Adorini, L (2003) Tolerogenic dendritic cells induced by vitamin D receptor ligands enhance regulatory T cells inhibiting autoimmune diabetes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 987, 258–261.
Arroyo, CM, Kan, RK, Burman, DL, Kahler, DW, Nelson, MR, Corun, CM, Guzman, JJ & Broomfield, CA (2003) Regulation of 1-α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 induced by sulfur mustard (HD) on human skin cells. Pharmacology and Toxicology 92, 204–213.
Arunabh, S, Pollack, S, Yeh, J & Aloia, JF (2003) Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 88, 157–161.
Barzilay, JL, Abraham, L, Heckbert, SR, Cushman, M, Kuller, LH, Resnick, HE & Tracy, RP (2001) The relation of markers of inflammation to the development of glucose disorders in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Diabetes 50, 2384–2389.
Bays, H, Mandarino, L & DeFronzo, RA (2004) Role of the adipocyte, free fatty acids, and ectopic fat in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor agonists provide a rational therapeutic approach. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89, 463–478.
Becker, BN, Hullet, DA, O'Herrin, JK, Malin, G, Sollinger, HW & DeLuca, H (2002) Vitamin D as immunomodulatory therapy for kidney transplantation. Transplantation 74, 1204–1206.
Berger, B, Stenstrom, G & Sundkvist, G (1999) Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of diabetes in a large population: a report from the Skaraborg Diabetes Registry. Diabetes Care 22, 773–777.
Bermudez, EA, Rifai, N, Buring, J, Manson, JA & Ridker, PM (2002) Interrelationships among circulating interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in women. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 22, 1668–1673.
Beutler, B, Mahoney, J, Le Trang, N, Pekala, P & Cerami, A (1985) Purification of cachectin, a lipoprotein lipase-suppressing hormone secreted by endotoxin-induced RAW 264. Journal of Experimental Medicine 161, 984–995.
Beutler, BA & Cerami, A (1985) Recombinant interleukin 1 suppresses lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Journal of Immunology 135, 3969–3971.
Borissova, AM, Tankova, T, Kirilov, G, Dakovska, L & Kovacheva, R (2003) The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. International Journal of Clinical Practice 57, 258–261.
Boucher, BJ, Mannan, N, Noonan, K, Hales, CN & Evans, SJ (1995) Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D, deficiency in east London Asians. Diabetologia 38, 1239–1245.
Cantorna, MT, Zhu, Y, Froicu, M & Wittke, A (2004) Vitamin D status, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and the immune system. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80, Suppl., 1717S–1720S.
Cheung, AT, Ree, D, Kolls, JK, Fuselier, J, Coy, DH & Bryer-Ash, M (1998) An in vivo model for elucidation of the mechanism of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced insulin resistance: evidence for differential regulation of insulin signaling by TNF-α. Endocrinology 139, 4928–4935.
Chiu, KC, Chu, A, Go, VLW & Saad, MF (2004) Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, 820–825.
Chiu, KC, Chuang, L-M, Martinez, DS & Yoon, C, (2001 a) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is a key determinant for insulin sensitivity. Diabetes 50, A512
Chiu, KC, Chuang, L-M, Yoon, C & Chu, A (2001 b) The impact of the FokI polymorphism at the vitamin D receptor gene on insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. Diabetes 50, Suppl. 2, A234.
Das, UN (2001) Is obesity an inflammatory condition? Nutrition 17, 953–966.
DeLuca, HF & Zierold, C (1998) Mechanisms and functions of vitamin D. Nutrition Reviews 56, S4–S10.
Engström, G, Stavenow, L, Hedblad, B, Lind, P, Eriksson, KF, Janzon, L & Lindgarde, F (2003) Inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins, diabetes, and mortality of myocardial infarction and stroke: a population-based study. Diabetes 52, 442–447.
Esposito, K, Pontillo, A, Giugliano, F, Giugliano, G, Marfella, R, Nicoletti, G & Giugliano, D (2003) Association of low interleukin-10 levels with the metabolic syndrome in obese women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 88, 1055–1058.
Fernandez-Real, JM, Broch, M, Vendrell, J & Rieart, W (2000) Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and lipid abnormalities in healthy subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85, 1334–1339.
Ford, ES (2002) Leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and diabetes incidence in a national sample of US adults. American Journal of Epidemiology 155, 57–64.
Freeman, DJ, Norrie, J, Caslake, MJ, Gaw, A, Ford, I, Lowe, GD, O'Reilly, DS, Packard, CJ, Sattar, N & West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (2002) C-reactive protein is an independent predictor of risk of the development of diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Diabetes 51, 1596–1600.
Freeman, DJ, Norrie, J, Sattar, N, Neely, RD, Cobbe, SM, Ford, I, Isles, C, Lorimer, AR, Macfarlane, PW, McKillop, JH, Packard, CJ, Shepherd, J, et al. (2001) Pravastatin and the development of diabetes mellitus: evidence for a protective treatment effect in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Circulation 103, 357–362.
Gewurz, H, Zhang, XH & Lint, TF (1995) Structure and function of the pentraxins. Current Opinion in Immunology 7, 54–64.
Han, TS, Sattar, N, Williams, K, González-Villalpando, C, Lean, ME & Haffner, SM (2002) Prospective study of C-reactive protein in relation to the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the Mexico City Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 25, 2016–2021.
Harant, H, Spinner, D, Reddy, GS & Lindley, IJ (2000) Natural metabolites of 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 retain biologic activity mediated through the vitamin D receptor. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 78, 112–120.
Harant, H, Wolff, B & Lindley, IJ (1998) 1-Alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 decreases DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB in human fibroblasts. FEBS Letters 436, 239–334.
Hewison, M, Zehnder, D, Chakraverty, R & Adams, JS (2004) Vitamin D and barrier function: a novel role for extra-renal 1α-hydroxylase. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 215, 31–38.
Higashimori, T, Kim, H-J, Choi, H, Liu, Z-X, Dong, J, Kim, Y-K, Noh, H-L, Kim, Y-B & Jason, K (2003) Interleukin-6 induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver in vivo. Diabetes 52, A422
Holick, MF (2004 a) Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80, Suppl., 1678S–1688S.
Holick, MF (2004 b) Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, 362–371.
Hundal, RS, Petersen, KF, Mayerson, AB, Randhawa, PS, Inzucchi, S, Shoelson, SE & Shulman, GI (2002) Mechanism by which high-dose aspirin improves glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Investigation 109, 1321–1326.
Isaia, G, Giorgino, R & Adami, S (2001) High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in female type 2 diabetic population. Diabetes 24, 1496.
Ishimura, E, Nishizawa, Y, Koyama, H, Shoji, S, Inaba, M & Morii, H (1995) Impaired vitamin D metabolism and reponse in spontaneously diabetic GK rats. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism 21, 205–210.
Jiang, C, Ting, AT & Seed, B (1998) PPAR-gamma agonists inhibit production of monocyte inflammatory cytokines. Nature 391, 82–86.
Kadowaki, S & Norman, AW (1985) Demonstration that the vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)2-D3 and not 24R,25(OH)2-D3 is essential for normal insulin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. Diabetes 34, 315–320.
Kershaw, EE & Flier, JS (2004) Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89, 2548–2556.
Kim, H-J, Higashimori, T, Choi, H, Liu, Z-X, Dong, J, Kim, Y-K, Noh, H-L, Kim, Y-B & Jason, K (2003) Pre-treatment of interleukin-10 prevents lipid-induced and interleukin-6-induced insulin resistance in vivo. Diabetes 52, A290.
Klover, P, Zimmers, T, Koniaris, L & Mooney, RA (2003) Acute or chronic exposure to interleukin-6 induces hepatic insulin resistance in vivo. Diabetes 52, A290.
Koj, A, Magielska-Zero, D, Bereta, J, Kurdowska, A, Rokita, H & Gauldie, J (1988) The cascade of inflammatory cytokines regulating synthesis of acute phase proteins. Journal of Experimental Medicine 13, 255–264.
Lagraine, C & Lebranchu, Y (2003) Effects of immunosupressive drugs on dendritic cells and tolerance induction. Transplantation 75, 37S–42S.
Lemire, JM (1995) Immunomodulatory actions of 1,25-dihydroxivitamin D3. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 53, 599.
Lemire, JM, Archer, DC, Beck, L & Spiegelberg, HL (1995) Immunosuppressive actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: preferential inhibition of Th1 functions. Journal of Nutrition 125, 1704S–1708S.
Long, KZ & Santos, JI (1999) Vitamins and the regulation of the immune response. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 18, 283–290.
Mahon, BD, Wittke, A, Weaver, V & Cantorna, MT (2003) The targets of vitamin D depend on the differentiation and activation status of CD4 positive T cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 89, 922–932.
Matheu, V, Back, O, Mondoc, E & Issazadeh-Navikas, S (2003) Dual effects of vitamin D-induced alteration of Th1/Th2 cytokine expression: enhancing IgE production and decreasing airway eosinophilia in murine allergic airway disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112, 585–592.
Mathieu, C, Jos, L, Halina, S, Michel, V, Mark, W & Roger, B (1992) 1,25-dihydroxivitamin D3 prevents insulitis in NOD mice. Diabetes 41, 1491–1495.
O'Kelly, J, Hisatake, J, Hisatake, Y, Bishop, J, Norman, A & Koeffler, HP (2002) Normal myelopoiesis but abnormal T lymphocyte responses in vitamin D receptor knockout mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 109, 1091–1099.
Ogunkolade, B-J, Boucher, B, Prahl, JM, Bustin, SA, Burrin, JM, Noonan, K, North, BV, Mannan, N, McDermott, MF, DeLuca, HF & Hitman, GA (2002) Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and protein levels in relation to vitamin D status, insulin secretory capacity, andVDR genotype in Bangladeshi Asians. Diabetes 51, 2294–2300.
Oh, JY & Barrett-Connor, E (2002) Association between vitamin D receptor polymorphism and type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Metabolism 51, 356–359.
Papanicolaou, D (2000) Editorial: Interleukin-6: the endocrine cytokine. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85, 1331–1333.
Parikh, S, Edelman, M, Semega-Janneh, M, Freedman, R, Calis, K & Yanovski, J (2003) Relationships between calcitropic hormones and measures of insulin sensitivity in overweight adults. Diabetes 52, A293.
Parikh, SJ, Edelman, M, Uwaifo, GI, Freedman, RJ, Semega-Janneh, M, Reynolds, J & Yanovski, JA (2004) The relationship between obesity and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D concentrations in healthy adults. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89, 1196–1199.
Pepys, MB & Hirschfield, GM (2003) C-reactive protein: a critical update. Journal of Clinical Investigation 111, 1805–1812.
Pichler, J, Gerstmayr, M, Szepfalusi, Z, Urbanek, R, Peterlik, M & Willheim, M (2002) 1α,25(OH)2D3 inhibits not only Th1 but also Th2 differentiation in human cord blood T cells. Pediatric Research 52, 12–18.
Pickup, JC (2004) Inflammation and activated innate immunity in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 27, 813–823.
Pittas, A, Joseph, NA, Greenberg, A (2004) Adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89, 447–452.
Pradhan, AD, Manson, JE, Rifai, N, Buring, JE & Ridker, PM (2001) C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 286, 327–334.
Raiten, DJ & Picciano, MF (2004) Vitamin D and health in the 21st century: bone and beyond. Executive summary. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80, Suppl.1673S–1677S.
Reaven, GM (1988) Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 37, 1595–1607.
Rotter, V, Nagaev, I & Smith, U (2003) Interleukin-6 (IL-6) reduces gene and protein expression of IRS-1 and GLUT4 and is overexpressed in human fat cells from insulin-resistant subjects. Diabetes 51, A303.
Schmidt, MI, Duncan, BB, Sharrett, AR, Lindberg, G, Savage, PJ, Offenbacher, S, Azambuja, MI, Tracy, RP & Heiss, G (1999) Markers of inflammation and prediction of diabetes mellitus in adults (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study): a cohort study. Lancet 353, 1649–1652.
Scragg, R, Sowers, M & Bell, C (2004) Serum 25-hydroxivitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Care 27, 2813–2818.
Senn, JJ, Klover, PJ, Nowak, IA & Mooney, RA (2002) Interleukin-6 induces cellular insulin-resistance in hepatocytes. Diabetes 51, 3391–3399.
Smith, JK, Dykes, R, Douglas, JE, Krishnaswami, G & Berk, S (1999) Long-term exercise and atherogenic activity of blood mononuclear cells in persons at risk of developing ischemic heart disease. JAMA 281, 1722–1727.
Stevenson, MA, Zhao, MJ, Asea, A, Coleman, CN & Calderwood, SK (1999) Salicylic acid and aspirin inhibit the activity of RSK2 kinase and repress RSK2-dependent transcription of cyclic AMP response element binding protein- and NF-[kappa]B-responsive genes. Journal of Immunology 163, 5608–5616.
Timms, PM, Mannan, N, Hitman, GA, Noonan, K, Mills, PG, Syndercombe-Court, D, Aganna, E, Price, CP & Boucher, BJ (2002) Circulating MMP9, vitamin D and variation in the TIMP-1 response with VDR genotype: mechanisms for inflammatory damage in chronic disorders? QJM 95, 787–796.
Tracey, KJ & Cerami, A (1990) Metabolic responses to cachectin/TNF: a brief review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 587, 325–331.
Vieth, R (1999) Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 842–856.
Vozarova, B, Weyer, C, Lindsay, RS, Pratley, RE, Bogardus, C & Tataranni, PA (2002) High white blood cell count is associated with a worsening of insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 51, 455–461.
Weaver, CM & Fleet, JC (2004) Vitamin D, requirements: current and future. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80, Suppl.1735S–1739S.
Weisberg, SP, McCann, D, Desai, M, Rosenbaum, M, Leibel, RL & Ferrante, AW (2003) Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation 112, 1796–1808.
Worstman, J, Matsuoka, LY, Chen, TC, Lu, Z & Holick, MF (2000) Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72, 690–693.
Xu, H, Barnes, GT, Yang, Q, Tan, G, Yang, D, Chou, CJ, Sole, J, Nichols, A, Ross, JS, Tartaglia, LA & Chen, H (2003) Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Investigation 112, 1821–1830.
Yuan, M, Kostantopoulos, N, Lee, J, Hansen, L, Li, ZW, Karin, M & Shoelson, SE (2001) Reversal of obesity and diet-induced insulin resitance with salicylates or targeted disruption of Ikkbeta. Science 293, 1673–1677.
Yudkin, JS, Stehouwer, CD, Emeis, JJ & Coppack, SW (1999) C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction. A potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue? Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 19, 972–978.
Yusuf, S, Sleight, P, Pogue, J, Davies, R & Dagenais, G (2000) Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients: the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 145–153.
Zittermann, A (2003) Vitamin D, in preventive medicine: are we ignoring the evidence? British Journal of Nutrition 89, 552–572.