correlates with their ability to inhibit neoplastic transformation. Carcinogenesis 10, 1743–1748.
A. F. Howie , L. M. Forrester , M. J. Glancey , J. J. Schlager , G. Powis , G. J. Beckett , J. D. Hayes & C. R. Wolf (1990). Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase expression in normal and tumour human tissues. Carcinogenesis 11, 451–8.
D. S. Huang , O. E. Odeleye & R. R. Watson (1992). Inhibitory effects of canthaxanthin on in vitro growth of murine tumor cells. Cancer Letters 65, 209–213.
H. Imanishi , Y. F. Sasaki , T. Ohta , M. Watanabe , T. Kato & Y. Shirasu (1991). Tea tannin components modify the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations in mutagen-treated cultured mammalian cells and mice. Mutation Research 259, 79–87.
T. Inouye , Y. F. Sasaki , H. Imanishi , M. Watanabe , T. Ohta & Y. Shirasu (1988). Suppression of mitomycin C-induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells by post-treatment with vanillin. Mutation Research 202, 93–95.
M. Ishidate , M. C. Harnois & T. Sofuni (1988). A comparative analysis of data on the clastogenicity of 951 chemical substances tested in mammalian cell cultures. Mutation Research 195, 151–213.
T. Ishikawa (1992). The ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate export pump. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 17, 463–468.
P. H. Jellinck , P. G. Forkert , D. S. Riddick , A. B. Okey , J. J. Michnovicz & H. L. Bradlow (1993). Ah receptor binding properties of indole carbinols and induction of hepatic estradiol hydroxylation. Biochemical Pharmacology 45, 1129–1136.
H. Jyonouchi , R. J. Hill , Y. Tomita & R. A. Good (1991). Studies of immunomodulating actions of carotenoids. I. Effects of β-carotene and astaxanthin on murine lymphocyte functions and cell surface marker expression in in vitro culture system. Nutrition and Cancer 16, 93–105.
H. Jyonouchi , L. Zhang & Y. Tomita (1993). Studies of immunomodulating actions of carotenoids. II. Astaxanthin enhances in vitro antibody production to T-dependent antigens without facilitating polyclonal B-cell activation. Nutrition and Cancer 19, 269–280.
A. Kasamaki , T. Yasuhara & S. Urasawa (1987). Neoplastic transformation of Chinese hamster cells in vitro after treatment with flavoring agents. Journal of Toxicological Sciences 12, 383–396.
K. Kato , A. D. Cox , M. M. Hisaka , S. M. Graham , J. E. Buss & C. J. Der (1992). Isoprenoid addition to Ras protein is the critical modification for its membrane association and transforming activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89, 6403–6407.
R. Kato , T. Nakadate , S. Yamamoto & T. Sugimura (1983). Inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced tumor promotion and ornithine decarboxylase activity by quercetin: possible involvement of lipoxygenase inhibition. Carcinogenesis 4, 1301–1305.
K. S. Kilgore & B. R. Lucchesi (1993). Reperfusion injury after myocardial infarction: the role of free radicals and the inflammatory response. Clinical Biochemistry 26, 359–370.
A. Klone , R. Hussnatter & H. Sies (1992). Cloning, sequencing and characterization of the human alpha-glutathione S-transferase gene corresponding to the cDNA clone pGTH2. Biochemical Journal 285, 925–928.
A. M. Kore , E. H. Jeffery & M. A. Wallig (1993). Effects of 1-isothiocyanato-3-(methylsulfinyl)-propane on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 31, 723–729.
B. Korp´ssy & M. Mosonyi (1950). The carcinogenic activity of tannic acid. Liver tumours induced in rats by prolonged subcutaneous administration of tannic acid solutions. British Journal of Cancer 4, 411–420.
N. I. Krinsky (1993). Actions of carotenoids in biological systems. Annual Review of Nutrition 13, 561–587.
J. P. Landers & N. J. Bunce (1991). The Ah receptor and the mechanism of dioxin toxicity. Biochemical Journal 276, 273–287.
L. M. Larocca , L. Teofili , G. Leone , S. Sica , L. Pierelli , G. Menichella , G. Scambia , P. Benedetti Panici , R. Ricci , M. Piantelli & F. O. Ranelletti (1991). Antiproliferative activity of quercetin on normal bone marrow and leukaemic progenitors. British Journal of Haematology 79, 562–566.
H. P. Lee , L. Gourley , S. W. Duffy , J. Estève , J. Lee & N. E. Day (1991). Dietary effects on breast-cancer risk in Singapore. Lancet 337, 1197–1200.
L. Levine , P. M. Hinkle , E. F. Voelkel & A. H. Tashjian (1972). Prostaglandin production by mouse fibrosarcoma cells in culture: inhibition by indomethacin and aspirin. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 47, 888–896.
C. Lind , P. Hochstein & L. Ernster (1982). DT-diaphorase as a quinone reductase: a cellular control device against semiquinone and superoxide radical formation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 216, 178–185.
D. Lucas , J. F. Menez , F. Berthou , J. M. Cauvin & R. A. Deitrich (1992). Differences in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme induction by pyrazole, chronic ethanol, 3-methylcholanthrene, and phenobarbital in high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats. Alcoholism—Clinical and Experimental Research 16, 916–921.
M. E. McManus & R. A. McKinnon (1991). Measurement of cytochrome P450 activation of xenobiotics using the Ames Salmonella test. Methods in Enzymology 206, 501–509.
M. Maiorino , A. Zamburlini , A. Roveri & F. Ursini (1993). Prooxidant role of vitamin-E in copper induced lipid peroxidation. FEBS Letters 330, 174–176.
A. K. Mallett , C. A. Bearne , B. G. Lake & I. R. Rowland (1989). Modified mutagen activation in hepatic fractions from rats fed dietary rutin. Interaction between gut flora and host metabolism. Food and Chemical Toxicology 27, 607–611.
A. K. Mallett & I. R. Rowland (1990). Bacterial enzymes: their role in the formation of mutagens and carcinogens in the intestine. Digestive Diseases 8, 71–79.
P. S. Mamont , P. Böhlen , P. P. McCann , P. Bey , F. Schuber & C. Tardif (1976). α-Methyl ornithine, a potent competitive inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, blocks proliferation of rat hepatoma cells in culture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 73, 1626–1630.
B. Manervik & U. H. Danielson (1988). Glutathione S-transferases-structure and catalytic activity. CRC Critical Reviews in Biochemistry 23, 283–337.
B. M. Markaverich , R. R. Roberts , M. A. Alejandro , G. A. Johnson , B. S. Middleditch & J. H. Clark (1988). Bioflavonoid interaction with rat uterine type II binding sites and cell growth inhibition. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 30, 71–78.
M. M. Mathews-Roth (1982). Antitumor activity of β-carotene, canthaxanthin and phytoene. Oncology 39, 33–37.
A. Meister (1991). Glutathione deficiency produced by inhibition of its synthesis, and its reversal; applications in research and therapy. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 51, 155–194.
J. J. Michnovicz & H. L. Bradlow (1990). Induction of estradiol metabolism by dietary indole-3-carbinol in humans. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 82, 947–949.
J. J. Michnovicz & H. L. Bradlow (1991). Altered estrogen metabolism and excretion in humans following consumption of indole-3-carbinol. Nutrition and Cancer 16, 59–66.
J. O. Miners & P. I. Mackenzie (1991). Drug glucuronidation in humans. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 51, 347–369.
I. Morel , G. Lescoat , P. Cogrel , O. Sergent , N. Pasdeloup , P. Brissot , P. Cillard & J. Cillard (1993). Antioxidant and iron-chealting activities of the flavonoids catechin, quercetin and diosmetin on iron-loaded rat hepatocyte cultures. Biochemical Pharmacology 45, 13–19.
A. Mori , C. Nishino , N. Enoki & S. Tawata (1988). Cytotoxicity of plant flavonoids against HeLa cells. Phytochemistry 27, 1017–1020.
M. A. Morse , K. I. Eklind , S. G. Amin , S. S. Hecht & F. L. Chung (1989). Effects of alkyl chain length on the inhibition of NNK-induced lung neoplasia in A/J mice by arylalkyl isothiocyanates. Carcinogenesis 10, 1757–1759.
M. A. Morse & G. D. Stoner (1993). Cancer chemoprevention: principles and prospects. Carcinogenesis 14, 1737–1746.
K. Mukai , K. Sawada , Y. Kohno & J. Terao (1993). Kinetic study of the prooxidant effect of tocopherol. Hydrogen abstraction from lipid hydroperoxides by tocopheroxyls in solution. Lipids 28, 747–752.
A. W. Murray , A. Fournier & S. J. Hardy (1978). Proteolytic activation of protein kinase C: a physiological reaction? Trends in Biochemical Science 12, 53–54.
S. R. R. Musk & I. T. Johnson (1993 a). Allyl isothiocyanate is selectively toxic to transformed cells of the human colorectal tumour line HT29. Carcinogenesis 14, 2079–2083.
H. Nagasawa & R. Konishi (1988). Stimulation by caffeine of spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in mice. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology 24, 803–805.
M. Nanno , M. Morotomi , H. Takayama , T. Kuroshima , R. Tanaka & M. Mutai (1986). Mutagenic activation of biliary metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene by β-glucuronidase-positive bacteria in human faeces. Journal of Medical Microbiology 22, 351–355.
D. R. Nelson , T. Kamataki , D. J. Waxman , F. P. Guengerich , R. W. Estabrook , R. Feyereisen , F. J. Gonzalez , M. J. Coon , I. C. Gunsalus , O. Gotoh , K. Okuda & D. W. Nebert (1993). The P450 superfamily – update on new sequences, gene mapping, accession numbers, early trival names of enzymes, and nomenclature. DNA and Cell Biology 12, 1–51.
A. Nishikawa , F. Furukawa , T. Imazawa , H. Yoshimura , K. Mitsumori & M. Takahashi (1992). Effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and sodium selenite on pancreatic carcinogenesis in hamsters after initiation with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine. Carcinogenesis 13, 1379–1382.
C. A. O'Brian , N. E. Ward & V. G. Vogel (1990). Inhibition of protein kinase C by the 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate antagonist glycyrrhetic acid. Cancer Letters 49, 9–12.
I. Oguni , K. Nasu , S. Kanaya , Y. Ota , S. Yamamoto & T. Nomura (1989). Epidemiological and experimental studies on the antitumor activity by green tea extracts. Japanese Journal of Nutrition 47, 43–48.
T. Ohta , K. Watanabe , M. Moriya , Y. Shirasu & T. Kada (1993 a). Anti-mutagenic effects of coumarin and umbelliferone on mutagenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide or UV irradiation in E. coli. Mutation Research 117, 135–138.
T. Ohta , K. Watanabe , M. Moriya , Y. Shirasu & T. Kada (1983 b). Analysis of the antimutagenic effect of cinnamaldehyde on chemically induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Molecular and General Genetics 192, 309–315.
T. Ohta , M. Watanabe , Y. Shirasu & T. Inoue (1988). Post-replication repair and recombination in uvr A umuC strains of Escherichia coli are enhanced by vanillin, an antimutagenic compound. Mutation Research 201, 107–112.
T. Ohta , M. Watanabe , K. Watanabe , Y. Shirasu & T. Kada (1986). Inhibitory effects of flavourings on mutagenesis induced by chemicals in bacteria. Food and Chemical Toxicology 24, 51–54.
J. Okuzumi , H. Nishino , M. Murakoshi , A. Iwashima , Y. Tanaka , T. Yamane , Y. Fujita & T. Takahashi (1990). Inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid, on N-myc expression and cell cycle progression in human malignant tumor cells. Cancer Letters 55, 75–81.
J. Okuzumi , T. Takahashi , T. Yamane , Y. Kitao , M. Inagake , K. Ohya , H. Nishino & Y. Tanaka (1993). Inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid, on N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced mouse duodenal carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters 68, 159–168.
R. E. Pacifici & K. J. A. Davies (1990). Protein degradation as an index of oxidative stress. Methods in Enzymology 186, 485–502.
L. Packer (1992). New horizons in vitamin E research – the vitamin E cycle, biochemistry, and clinical applications. In Lipid-soluble Antioxidants: Biochemistry and Clinical Applications, pp. 1–15 [A. S. H. Ong and L. Packer , editors]. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag.
S. R. Powell & A. J. Tortolani (1992). Recent advances in the role of reactive oxygen intermediates in ischemic injury. 1. Evidence demonstrating presence of reactive oxygen intermediates. 2. Role of metals in site-specific formation of radicals. Journal of Surgical Research 53, 417–429.
H. J. Prochaska , M. J. De Long & P. Talalay (1985). On the mechanisms of induction of cancer-protective enzymes: a unifying proposal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 82, 8232–8236.
H. J. Prochaska & A. B. Santamaria (1988). Direct measurement of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase from cells cultured in microtiter wells: a screening assay for anticarcinogenic enzyme inducers. Analytical Biochemistry 169, 328–336.
A. Pung , J. E. Rundhaug , C. N. Yoshizawa & J. S. Bertram (1988). β-Carotene and canthaxanthin inhibit chemically- and physically-induced neoplastic transformation in 10T1/2 cells. Carcinogenesis 9, 1533–1539.
C. V. Rao , B. Simi & B. S. Reddy (1993). Inhibition by dietary curcumin of azoxymethane-induced ornithine decarboxylase, tyrosine protein kinase, arachidonic acid metabolism and aberrant crypt foci formation in the rat colon. Carcinogenesis 14, 2219–2225.
M. Raveendran , J. Thanislass , G. U. Maheswari & H. Devaraj (1993). Induction of prooxidant state by the food flavor cinnamaldehyde in rat liver. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 4, 181–183.
D. W. Reif (1992). Ferritin as a source of iron for oxidative damage. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 12, 417–427.
J. Remacle , D. Lambert , M. Raes , E. Pigeolet , C. Michiels & O. Toussaint (1992). Importance of various antioxidant enzymes for cell stability – confrontation between theoretical and experimental data. Biochemical Journal 286, 41–46.
R. J. Riley & P. Workman (1992). DT-diaphorase and cancer chemotherapy. Biochemical Pharmacology 43, 1657–1669.
E. J. Rousseau , A. J. Davison & B. Dunn (1992). Protection by β-carotene and related compounds against oxygen-mediated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity – implications for carcinogenesis and anticarcinogenesis. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 13, 407–433.
I. R. Rowland , A. K. Mallett & A. Wise (1985). The effect of diet on the mammalian gut flora and its metabolic activities. CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology 16, 31–103.
F. Rozen , T. Nguyen & C. B. Pickett (1992). Isolation and characterization of a human glutathione S-transferase Hal subunit gene. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 292, 589–593.
R. J. Ruch , S.-J. Cheng & J. E. Klaunig (1989). Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea Carcinogenesis 10, 1003–1008.
J. Rueff , A. Laires , J. Gaspar , H. Borba & A. Rodrigues (1992). Oxygen species and the genotoxicity of quercetin. Mutation Research 265, 75–81.
Y. F. Sasaki , H. Imanishi , M. Watanabe , T. Ohta & Y. Shirasu (1990 a). Suppressing effect of antimutagenic flavorings on chromosome aberrations induced by UV-light or X-rays in cultured Chinese hamster cells. Mutation Research 229, 1–10.
M. Sato , T. Narisawa , M. Sano , T. Takahashi & A. Goto (1983). Growth inhibition of transplantable murine colon adenocarcinoma 38 by indomethacin. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 106, 21–26.
F.-P. Schelp & P. Pongpaew (1988). Protection against cancer through nutritionally-induced increase of endogenous proteinase inhibitors – a hypothesis. International Journal of Epidemiology 17, 287–292.
E. M. Scholar , K. Wolterman , D. F. Birt & E. Bresnick (1989). The effect of diets enriched in cabbage and collards on murine pulmonary metastasis. Nutrition and Cancer 12, 121–126.
G. N. Schrauzer (1992). Mechanistic aspects of anticarcinogenic action. Biological Trace Element Research 33, 51–62.
R. Schuckelt , R. Brigelius-Flohe , M. Maiorino , A. Roveri , J. Reumkens , W. Strassburger , F. Ursini , B. Wolf & L. Flohe (1991). Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase is a selenoenzyme distinct from the classical glutathione peroxidase as evident from cDNA and amino acid sequencing. Free Radical Research Communications 14, 343–361.
B. C. Scott , J. Butler , B. Halliwell & O. I. Aruoma (1993). Evaluation of the antioxidant actions of ferulic acid and catechins. Free Radical Research Communications 19, 241–253.
K. D. R. Setchell & H. Aldercreutz (1988). Mammalian lignans and phyto-oestrogens. Recent studies on their formation, metabolism and biological role in health and disease. In Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 315–345 [I. R. Rowland , editor]. London: Academic Press.
A. M. Shamsuddin & A. Ullah (1989). Inositol hexaphosphate inhibits large intestinal cancer in F344 rats 5 months following induction by azoxymethane. Carcinogenesis 10, 625–626.
H. G. Shertzer & M. Sainsbury (1991). Chemoprotective and hepatic enzyme induction properties of indole and indenoindole antioxidants in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 29, 391–400.
X. Shi , N. S. Dalal & A. C. Jain (1991). Antioxidant behaviour of caffeine: efficient scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. Food and Chemical Toxicology 29, 1–6.
K. Shimoi , Y. Nakamura , I. Tomita & T. Kada (1985). Bio-antimutagenic effects of tannic acid on UV and chemically induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli B/r. Mutation Research 149, 17–23.
G. Shklar & J. Schwartz (1988). Tumor necrosis factor in experimental cancer regression with alphatocopherol, beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and algae extract. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology 24, 839–850.
T. J. Slaga (1983). Overview of tumor promotion in animals. Environmental Health Perspectives 50, 3–14.
K. K. Soudamini & R. Kuttan (1989). Inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis by curcumin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 27, 227–233.
S. Sugie , N. Yoshimi , A. Okumara , T. Tanaka & H. Mori (1993). Modifying effects of benzyl isothiocyanate and benzyl thiocyanate on DNA synthesis in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Carcinogenesis 14, 281–283.
L. Sutherland , T. Ebner & B. Burchell (1993). The expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases of the UGT1 family in human liver and kidney and in response to drugs. Biochemical Pharmacology 45, 295–301.
S. Suzuki , T. Takada , Y. Sugawara , T. Muto & R. Kominami (1991). Quercetin induces recombinational mutations in cultured cells as detected by DNA fingerprinting. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 82, 1061–1064.
S. Takahashi , K. Hakoi , H. Yada , M. Hirose , N. Ito & S. Fukushima (1992). Enhancing effects of diallyl sulfide on hepatocarcinogenesis and inhibitory actions of the related diallyl disulfide on colon and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 13, 1513–1518.
P. Talalay , M. J. De Long & H. J. Prochaska (1988). Identification of a common chemical signal regulating the induction of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 85, 8261–8265.
T. Tanaka , Y. Morishita , M. Suzui , T. Kojima , A. Okumura & H. Mori (1994). Chemoprevention of mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis by the naturally occuring carotenoid astaxanthin. Carcinogenesis 15, 15–19.
N. Tawfiq , S. Wanigatunga , R. K. Heaney , S. R. R. Musk , G. Williamson & G. R. Fenwick (1994). Induction of the anticarcinogenic enzyme quinone reductase by food extracts using murine hepatoma cells. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, in Press.
N. T. Telang , A. Suto , G. Y. Wong , M. P. Osborne & H. L. Bradlow (1992). Induction by estrogen metabolite 16 α-hydroxyestrone of genotoxic damage and aberrant proliferation in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 84, 634–638.
C. Tong , M. Fazio & G. M. Williams (1980). Cell cycle-specific mutagenesis at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase locus in adult rat liver epithelial cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 77, 7377–7379.
W. Troll , R. Wiesner & K. Frenkel (1987). Anticarcinogenic action of protease inhibitors. Advances in Cancer Research 49, 265–283.
F. Ursini & A. Bindoli (1987). The role of selenium peroxidases in the protection against oxidative damage of membranes. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 44, 255–276.
F. Ursini , M. Maiorino & C. Gregolin (1985). The selenoenzyme phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 839, 62–70.
L. C. VanderPloeg & C. W. Welsch (1991). Inhibition by caffeine of ovarian hormone-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female GR mice. Cancer Letters 56, 245–250.
M. A. Wallig , M. J. Kuchan & J. A. Milner (1993). Differential effects of cyanohydroxybutene and selenium on normal and neoplastic canine mammary cells in vitro. Toxicology Letters 69, 97–105.
Z. Y. Wang , R. Agarwal , Z. C. Zhou , D. R. Bickers & H. Mukhtar (1991). Inhibition of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and skin tumor initiating and tumor promoting activities in SENCAR mice by glycyrrhetinic acid: comparison of 18 α- and β-stereoisomers. Carcinogenesis 12, 187–192.
H. G. Weed , R. B. McGandy & A. R. Kennedy (1985). Protection against dimethylhydrazine-induced adenomatous tumors of the mouse colon by the dietary addition of an extract of soybeans containing the Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor. Carcinogenesis 6, 1239–1241.
D. E. Williams , H. M. Carpenter , D. R. Buhler , J. D. Kelly & M. Dutchuk (1992). Alterations in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and carcinogen metabolism in liver microsomes of vitamin-E-deficient trout and rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 116, 78–84.
H. G. Williams-Ashman & Z. N. Canellakis (1979). Polyamines in mammalian biology and medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 22, 421–453.
H. Witschi & A. R. Kennedy (1989). Modulation of lung tumor development in mice with the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor. Carcinogenesis 10, 2275–2277.
H. M. Wortelboer , E. C. M. Vanderlinden , C. A. Dekruif , J. Noordhoek , B. J. Blaauboer , P. J. van Bladeren & H. E. Falke (1992). Effects of indole-3-carbinol on biotransformation enzymes in the rat. In vivo changes in liver and small intestinal mucosa in comparison with primary hepatocyte cultures. Food and Chemical Toxicology 30, 589–599.
L. Wu & J. P. Whitlock (1993). Mechanism of dioxin action – receptor-enhancer interactions in intact cells. Nucleic Acids Research 21, 119–125.
T. Yamaguchi (1980). Mutagenicity of isothiocyanates, isocyanates and thioureas on Salmonella typhimurium. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 44, 3017–3018.
J. Yavelow , M. Collins , Y. Birk , W. Troll & A. R. Kennedy (1985). Nanomolar concentrations of Bowman-Birk soybean protease inhibitor suppress x-ray-induced transformation in vitro. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 82, 5395–5399.
D. M. Ziegler (1991). Mechanism, multiple forms and substrate specificities of flavin containing monooxygenases. In N-oxidation of Drugs: Biochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology, pp. 59–70 [P. Hlavica and L. A. Damani , editors]. London: Chapman and Hall.
Y. Zhang , P. Talalay , C.-G. Cho & G. H. Posner (1992). A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89, 2399–2403.