Skip to main content Accessibility help

Garlic in health and disease

  • S. V. Rana (a1), R. Pal (a1), K. Vaiphei (a2), Sanjeev K. Sharma (a1) and R. P. Ola (a1)...


The present article reviews the historical and popular uses of garlic, its antioxidant, haematological, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties and its potential toxicity (from sulfoxide). Garlic has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been shown that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. Since garlic and its constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, bioactivation and tumour proliferation, it is imperative that biomarkers be established to identify which individuals might benefit most. Garlic powder, aged garlic and garlic oil have demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase-mediated thromboxane synthesis. Garlic has also been found to have synergistic effects against Helicobacter pylori with a proton pump inhibitor. The active compound allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against isoniazid+rifampicin-induced liver injury in experimental animal models. Several mechanisms are likely to account for this protection.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Garlic in health and disease
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Garlic in health and disease
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Garlic in health and disease
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr S. V. Rana, fax +91 172 2744401, email


Hide All
1Fenwick, GR & Hanley, AB (1985) The genus Allium. Part 2. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 22, 273277.
2Matsuura, H, Ushiroguchi, T, Itakura, T, et al. . (1988) A furostanol glycoside from garlic bulbs of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 36, 36593663.
3Kaku, H, Goldstein, IJ, Van Damme, EJM, et al. . (1992) New mannose-specific lectins from garlic (Allium sativum) and ramsons (Allium ursinum) bulbs. Carbohydr Res 229, 347353.
4Amagase, H, Petesch, LB, Matsuura, H, et al. . (2001) Intake of garlic and its bioactive compounds. J Nutr 31, 955S962S.
5Lawson, LD & Gardner, CD (2005) Composition, stability, and bioavailability of garlic products used in a clinical trial. J Agric Food Chem 53, 62546261.
6Egen-Schwind, C, Eckard, R & Kemper, FH (1992) Metabolism of garlic constituents in the isolated perfused rat liver. Planta Medica 58, 301305.
7Lachmann, G, Horenz, D, Radeck, W, et al. . (1994) The pharmacokinetics of the S-35 labeled garlic constituents alliin, allicin and vinyldithiine (article in German). Arzeimitteforschung 44, 734743.
8Su, CC, Chen, GW, Tan, TW, et al. . (2006) Crude extract of garlic induced caspase-3 gene expression leading to apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. In Vivo 20, 8590.
9Manson, MM, Ball, HW, Barrett, MC, et al. . (1997) Mechanism of action of dietary chemoprotective agents in rat liver: induction of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and aflatoxin B1 metabolism. Carcinogenesis 18, 17291738.
10Wang, BH, Zuzel, KA, Rahman, K, et al. . (1999) Treatment with aged garlic extract protects against bromobenzene toxicity to precision cut rat liver slices. Toxicology 132, 215225.
11Singh, A & Shukla, Y (1998) Antitumor activity of diallyl sulfide in two-stage mouse skin model of carcinogenesis. Biomed Environ Sci 11, 258263.
12Hughes, MF, Chamulitrat, W, Mason, RP, et al. . (1989) Epoxidation of 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene via a hydroperoxide-dependent mechanism catalyzed by lipoxygenases. Carcinogenesis 10, 20752080.
13Roy, P & Kulkarni, AP (1999) Co-oxidation of acrylonitrile by soybean lipoxygenase and partially purified human lung lipoxygenase. Xenobiotica 29, 511531.
14Singh, A & Singh, SP (1997) Modulatory potential of smokeless tobacco on the garlic, mace or black mustard-altered hepatic detoxication system enzymes, sulfhydryl content and lipid peroxidation in murine system. Cancer Lett 118, 109114.
15Hu, X, Benson, PJ, Srivastava, SK, et al. . (1997) Induction of glutathione S-transferase π as a bioassay for the evaluation of potency of inhibitors of benzo(a)pyrene-induced cancer in a murine model. Int J Cancer 73, 897902.
16Morihara, N, Nishihama, T, Ushijima, M, et al. . (2007) Garlic as an anti-fatigue agent. Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 13291334.
17Tattelman, E (2005) Health effects of garlic. Am Fam Physician 72, 103106.
18Ryzhenkov, VE & Makarov, VG (2003) Biologically active substances in garlic (Allium sativum L.) and their application in nutrition for humans (article in Russian). Vopr Pitam 72, 4246.
19Ghazanfar, SA (1994) Handbook of Arabian Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
20Kapoor, LD (1990) CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
21Peirce, A (1999) The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs: The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.
22Barnes, J, Anderson, LA & Phillipson, ID (1996) Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
23Woodward, PW (1996) Garlic and Friends: The History, Growth and Use of Edible Alliums. Melbourne: Hyland House Publishing.
24El Shenawy, NS, Soliman, MF & Reyad, SI (2008) The effect of antioxidant properties of aqueous garlic extract and Nigella sativa as anti-schistosomiasis agents in mice. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 50, 2936.
25Liu, HG & Xu, LH (2007) Garlic oil prevents tributyltin-induced oxidative damage in vivo and in vitro. J Food Prot 70, 716721.
26Ogita, A, Nagao, Y, Fujita, K, et al. . (2007) Amplification of vacuole-targeting fungicidal activity of antibacterial antibiotic polymyxin B by allicin, an allylsulfur compound from garlic. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 60, 511518.
27Chan, KC, Yin, MC & Chao, WJ (2007) Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 45, 502507.
28Kumaraguruparan, R, Chandra Mohan, KV & Abraham, SK (2005) Attenuation of N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by tomato and garlic combination. Life Sci 76, 22472255.
29Prasad, K, Haxdal, A, Yu, M, et al. . (1995) Antioxidant activity of allicin, an active principle in garlic. Mol Cell Biochem 148, 183189.
30Imai, J, Ide, N, Nagae, S, et al. . (1994) Antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of aged garlic extract and its constituents. Planta Medica 60, 417420.
31Melaleb, R (1993) Antioxidant, antitumor and cardiovascular actions of garlic. Herbal Gram 29, 1872.
32Torok, B, Belaggi, J & Reitz, B (1994) Effectiveness of garlic on the radical activity in radical generating system. Arzeimittelfrschung 44, 608611.
33Chang, HS, Yamato, O, Yamasaki, M, et al. . (2005) Modulatory influence of sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate from garlic on cyclooxygenase activity in canine platelets: possible mechanism for the anti-aggregatory effect. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 72, 351355.
34Lewin, G & Popev, I (1994) Antioxidant effect of aqueous garlic extract. 2nd communication: inhibition of the Cu(2+)-initiated oxidation of low density lipoproteins. Arzneimettelforchung 44, 604607.
35Ahmad, MS & Ahmed, N (2006) Antiglycation properties of aged garlic extract: possible role in prevention of diabetic complications. J Nutr 136, 796S799S.
36Park, EY, Ki, SH, Ko, MS, et al. . (2005) Garlic oil and DDB, comprised in a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of patients with viral hepatitis, prevents acute liver injuries potentiated by glutathione deficiency in rats. Chem Biol Interact 155, 8296.
37Sener, G, Sehirli, O, Ipçi, Y, et al. . (2005) Aqueous garlic extract alleviates ischaemia–reperfusion-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 57, 145150.
38Augusti, KT (1996) Therapeutic values of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.). Indian J Exp Biol 34, 634640.
39Fukao, T, Hosono, T, Misawa, S, et al. . (2004) The effects of allyl sulfides on the induction of phase II detoxification enzymes and liver injury by carbon tetrachloride. Food Chem Toxicol 42, 743749.
40Arivazhagan, S, Velmurugan, B, Bhuvaneswari, V, et al. . (2004) Effects of aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) and neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on hepatic and blood oxidant–antioxidant status during experimental gastric carcinogenesis. J Med Food 7, 334339.
41Pérez-Severiano, S, Rodríguez-Pérez, M, Pedraza-Chaverrí, J, et al. . (2004) S-Allylcysteine, a garlic-derived antioxidant, ameliorates quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative damage in rats. Neurochem Int 45, 11751183.
42Borek, C (2006) Garlic reduces dementia and heart-disease risk. J Nutr 136, 810S812S.
43Liu, Jz, Lin, XY & Milner, JZ (1992) Dietary garlic powder increase glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase activity in rat liver and mammary tissues. FASEB J 6, A3230A3231.
44Wang, Z, Peng, Z, Keng, R, et al. . (1998) Effect of allicin in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 27, 415457.
45Williams, MJ, Sutherland, WH, McCormick, MP, et al. . (2005) Aged garlic extract improves endothelial function in men with coronary artery disease. Phytother Res 19, 314319.
46Dhawan, V & Jain, S (2004) Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem 266, 109115.
47Khanum, F, Anilakumar, KR & Viswanatham, KR (2004) Anticarcinogenic properties of garlic: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 44, 479488.
48Durak, I, Aytac, B, Atmaca, Y, et al. . (2004) Effects of garlic extract consumption in plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in atherosclerotic patients. Life Sci 75, 19571966.
49Zahid, AM, Hussain, ME & Fahim, M (2005) Antiatherosclerotic effects of dietary supplementations of garlic and turmeric: restoration of endothelial function in rats. Life Sci 77, 837857.
50Gonen, A, Harats, D, Rabinkov, A, et al. . (2005) The antiatherogenic effect of allicin: possible mode of action. Pathobiology 72, 325334.
51Gebhardt, R & Beck, H (1996) Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Lipids 31, 12691276.
52Larner, AJ (1995) How does garlic exert its hypocholesterolaemic action? The tellurium hypothesis. Med Hypotheses 44, 295307.
53Yeh, YY & Liu, L (2001) Cholesterol lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studies. J Nutr 131, 989S993S.
54Mathew, BC, Daniel, RS & Augusti, KT (1996) Hypolipidemic effect of garlic protein substituted for casein in diet of rats compared to those of garlic oil. Indian J Exp Biol 34, 337340.
55Chetty, KN, Calaham, L, Harris, KC, et al. . (2003) Garlic attenuates hypercholesterolemic risk factors in olive oil fed rats and high cholesterol fed rats. Pathophysiology 9, 127132.
56Chowdhury, SR, Chowdhury, SD & Smith, TK (2002) Effects of dietary garlic on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens. Poult Sci 81, 18561862.
57Liu, L & Yeh, YY (2002) S-alk(en)ylcysteines of garlic inhibit cholesterol synthesis by deactivating HMG-CoA reductase in cultured rat hepatocytes. J Nutr 132, 11291144.
58Kweon, MJ, Song, YS, Choi, MS, et al. . (2003) Cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity and atherogenic parameters in rabbits supplemented with cholesterol and garlic powder. Life Sci 72, 29532964.
59Hsu, CC, Huang, CN, Hung, YC, et al. . (2004) Five cysteine-containing compounds have antioxidative activity in Balb/cA mice. J Nutr 134, 149152.
60Ahmed, RS & Sharma, SB (1997) Biochemical studies on combined effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) in albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 35, 841843.
61Silagy, C & Neil, A (1994) Garlic as a lipid lowering agent – a meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28, 3945.
62Jain, AK, Varges, R, Gotzkowsky, S, et al. . (1993) Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study. Am J Med 94, 632635.
63Campbell, JH, Efendy, JL, Smith, NJ, et al. . (2001) Molecular basis by which garlic suppresses atherosclerosis. J Nutr 131, 1006S1009S.
64Ismail, MF, Gad, MZ & Handy, MA (1999) Study of the hypolipidemic properties of pectin, garlic and ginseng in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Pharmacol Res 39, 157166.
65Jung, F, Jung, EM, Mrowietz, C, et al. . (1990) Influence of garlic powder on cutaneous microcirculation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study in apparently healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pract 69, 3035.
66Siegel, G, Walter, A, Engel, S, et al. . (1999) Pleiotropic effects of garlic. Wien Med Wochenschr 149, 217224.
67Fisher, CD, Augustine, LM, Maher, JM, et al. . (2007) Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes by garlic and allyl sulfide compounds via activation of constitutive androstane receptor and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2. Drug Metab Dispos 35, 9951000.
68Kodai, S, Takemura, S, Minamiyama, Y, et al. . (2007) S-allyl cysteine prevents CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Free Radic Res 41, 489497.
69Pal, R, Vaiphei, K, Sikander, A, et al. . (2006) Effect of garlic on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in rats. World J Gastroenterol 12, 636639.
70Fancelli, SL, Castro, GD, de Toranzo, FG, et al. . (1998) Mechanisms of the preventive properties of some garlic components in the carbon tetrachloride-promoted oxidative stress. Diallyl sulfide; diallyl disulfide; allyl mercaptan and allyl methyl sulfide. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 102, 163174.
71Senapati, SK, Dey, S, Dwivedi, SK, et al. . (2001) Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract on tissue lead level in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 76, 229232.
72Arora, A, Seth, K & Shukla, Y (2004) Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by diallyl sulfide in K562 leukemic cells and in mouse liver. Carcinogenesis 25, 941949.
73Bergès, R, Siess, MH, Arnault, J, et al. . (2004) Comparison of the chemopreventive efficacies of garlic powders with different alliin contents against aflatoxin B1 carcinogenicity in rats. Carcinogenesis 25, 19531959.
74Kalantari, H & Salehi, M (2001) The protective effect of garlic oil on hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice and comparison with N-acetylcysteine. Saudi Med J 22, 10801084.
75Sheweita, SA, Abd El-Gabar, M & Bastawy, M (2001) Carbon tetrachloride induced changes in the activity of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver of male rats: role of antioxidants. Toxicology 165, 217224.
76Gedik, N, Kabasakal, L, Sehirli, O, et al. . (2005) Long-term administration of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) alleviates liver fibrosis and oxidative damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats. Life Sci 76, 25932606.
77Caldwell, SH, Jeffers, LI, Narula, OS, et al. . (1992) Ancient remedies revisited: does Allium sativum (garlic) palliate the hepatopulmonary syndrome? J Clin Gastroenterol 15, 248250.
78Pearson, W, Charch, A, Brewer, D, et al. . (2007) Pilot study investigating the ability of an herbal composite to alleviate clinical signs of respiratory dysfunction in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Can J Vet Res 71, 145151.
79Wojcikowski, K, Myers, S & Brooks, L (2007) Effects of garlic oil on platelet aggregation: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Platelets 18, 2934.
80MacDonald, JA, Marchand, ME & Langler, RF (2004) Improving upon the in vitro biological activity of antithrombotic disulfides. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 15, 447450.
81Ide, N, Keller, C & Weiss, N (2006) Aged garlic extract inhibits homocysteine-induced CD36 expression and foam cell formation in human macrophages. J Nutr 136, 755S757S.
82Chung, I, Kwon, SH, Shim, ST, et al. . (2007) Synergistic antiyeast activity of garlic oil and allyl alcohol derived from alliin in garlic. J Food Sci 72, M437M440.
83Eja, ME, Asikong, BE, Abriba, C, et al. . (2007) A comparative assessment of the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and antibiotics on diarrheagenic organisms. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38, 343348.
84Al-Waili, NS, Saloom, KY, Akmal, M, et al. . (2007) Effects of heating, storage, and ultraviolet exposure on antimicrobial activity of garlic juice. J Med Food 10, 208212.
85Aydin, A, Bostan, K, Erkan, ME, et al. . (2007) The antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (ciğ köfte). J Med Food 10, 203207.
86Groppo, FC, Ramacciato, JC, Motta, RH, et al. . (2007) Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. Int J Dent Hyg 5, 109115.
87Sallam, KI, Ishioroshi, M & Samejima, K (2007) Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage. Lebenson Wiss Technol 37, 849855.
88Konaklieva, MI & Plotkin, BJ (2006) Antimicrobial properties of organosulfur anti-infectives: a review of patent literature 1999–2005. Recent Patents Anti-Infect Drug Disc 1, 177180.
89Amin, M & Kapadnis, BP (2005) Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Allium ascalonicum against bacteria and fungi. Indian J Exp Biol 43, 751754.
90Maldonado, PD, Chanez, CME & Pedraza, CJ (2005) Aged garlic extract, garlic-powder extract, S-allylcysteine, diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide do not interfere with the antibiotic activity of gentamicin. Phytother Res 19, 252254.
91Cañizares, P, Gracia, I, Gómez, LA, et al. . (2004) Allyl-thiosulfinates, the bacteriostatic compounds of garlic against Helicobacter pylori. Biotechnol Prog 20, 397401.
92Sivam, GP, Lampe, JW, Ulness, B, et al. . (1997) Helicobacter pyloriin vitro susceptibility to garlic (Allium sativum) extract. Nutr Cancer 27, 118121.
93Cellini, L, Di Campli, E, Masulli, M, et al. . (1996) Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by garlic extract (Allium sativum). FEMS Immunol Med Microbial 13, 273277.
94Chowdhury, AK, Ahsam, M, Islam, SN, et al. . (1991) Efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic and allicin in experimental shigellosis in rabbits. Indian J Med Res 93, 3336.
95Howard, EW, Lee, DT, Chiu, YT, et al. . (2008) Evidence of a novel docetaxel sensitizer, garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine, as a treatment option for hormone refractory prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 122, 19411948.
96Jo, HJ, Song, JD, Kim, KM, et al. . (2008) Diallyl disulfide induces reversible G2/M phase arrest on a p53-independent mechanism in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. Oncol Rep 19, 275280.
97Devrim, E & Durak, I (2007) Is garlic a promising food for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer? Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 13191323.
98Nigam, N & Shukla, Y (2007) Preventive effects of diallyl sulfide on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced DNA alkylation damage in mouse skin. Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 13241328.
99Kaur, P & Singh, R (2007) In vivo interactive effect of garlic oil and vitamin E against stavudine induced genotoxicity in Mus musculus. Indian J Exp Biol 45, 807811.
100Lu, HF, Yang, JS, Lin, YT, et al. . (2007) Diallyl disulfide induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 expression in human colon cancer colo 205 cells using differential display RT-PCR. Cancer Genomics Proteomics 4, 9397.
101Zhang, ZM, Yang, XY, Deng, SH, et al. . (2007) Anti-tumor effects of polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles of diallyl trisulfide on orthotopic transplantation tumor model of hepatocellular carcinoma in BALB/c nude mice. Chin Med J (Engl) 120, 13361342.
102Das, A, Banik, NL & Ray, SK (2007) Garlic compounds generate reactive oxygen species leading to activation of stress kinases and cysteine proteases for apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells. Cancer 110, 10831095.
103Khan, A, Shukla, Y, Kalra, N, et al. . (2007) Potential of diallyl sulfide bearing pH-sensitive liposomes in chemoprevention against DMBA-induced skin papilloma. Mol Med 13, 443451.
104Iciek, M, Marcinek, J, Mleczko, U, et al. . (2007) Selective effects of diallyl disulfide, a sulfane sulfur precursor, in the liver and Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Eur J Pharmacol 569, 17.
105Lemar, KM, Aon, MA, Cortassa, S, et al. . (2007) Diallyl disulphide depletes glutathione in Candida albicans: oxidative stress-mediated cell death studied by two-photon microscopy. Yeast 24, 695706.
106Terrasson, J, Xu, B, Li, M, et al. . (2007) Activities of Z-ajoene against tumour and viral spreading in vitro. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 21, 281289.
107Agarwal, MK, Iqbal, M & Athar, M (2007) Garlic oil ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced damage and tumor promotion: implications for cancer prevention. Food Chem Toxicol 45, 16341640.
108Schulz, M, Lahmann, PH, Boeing, H, et al. . (2005) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cancer Epidemol Biomarkers Prev 14, 25312535.
109Bose, C, Guo, J, Zimniak, L, et al. . (2002) Critical role of allyl groups and disulfide chain in induction of Pi class glutathione transferase in mouse tissues in vivo by diallyl disulfide, a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent in garlic. Carcinogenesis 23, 16611665.
110Hu, DJ (1990) Protective effect of diallyl sulfide, a natural extract of garlic, on MNNG-induced damage of rat glandular stomach mucosa. Zhonghua Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 12, 429431.
111Srivastava, SK, Hu, X, Xia, H, et al. . (1997) Mechanism of differential efficacy of garlic organosulfides in preventing benzo(a)pyrene-induced cancer in mice. Cancer Lett 118, 6167.
112Ip, C & Disk, DJ (1997) Modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by selenium-enriched garlic in rats. Nutr Cancer 28, 184188.
113Augusti, KT & Mathew, PT (1975) Effect of allicin on certain enzymes of liver after a short term feeding to normal rats. Experientia 31, 148149.
114Dixit, VP & Joshi, S (1982) Effects of chronic administration of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) on testicular function. Indian J Exp Biol 20, 534566.
115Egen-Schwind, C, Eckard, R, Jekat, FW, et al. . (1992) Pharmacokinetics of vinyldithiins, transformation products of allicin. Planta Med 58, 813.
116Alnaqeeb, MA, Thomson, M, Bordia, T, et al. . (1996) Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats. Toxicol Lett 85, 157164.
117Fehri, M, Aiache, JM, Korbi, S, et al. . (1991) Toxic effects induced by the repeat administration of Allium sativum L. J Pharm Belg 46, 363374.
118Banerjee, SK, Maulik, M, Manchanda, SC, et al. . (2001) Garlic-induced alteration in rat liver and kidney morphology and associated changes in endogenous antioxidant status. Food Chem Toxicol 39, 793797.
119Jocelyn, PC (1972) Biochemistry of the SH Group: The Occurrence, Chemical Properties, Metabolism and Biological Functions of Thiols and Disulphides, p. 107. New York: Academic Press.
120Shashikanth, KN, Basappa, SC & Sreenivasa Murthy, VA (1984) A comparative study of raw garlic extract and tetracycline on caecal microflora and serum proteins of albino rats. Folia Microbial 29, 348352.
121Ruffin, J & Hunter, SA (1983) An evaluation of the side effects of garlic as an antihypertensive agent. Cytobios 37, 8589.
122Desai, HG, Kalro, RH & Choksi, AP (1990) Effect of ginger and garlic on DNA content of gastric aspirate. Indian J Med Res 92, 139141.
123Yadav, RK & Verma, NS (2004) Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on the heart rate, rhythm and force of contraction in frog: a dose dependent study. Indian J Exp Biol 42, 628631.
124Das, T, Roychoudhury, A, Sharma, A, et al. . (1996) Effects of crude garlic extract on mouse chromosomes in vivo. Food Chem Toxicol 34, 4347.
125Nakagawa, S, Masamoto, K, Sumiyoshi, H, et al. . (1980) Effect of raw and extracted-aged garlic juice on growth of young rats and their organs after peroral administration (article in Japanese). J Toxicol Sci 5, 91112.
126Chen, L, Hong, JY, So, E, et al. . (1999) Decrease of hepatic catalase level by treatment with diallyl sulfide and garlic homogenates in rats and mice. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 13, 127133.
127Joseph, PK, Rao, KR & Sundaresh, CS (1989) Toxic effects of garlic extract and garlic oil in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 27, 977979.
128Sheen, LY, Chen, HW, Kung, YL, et al. . (1999) Effects of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds on the activities of hepatic drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high- and low-fat diets. Nutr Cancer 35, 160166.
129Banerjee, SK & Maulik, SK (2002) Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review. Nutr J 1, 4.
130Scharbert, G, Kalb, ML, Duris, M, et al. . (2007) Garlic at dietary doses does not impair platelet function. Anesth Analg 105, 12141218.
131Gadkari, JV & Joshi, VD (1991) Effect of ingestion of raw garlic on serum cholesterol level, clotting time and fibrinolytic activity in normal subjects. J Postgrad Med 37, 128131.
132Asdaq, SM & Inamdar, MN (2011) The potential benefits of a garlic and hydrochlorothiazide combination as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in rats. J Nat Med 65, 8188.
133Asdaq, SM, Inamdar, MN & Asad, M (2010) Pharmacodynamic interaction of garlic with propranolol in ischemia–reperfusion induced myocardial damage. Pak J Pharm Sci 23, 4247.
134Satitvipawee, P, Rawdaree, P, Indrabhakti, S, et al. . (2003) No effect of garlic extract supplement on serum lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. J Med Assoc Thai 86, 750757.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Garlic in health and disease

  • S. V. Rana (a1), R. Pal (a1), K. Vaiphei (a2), Sanjeev K. Sharma (a1) and R. P. Ola (a1)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.