B.B. Ackerman , F.G. Lindzey & T.P. Hemker (1984) Cougar food habits in southern Utah. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 48, 147–155.
V. Athreya , R. Navya , G.A. Punjabi , J.D.C. Linnell , M. Odden , S. Khetarpal & K.U. Karanth (2014) Movement and activity pattern of a collared tigress in a human-dominated landscape in central India. Tropical Conservation Science, 7, 75–86.
B.R. Bhattarai & K. Fischer (2014) Human–tiger Panthera tigris conflict and its perception in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Oryx, 48, 522–528.
S. Biswas & K. Sankar (2002) Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Zoology, 256, 411–420.
M. Bolton (1976) Royal Karnali Wildlife Reserve Managment Plan, 1976–1981. FAO/NEP/Project document 72/002. FAO, Rome, Italy.
S.T. Buckland , D.R. Anderson , K.P. Burnham , J.L. Laake , D.L. Borchers & L. Thomas (2001) Introduction to Distance Sampling. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
C. Carbone , S. Christie , K. Conforti , T. Coulson , N. Franklin , J.R. Ginsberg
et al. (2001) The use of photographic rates to estimate densities of tigers and other cryptic mammals. Animal Conservation, 4, 75–79.
P. Chanchani , B.R. Lamichhane , S. Malla , K. Maurya , A. Bista , R. Warrier
et al. (2014) Tigers of the Transboundary Terai Arc Landscape: Status, Distribution and Movement in the Terai of India and Nepal. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Government of India, and the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Government of Nepal.
P. Ciucci , E. Tosoni & L. Boitani (2004) Assessment of the point-frame method to quantify wolf Canis lupus diet by scat analysis. Wildlife Biology, 10, 149–153.
M. Dhakal , M. Karki , S.R. Jnawali , N. Subedi , N.M.B. Pradhan , S. Malla
et al. (2014) Status of Tigers and Prey in Nepal. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E. Dinerstein (1979) An ecological survey of the Royal Karnali-Bardia Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Part I: vegetation, modifying factors, and successional relationships. Biological Conservation, 15, 127–150.
E. Dinerstein , C. Loucks , A. Heydlauff , E. Wikramanayake , G. Bryja , J. Forrest
et al. (2006) Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005–20015. A User's Guide. WWF, WCS, Smithsonian & NFWF-STF, Washington, DC & New York, USA.
E. Dinerstein , K. Varma , E. Wikramanayake , G. Powell , S. Lumpkin , R. Naidoo
et al. (2013) Enhancing conservation, ecosystem services, and local livelihoods through a wildlife premium mechanism. Conservation Biology, 27, 14–23.
L.E. Farrell , J. Roman & M.E. Sunquist (2000) Dietary separation of sympatric carnivores identified by molecular analysis of scats. Molecular Ecology, 9, 1583–1590.
J.M. Goodrich (2010) Human–tiger conflict: a review and call for comprehensive plans. Integrative Zoology, 5, 300–312.
A.M. Gopalaswamy , J.A. Royle , J.E. Hines , P. Singh , D. Jathanna , N.S. Kumar & K.U. Karanth (2012) Program SPACECAP: software for estimating animal density using spatially explicit capture–recapture models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 1067–1072.
B. Gurung , J.L.D. Smith , C. McDougal , J.B. Karki & A. Barlow (2008) Factors associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Biological Conservation, 141, 3069–3078.
A. Harihar & B. Pandav (2012) Influence of connectivity, wild prey and disturbance on occupancy of tigers in the human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape. PLoS ONE, 7(7), e40105.
C. Inskip & A. Zimmermann (2009) Human–felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx, 43, 18–34.
B.K. Jack , C. Kousky & K.R.E. Sims (2008) Designing payments for ecosystem services: lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms. PNAS, 105, 9465–9470.
Y.V. Jhala , Q. Quereshi , R. Gopal & P.R. Sinha (eds) (2011) Status of Tigers, Co-predators and Prey in India, 2010. Technical Report. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Government of India, New Delhi, and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India.
S.R. Jnawali (1995) Population ecology of greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) with particular emphasis on habitat preference, food ecology and ranging behaviour of a reintroduced population in Royal Bardia National Park in lowland Nepal. PhD thesis. Agricultural University of Norway, Ås, Norway.
A. Joshi , S. Vaidyanathan , S. Mondol , A. Edgaonkar & U. Ramakhrishnan (2013) Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of central India. PLoS ONE, 8(11), e77980.
K.K. Karanth & S.K. Nepal (2012) Local residents’ perception of benefits and losses from protected areas in India and Nepal. Environmental Management, 49, 372–386.
K.U. Karanth (1995) Estimating tiger Panthera tigris populations from camera-trap data using capture–recapture models. Biological Conservation, 71, 333–338.
K.U. Karanth & J.D. Nichols (1998) Estimation of tiger densities in India using photographic captures and recaptures. Ecology, 79, 2852–2862.
K.U. Karanth & B.M. Stith (1999) Prey depletion as a critical determinant of tiger population viability. In Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes (eds
), pp. 100–113. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
K.U. Karanth & M.E. Sunquist (1995) Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests. Journal of Animal Ecology, 64, 439–450.
J. Kenney , F.W. Allendorf , C. McDougal & J.L.D. Smith (2014) How much gene flow is needed to avoid inbreeding depression in wild tiger populations?
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 281, 20133337.
W.A. Link & K.U. Karanth (1994) Correcting for overdispersion in tests of prey selectivity. Ecology, 75, 2456–2459.
S. Mukherjee , S.P. Goyal & R. Chellam (1994) Standardisation of scat analysis techniques for leopard Panthera pardus in Gir National Park, Western India. Mammalia, 58, 139–144.
K. Nowell & P. Jackson (1996) Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
D.L. Otis , K.P. Burnham , G.C. White & D.R. Anderson (1978) Statistical inference from capture data on closed animal populations. Wildlife Monographs, 62, 1–135.
R Development Core Team (2013) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
U. Ramakrishnan , R.G. Coss & N.W. Pelkey (1999) Tiger decline caused by the reduction of large ungulate prey: evidence from a study of leopard diets in southern India. Biological Conservation, 89, 113–120.
C.S. Rathore , Y. Dubey , A. Shrivastava , P. Pathak & V. Patil (2012) Opportunities of habitat connectivity for tiger (Panthera tigris) between Kanha and Pench National Parks in Madhya Pradesh, India. PLoS ONE, 7(7), e39996.
J.A. Royle , J.D. Nichols , K.U. Karanth & A.M. Gopalaswamy (2009) A hierarchical model for estimating density in camera-trap studies. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 118–127.
V.K. Saberwal , J.P. Gibbs , R. Chellam & A.J.T. Johnsingh (1994) Lion–human conflict in the Gir forest, India. Conservation Biology, 8, 501–507.
S. Sharma , T. Dutta , J.E. Maldonado , T.C. Wood , H.S. Panwar & J. Seidensticker (2013a) Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 280, 20131506.
S. Sharma , T. Dutta , J.E. Maldonado , T.C. Wood , H.S. Panwar & J. Seidensticker (2013b) Spatial genetic analysis reveals high connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the Satpura–Maikal landscape of Central India. Ecology and Evolution, 3, 48–60.
D. Simberloff , J.A. Farr , J. Cox & D.W. Mehlman (1992) Movement corridors: conservation bargains or poor investments?
Conservation Biology, 6, 493–504.
J.L.D. Smith , S.C. Ahearn & C. McDougal (1998) Landscape analysis of tiger distribution and habitat quality in Nepal. Conservation Biology, 12, 1338–1346.
M.E. Sunquist (1981) The social organization of tigers in Royal Chitawan National Park, Nepal. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 336, 1–98.
K.R. Suryawanshi , Y.V. Bhatnagar , S. Redpath & C. Mishra (2013) People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves. Journal of Applied. Ecology, 50, 550–560.
L. Thomas , S.T. Buckland , E.A. Rexstad , J.L. Laake , S. Strindberg , S.L. Hedley
et al. (2010) Distance software: design and analysis of distance sampling surveys for estimating population size. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 5–14.
L. Thomas , J.L. Laake , E. Rextad , S. Strindberg , F.F.C. Marques , S.T. Buckland
et al. (2009) Distance 6.0. Release 2. University of St. Andrews, UK.
A. Treves & K.U. Karanth (2003) Human–carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology, 17, 1491–1499.
P. Wegge , M. Odden , C.P. Pokharel & T. Storaas (2009) Predator–prey relationships and responses of ungulates and their predators to the establishment of protected areas: a case study of tigers, leopards and their prey in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Biological Conservation, 142, 189–202.
P. Wegge , C.P. Pokharel & S.R. Jnawali (2004) Effects of trapping effort and trap shyness on estimates of tiger abundance from camera trap studies. Animal Conservation, 7, 251–256.
P. Wegge , R. Shrestha & Ø. Flagstad (2012) Snow leopard Panthera uncia predation on livestock and wild prey in a mountain valley in northern Nepal: implications for conservation management. Wildlife Biology, 18, 131–141.
P. Wegge & T. Storaas (2009) Sampling tiger ungulate prey by the distance method: lessons learned in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Animal Conservation, 12, 78–84.
G.C. White , K.P. Burnham , D.L. Otis & D.R. Anderson (1978) Users’ Manual for Program CAPTURE. Utah State University Press, Utah, USA.
E. Wikramanayake , E. Dinerstein , J.G. Robinson , K.U. Karanth , A. Rabinowitz , D. Olson
et al. (1998) An ecology-based method for defining priorities for large mammal conservation: the tiger as case study. Conservation Biology, 12, 865–878.
E. Wikramanayake , M. McKnight , E. Dinerstein , A. Joshi , B. Gurung & D. Smith (2004) Designing a conservation landscape for tigers in human-dominated environments. Conservation Biology, 18, 839–844.
R. Woodroffe , S. Thirgood & A. Rabinowitz (eds) (2005) People and Wildlife: Conflict or Coexistence?
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
B. Yumnam , Y.V. Jhala , Q. Quereshi , J.E. Maldonado , R. Gopal , S. Saini
et al. (2014) Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages. PLoS ONE, 9(11), e111207.
J.H. Zar (1984) Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, USA.