Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Value of traditional foods in meeting macro- and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection

  • Louis E. Grivetti (a1) and Britta M. Ogle (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

The importance of edible wild plants may be traced to antiquity but systematic studies are recent. Anthropologists, botanists, ecologists, food scientists, geographers, nutritionists, physicians and sociologists have investigated cultural aspects and nutrient composition of edible species. Important contributions to the diet from edible wild plants are well documented and numerous studies reveal roles played by ‘lesser-known’ species when meeting macro- and micronutrient needs of groups at risk, whether infants and children, pregnant and/or lactating women, or the elderly. The literature is vast and scattered but information on the macro- and micronutrient content of wild plants and their importance to the human diet appear in five kinds of publications: cultural works by social scientists, descriptions and inventories by botanists, dietary assessment studies by nutritionists, intervention programmes managed by epidemiologists and physicians, and composition data generally conducted by food scientists and chemists. Many macro- and micronutrient-dense wild species deserve greater attention but lack of adequate nutrient databases, whether by region or nation, limit educational efforts to improve diets in many Third World areas. Limited and uneven compositional data generally reflect factors of cost and personal interest in key nutrients. Whilst edible wild plants are regularly deprecated by policy makers and considered to be the ‘weeds of agriculture’, it would be tragic if this led to loss of ability to identify and consume these important available species.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Value of traditional foods in meeting macro- and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Value of traditional foods in meeting macro- and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Value of traditional foods in meeting macro- and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Dr Louis E.Grivetti, fax +1 530 752 8966, email legrivetti@ucdavis.edu
References
Hide All
Al-Eiswi DM & Takruri HR (1989) A checklist of wild edible plants in Jordan. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research Part B. Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7, 79102.
Ali M & Tsou SCS (1997) Combating micronutrient deficiencies through vegetables. A neglected food frontier in Asia. Food Policy 22, 1738.
Anderson E (1952) Plants, Man, and Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Anderson EF (1993) Plants and People of the Golden Triangle. Ethnobotany of the Hill Tribes of Northern Thailand. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press.
Anderson R, Calvo J, Serrano G & Payne G (1946) A study of the nutritional status and food habits of Otomí Indians in the Mezquital Valley of Mexico. American Journal of Public Health 36, 883903.
Anneger JF (1973) Seasonal food shortages in West Africa. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 2, 251257.
Apicius (1958) The Roman Cookery Book. A Critical Translation of the Art of Cooking, for Use in the Study and the Kitchen [B Flower and E Rosenbaum, translators]. London: George G. Harrap.
Arano LC (1976) Tacuinum Sanitatis. The Medieval Health Handbook. New York, NY: George Braziller.
Athenaeus (19271942) The Deipnosophists [CB Gulick, translator]. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Balick MJ & Cox PA (1996) Plants, People, and Culture. The Science of Ethnobotany. Scientific American Library Series no. 60. New York, NY: Scientific American Library.
Bates CJ (1983) Vitamin A in Pregnancy and Lactation. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 42, 6579.
Becker B (1983) The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal). Agroforestry Systems 1, 257267.
Becker B (1986) Wild plants for human nutrition in the Sahelian zone. Journal of Arid Environments 11, 6164.
Beemer H (1939) Notes on the diet of the Swazi in the Protectorate. Bantu Studies 13, 199236.
Bennett CF (1962) The Bayano Cuna Indians, Panama. An ecological study of livelihood and diet. Annals, Association of American Geographers 52, 3250.
Bernal Diaz del Castillo (1956) The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico. 1717–1521 [AP Maudslay, translator]. New York, NY: Grove Press.
Bhandari MM (1978) Flora of the Indian Desert. Jodhpur: Scientific Publishers.
Blum L, Pelto PJ, Pelto GH & Kuhnlein HV (1997) Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A. Guidelines for an Ethnographic Protocol. Boston, MA: International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries.
Booth SL, Johns T & Kuhnlein V (1992) Natural food sources of vitamin A. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 14, 619.
Brooke C (1967) Types of food shortages in Tanzania. Geographical Review 57, 333357.
Bukason SM (1930) The cultivated plants of Mexico, Guatemala, and Columbia. Bulletin of Applied Botany, Genetics, and Plant Breeding 47 470553.
Burgess A & Dean RFA (1962) Malnutrition and Food Habits. Report of an International and Interprofessional Conference. London: Tavistock Publications.
Calloway DH, Giauque RD & Costa FM (1974) The superior mineral content of some American Indian foods in comparison to federally donated counterpart commodities. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 3, 203211.
Campbell BM (1987) The use of wild plants in Zimbabwe. Economic Botany 41, 375385.
Caraka (1981) Caraka-Samhita. Agnivesa's Treatise Refined and Annotated by Caraka and Redacted by Drdhabala, vol. 1, Sutrasthana to Indriyasthana. [ Sharma P, editor]. Delhi: Chaukambha Orientalia.
Cortéz H (1929) Hernando Cortés. Five Letters, 1519 – 1526 (Cartas de Relacion) [ Ross ED and Power E, editors; JB Morris, translator]. New York, NY: Robert M. McBride and Co.
Cotton CM (1996) Ethnobotany: Principles and Applications. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Couplan F (1983) Encyclopedie des plantes comestibles de l'Europe (Encylopaedia of edible European plants). Paris: Debard.
Dalziel JM (1937) The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Being an Appendix to the Flora of West Tropical Africa by J. Hutchinson and J. M. Dalziel. London: Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations.
Darby WJ, Ghalioungui P & Grivetti LE (1977) Food. The Gift of Osiris. London: Academic Press.
de la Cruz M.(1552) (1940) The Badianus Manuscript (Codex Barberini, Latin 241) Vatican Library. An Aztec Herbal of 1552. [EW Emmart, translator]. Baltimore, MA: The Johns Hopkins Press.
de Pee S & West EE (1996) Dietary carotenoids and their role in combating vitamin A deficiency. A Review of the Literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, S38S53.
de Pee S, West CE, Muhilal , Karyadi D & Hautvast JGAJ (1996) Can increased vegetable consumption improve iron status?. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 17, 3436.
de Pee S, West CE, Permaesih D, Martuti S, Muhilal & Hautvast JG (1998) Orange fruit is more effective than are dark-green, leafy vegetables in increasing serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene in school children in Indonesia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, 10581067.
Dettwyler KA (1986) Infant feeding in Mali, West Africa. Variations in belief and practice. Social Science and Medicine 23, 651664.
Dettwyler KA (1988) Styles of infant feeding. Parental/caretaker control of food consumption in young children. American Anthropologist 91, 696703.
Dioscorides (1959) The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides [RT Gunther, translator]. New York, NY: Hafner.
Doughty J (1979 a) Dangers of reducing the range of food choices in developing countries. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 8, 275283.
Doughty J (1979 b) Decreasing variety of plant foods used in developing countries. Qualitas Plantarum 29, 163177.
Duc BM (1988) Study of the nutritive value and utilization of wild vegetables in Viet Nam. In Applied Nutrition. Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Nutrition, Hanoi, 25–29 April, 1986, pp. 327333. Hanoi: The National Institute of Nutrition and UNICEF.
Duke JA & Vasquez R (1994) Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Eromosele IC & Eromosele CO (1993) Studies on the chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of seeds of some wild plants. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 43, 251258.
Eromosele IC, Eromosele CO, Akintoye AO & Komolafe TO (1994) Characterization of oils and chemical analyses of the seeds of wild plants. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 46, 361365.
Eromosele IC, Eromosele CO & Kuzhkuzha DM (1991) Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 41, 151154.
Etkin NL (1986) Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet. Biobehavioral Approaches. Bedford Hills, NY: Redgrave Press.
Etkin NL (1994) Eating on the Wild Side. The Pharmacologic, Ecologic, and Social Implications of Using Noncultigens. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
Etkin NL & Ross PJ (1982) Food as medicine and medicine as food. Social Science and Medicine 16, 15591573.
Farfán A (1579, 1592) (1944) Tractado Breve de Medicina. Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispánica.
Felger R & Moser MB (1976) Seri Indian food plants. Desert subsistence without agriculture. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 5, 1327.
Finley DA, Dewey KG, Lonnerdal B & Grivetti LE (1985) Food choices of vegetarians and non-vegetarians during pregnancy and lactation. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 85, 678685.
Fitzgerald SL, Gibson RS, Portocarrero L & Deserrano JQ (1992) Food consumption patterns and dietary diversity of pregnant women living in a peri-urban area of Guatemala City. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 27, 115.
Fleuret A (1979) The role of wild foliage plants in the diet. A case study from Lushoto, Tanzania. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 8, 8793.
Fleuret P & Fleuret A (1991) Social organization, resource management, and child nutrition in the Taita Hills, Kenya. American Anthropologist 93, 91114.
Fox FW (1966) Studies on the Chemical Composition of Foods Commonly Used in Southern Africa. Johannesburg: South African Institute for Medical Research.
Gade DW (1972) South American lupin and the process of decline in the World Cultigen Inventory. Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquée 19, 8792.
Gilliland L (1986) Proximate analysis and mineral composition of traditional California Native American foods. MSc Thesis, University of California, Davis.
Glew RH, VanderJagt DJ, Lockett C, Grivetti LE, Smith GC, Pastuszyn A & Millson M (1998) Amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral composition of (24) indigenous plants of Burkina Faso. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 10, 205217.
Godshall AB (1942) Edible, Poisonous, and Medicinal Fruits of Central America. Panama Canal, Panama: privately published.
Grivetti LE (1976) Dietary resources and social aspects of food use in a Tswana tribe. PhD Thesis, University of California, Davis.
Grivetti LE (1978) Nutritional success in a semi-arid land. Examination of Tswana agro–pastoralists of the Eastern Kalahari, Botswana. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, 12041220.
Grivetti LE (1979) Kalahari agro–pastoral–hunter–gatherers. The Tswana example. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 7, 235256.
Grivetti LE (1980) Goat kraal gardens and plant domestication. Thoughts on ancient and modern food production. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 10, 57.
Grivetti LE (1981) Cultural nutrition. Anthropological and geographical themes. Annual Review of Nutrition 1, 4768.
Grivetti LE (1993) Nutritional anthropology. An integrated approach to pregnancy and delivery. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed., pp. 15171525. philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger.
Grivetti LE (1999) Sound nutrition in the midst of poverty. The Otomí revisited. In Proceedings, Cultural and Historical Aspects of Foods. Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow, pp. 9098 [Kelsey MW and Holmes Z-A, editors]. Corvallis, OR: Nutrition and Food Management College of Home Economics and Education, Oregon State University.
Grivetti LE, Frentzel CJ, Ginsberg KE, Howell KL & Ogle BM (1987) Bush foods and edible weeds of agriculture. Perspectives on dietary use of wild plants in Africa; their role in maintaining human nutritional status, and implications for agricultural development. In Health and Disease in Tropical Africa. Geographical and Medical Viewpoints, pp. 5181 [Akhtar R, editor]. London: Harwood.
Grivetti LE & Ogle BM (1980 a) Agricultural Development. Present and Potential Role of Edible Wild Plants. Part 1. Central and South America and the Caribbean. Report to the Department of State, Agency for International Development. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
Grivetti LE & Ogle BM (1980 b) Agricultural Development. Present and Potential Role of Edible Wild Plants. Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa. Report to the Department of State, Agency for International Development. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
Grivetti LE & Ogle BM (1980 c) Agricultural Development. Present and Potential Role of Edible Wild Plants. Part 3. India, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania. Report to the Department of State, Agency for International Development. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
Haddad L & Oshaug A (1999) How does the human rights perspective help to shape the food and nutrition policy research agenda?. Food Policy 23, 329345.
Harris R (1962) Influences of culture on man's diet. Archives of Environmental Health 5, 144152.
Harris RS & Munsell HE (1950) Edible plants of Central America. Journal of Home Economics 42, 629631.
Heiser CB (1973) Seed to Civilization. The Story of Man's Food. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman.
Hendrick UP (1919) Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants. Albany, NY: J. B. Lyon State Printer.
Hernández F (1577) (19421946) Historia de las Plantas de la Nueva España. [Ochoterena I, editor]. México City: Imprenta Universitaria.
Hongo T, Suzuki T, Ohtsuka R, Kawabe T, Inaoka T & Akimichi T (1989) Element intake of the Gidra in lowland Papua. Inter-village variation and the comparison with contemporary levels in developed countries. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 23, 293309.
Humphry CM, Clegg MS, Keen CL & Grivetti LE (1993) Food diversity and drought survival. The Hausa example. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 44, 116.
Hunter JM (1967) Seasonal hunger in a part of the West African savanna. A survey of body weights in Nangodi, North-east Ghana. Transactions, Institute of British Geographers 41, 167185.
Huss-Ashmore R & Curry JJ (1991) Diet, nutrition, and agricultural development in Swaziland. Part 2. Patterns of food consumption. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 26, 167185.
Irvine FR (1948 a) The indigenous food plants of West African peoples. Part 1. Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 49, 22236.
Irvine FR (1948 b) The indigenous food plants of West African peoples. Part 2. Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 49, 254267.
Irvine FR (1952) Supplementary and emergency food plants of West Africa. Economic Botany 6, 2340.
Isaac E (1970) Geography of Domestication. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Johansson A, Laakso P & Kallio H (1997) Characterization of seed oils of wild, edible Finnish berries. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel, Untersuchung und Forschung 204, 300307.
Johns T, Booth SL & Kuhnlein HV (1992) Factors influencing vitamin A intake and programmes to improve vitamin A status. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 14, 2033.
Jones SM (1963) A Study of Swazi Nutrition. Report of the Swaziland Nutrition Survey 1961–62 for the Swaziland Administration. Durban, South Africa: Institute for Social Research, University of Natal.
Kim SH & Oh S-Y (1996) Cultural and nutritional aspects of traditional Korean diet. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 79, 109132.
Krantzler NJ, Mullen BJ, Comstock EM, Holden CA, Schutz HG, Grivetti LE & Meiselman HL (1982 a) Methods of food intake assessment. An annotated bibliography. Journal of Nutrition Education 14, 108119.
Krantzler NJ, Mullen BJ, Schutz HG, Grivetti LE, Holden CA & Meiselman HL (1982 b) Validity of telephoned diet recalls and records for assessment of individual food intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, 12341242.
Kuhnlein HV (1986) Food sample collection for nutrient analyses in ethnobiological studies. Journal of Ethnobiology 6, 1925.
Kuhnlein HV (1989) Factors influencing use of traditional foods among the Nuxalk people. Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association 50, 102108.
Kuhnlein HV & Burgess S (1997) Improved retinol, ferritin and folate status in Nuxalk teenagers and adults after a health promotion programme. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 18, 202210.
Kuhnlein HV, Calloway DH & Harland BH (1979) Composition of traditional Hopi foods. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 75, 3741.
Kuhnlein HV & Pelto GH (1997) Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Boston, MA: International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries.
Kuhnlein HV & Turner NJ (1991) Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. Nutrition, Botany, and Use. Philadelphia, PA: Gordon and Breach.
Labadarios D, Walker ARP, Blaauw R & Walker BF (1996) Traditional diets and meal patterns in South Africa. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 79, 70108.
Lagouri V, Blekas G, Tsimidou M & Kokkini S (1993) Composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils from oregano plants grown wild in Greece. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel, Untersuchung and Forschung 197, 2023.
Lockett CT (1999) Nutritional consequences of food-related behaviors during drought and chemical composition of edible wild plants consumed by groups most vulnerable during the dry season. A study of the rural Fulani of northeast Nigeria. PhD Thesis, University of California, Davis.
Lundell CL (1937) The Vegetation of Petén. With an Appendix. Studies of Mexican and Central American Plants, vol. 1, publication no. 478. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institute of Washington.
McGregor J (1995) Gathered produce in Zimbabwe's communal areas changing resource availability and use. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 33, 163193.
Malaisse F & Parent G (1985) Edible wild vegetable products in the Zambezian woodland area. A nutritional and ecological approach. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 18, 4382.
Mandaville JP (1990) Flora of Eastern Saudi Arabia. London: Kegan Paul and Riyadh: National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development.
Mariath HGR, Lima MCC & Santos LMP (1989) Vitamin A activity of Burriti (Mauritia vinifera Mart.) and its effectiveness in the treatment and prevention of xeropthalmia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 849853.
Merrill ED & Walker EH (1938) A Bibliography of Eastern Asiatic Botany. Jamaica Plain, MA: Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University.
Miracle MP (1961) Seasonal hunger. A vague concept and an unexplored problem. Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire 23, 273283.
Mullen BJ, Krantzler NJ, Grivetti LE, Schutz HG & Meiselman HL (1984) Validity of a food frequency questionnaire for the determination of individual food intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 136143.
Nabhan GP (1985) Gathering the Desert. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences (1975) Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences.
National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences (1979) Tropical Legumes. Resources for the Future. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences.
Newman JL (1968) Geography and subsistence change among the Sandawe. PhD Thesis. University of Minnesota.
Newman JL (1970) The Ecological Basis for Subsistence Change among the Sandawe of Tanzania. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
Newman JL (1975) Dimensions of Sandawe diet. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 4, 3339.
Nietschmann BQ (1970) Between land and water. The subsistence ecology of the Miskito indians, eastern Nicaragua. PhD Thesis. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Nietschmann BQ (1971) The study of indigenous food production systems. Mere subsistence or merrily subsisting?. Revista Geographica 74, 8399.
Nordeide MB, Hatloy A, Folling M, Lied E & Oshaug A (1996) Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in Southern Mali. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 47, 455468.
Nordeide MB, Holm H & Oshaug A (1994) Nutrient composition and protein quality of wild gathered foods from Mali. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 45, 275286.
O'Dea K, White NG & Sinclair AJ (1988) An investigation of nutrition-related risk factors in an isolated Aboriginal community in northern Australia. Advantages of a traditionally-orientated life-style. Medical Journal of Australia 148, 177180.
Ogle BM (1982) Dietary utilization of wild plant resources in four ecological zones of rural Swaziland. MSc Thesis. University of California, Davis.
Ogle BM & Grivetti LE (1985 a) Legacy of the chameleon. Edible wild plants in the Kingdom of Swaziland, Southern Africa. A cultural, ecological, nutritional study. Part 1. Introduction, objectives, methods, Swazi culture, landscape, and diet. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 16, 193208.
Ogle BM & Grivetti LE (1985 b) Legacy of the chameleon. Edible wild plants in the Kingdom of Swaziland, Southern Africa. A cultural, ecological, nutritional study. Part 2. Demographics, species availability and dietary use, analysis by ecological zone. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 17, 130.
Ogle BM & Grivetti LE (1985 c) Legacy of the chameleon. Edible wild plants in the Kingdom of Swaziland, Southern Africa. A cultural, ecological, nutritional Study. Part 3. Cultural and ecological analysis. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 17, 3140.
Ogle BM & Grivetti LE (1985 d) Legacy of the chameleon. Edible wild plants in the Kingdom of Swaziland, Southern Africa. A cultural, ecological, nutritional study. Part 4. Nutritional analysis and conclusions. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 17, 4164.
Ogubu JO (1973) Seasonal hunger in tropical Africa as a cultural phenomenon. The Onicha Ibo of Nigeria and Chakaka Poka of Malawi examples. Africa 43, 317332.
Omori K & Greksa LP (1996) Dietary patterns and dietary adequacy of Highland Pwo and Sgaw Karen of Northeast Thailand. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 35, 219235.
Oomen HAPC & Grubben GJH (1978) Tropical Leaf Vegetables in Human Nutrition. Amsterdam: Koninklikj Instituut voor de Tropen.
Pennington C (1959) The material culture of the Tarahumara and their environment. PhD Thesis. University of California, Berkeley.
Pepping F, Vencken CMJ & West CE (1988) Retinol and carotene content of foods consumed in East Africa determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 45, 359371.
Pirie NW (1962) Indigenous foods. Advancement of Science 18, 467475.
Pirie NW (1969 a) Food Resources. Conventional and Novel. London: Penguin Books.
Pirie NW (1969 b) Plants as sources of unconventional protein foods. In All-Congress Symposium. World Food Supply, vol. 11. International Botanical Congress, Seattle, Washington, August 28th, (1969).
Prance GT & Elias TS (1977) Extinction is Forever. Threatened and Endangered Species of Plants in the Americas and Their Significance in Ecosystems Today and in the Future. Proceedings of a Symposium, May 1113, 1976, Bronx, New York. New York, NY: The New York Botanical Garden.
Raies RR (1980) Checklist of Economic Plants in Asia. Laguna, Philippines: Agricultural Information Bank for Asia.
Richards AI (1939) Land, Labour and Diet in Northern Rhodesia. An Economic Study of the Bemba Tribe. London: International Institute of African Languages and Cultures.
Robson JRK (1976) Changing food habits in developing countries. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 4, 251256.
Sauer JD (1950) The Grain Amaranths. A survey of their history and classification. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 37, 561632.
Schultes RE (1979) The Amazonia as a source of new economic plants. Economic Botany 33, 259266.
Scoones I, Melnyk M & Pretty JN (1992) The Hidden Harvest. Wild Foods and Agricultural Systems. A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. London: Sustainable Agriculture Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development.
Sena LP, VanderJagt DJ, Rivera C, Tsin AT, Muhamadu I, Mahamadou O, Millson M, Pastuszyn A & Glew RH (1998) Analysis of nutritional components of eight famine foods of the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 52, 1730.
Shrimpton R (1989) Vitamin A deficiency in Brazil. Perspectives for food production oriented interventions. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 23, 261271.
Simoons FJ (1991) Food in China. A Cultural and Historical Inquiry. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Smith GC, Clegg MS, Keen CL & Grivetti LE (1995) Mineral values of selected plant foods common to Southern Burkina Faso and to Niamey, Niger, West Africa. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 47, 4153.
Smith GC, Dueker SR, Clifford AJ & Grivetti LE (1996) Carotenoid values of selected plant foods common to Southern Burkina Faso, West Africa. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 35, 4358.
Speek AJ, Speeksaichusa S & Schreurs WHP (1991) Determination of macronutrient and micronutrient levels in Thai foods. An evaluation of the Thai food composition table. Food Chemistry 40, 251262.
Tanaka T (1976) Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World. Tokyo: Keigagu Publishing Company.
Terra GJA (1966) Tropical Vegetables. Communication no. 54e. Department of Agricultural Research of the Royal Tropical Institute. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute.
Uiso FC & Johns T (1996) Consumption patterns and nutritional contribution of Crotalaria brevidens (mitoo) in Tarime District, Tanzania. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 35, 5969.
Uphof JCH (1968) Dictionary of Economic Plants, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Stechert-Hafner.
Usher G (1974) A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. London: Constable.
Valaoras VG (1946) Some effects of famine on the population of Greece. Milbank Fund Quarterly 24, 215234.
Villard L & Bates CJ (1987) Dietary intake of vitamin A precursors by rural Gambian pregnant and lactating women. Human Nutrition 41, 135145.
von Maydell HJ (1990) Trees and Shrubs of the Sahel. Their Characteristics and Uses. Weikersheim: Verlag Josef Margraf.
von Reis A (1973) Drugs and Foods from Little-Known Plants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Washington G (1777) General Orders. Issued June 9th, 1777, Headquarters, Middle-Brook. National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Wilkes G (1977) Native crops and wild food plants. Ecologist 7, 312317.
Williams LO (1981) The Useful Plants of Central America. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Escuela Agrícola Panamericana.
Zeitlin MF, Megawangi R, Kramer EM & Armstrong HC (1992) Mothers' and children's intakes of vitamin A in rural Bangladesh. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 61366147.
Zinyama LM, Matiza T & Campbell DJ (1990) The use of wild foods during periods of food shortage in rural Zimbabwe. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 24, 251256.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 633 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 774 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.