Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Benefits of wildlife-based land uses on private lands in Namibia and limitations affecting their development

  • P. A. Lindsey (a1), C. P. Havemann (a1), R. M. Lines (a2), A. E. Price (a3), T. A. Retief (a1), T. Rhebergen (a4), C. Van der Waal (a5) and S. S. Romañach (a6)...

Abstract

Legislative changes during the 1960s–1970s granted user rights over wildlife to landowners in southern Africa, resulting in a shift from livestock farming to wildlife-based land uses. Few comprehensive assessments of such land uses on private land in southern Africa have been conducted and the associated benefits are not always acknowledged by politicians. Nonetheless, wildlife-based land uses are growing in prevalence on private land. In Namibia wildlife-based land use occurs over c. 287,000 km2. Employment is positively related to income from ecotourism and negatively related to income from livestock. While 87% of meat from livestock is exported ≥ 95% of venison from wildlife-based land uses remains within the country, contributing to food security. Wildlife populations are increasing with expansion of wildlife-based land uses, and private farms contain 21–33 times more wildlife than in protected areas. Because of the popularity of wildlife-based land uses among younger farmers, increasing tourist arrivals and projected impacts of climate change on livestock production, the economic output of wildlife-based land uses will probably soon exceed that of livestock. However, existing policies favour livestock production and are prejudiced against wildlife-based land uses by prohibiting reintroductions of buffalo Syncerus caffer, a key species for tourism and safari hunting, and through subsidies that artificially inflate the profitability of livestock production. Returns from wildlife-based land uses are also limited by the failure to reintroduce other charismatic species, failure to develop fully-integrated conservancies and to integrate black farmers sufficiently.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Benefits of wildlife-based land uses on private lands in Namibia and limitations affecting their development
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Benefits of wildlife-based land uses on private lands in Namibia and limitations affecting their development
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Benefits of wildlife-based land uses on private lands in Namibia and limitations affecting their development
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

(Corresponding author) E-mail palindsey@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Albertson, A. (2010) The Scott Wilson ‘fencing impacts’ report: ten years on. In A Review of the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Game and Veterinary Fencing in Africa with Particular Reference to the GLTFCA and KAZA TFCA (eds Ferguson, K. & Hanks, J.), pp. 5873. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
Barnes, J., Alberts, M. & MacGregor, J. (2010) An Economic Valuation of the Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural and Natural Resource Land Uses in Namibia. Unpublished Paper for Environmental Economics Programme, International Institute of Environment and Development, London, UK.
Barnes, J. & de Jager, J. (1996) Economic and financial incentives for wildlife use on private land in Namibia and the implications for policy. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 26, 3746.
Barnes, J. & Jones, B. (2009) Game ranching in Namibia. In Evolution and Innovation in Wildlife Conservation in Southern Africa (eds Child, B., Suich, H. & Spenceley, A.), pp. 113126. Earthscan, London, UK.
Barnes, J., Lange, G., Nhuleipo, O., Muteyauli, P., Katoma, P., Amupolo, H. et al. (2009) Preliminary Valuation of the Wildlife Stocks in Namibia: Wildlife Asset Accounts. Ministry of Environment and Tourism Report, Windhoek, Namibia.
Barnett, R. & Patterson, C. (2006) Sport Hunting in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region: An Overview. TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Bond, I., Child, B., de la Harpe, D., Jones, B., Barnes, J. & Anderson, H. (2004) Private-land contribution to conservation in South Africa. In Parks in Transition (ed. Child, B.), pp. 2962. Earthscan, London, UK.
Bothma, J. du P. & Du Toit, J.G. (2009) Game Ranch Management. Van Schaik, Pretoria, South Africa.
Bothma, J., Suich, H. & Spenceley, A. (2009) Extensive wildlife production on private land in South Africa. In Evolution and Innovation in Wildlife Conservation in Southern Africa (eds Child, B., Such, H. & Spenceley, A.), pp. 147163. Earthscan, London, UK.
Carruthers, J. (2008) “Wilding the farm or farming the wild”? The evolution of scientific game ranching in South Africa from the 1960s to the present. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 63, 160181.
Child, B. (2000) Making wildlife pay: converting wildlife's comparative advantage into real incentives for having wildlife in African savannas. In Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use (eds Prins, H., Grootenhuis, J. & Dolan, T.), pp. 335388. Kluwer, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Child, B. (2009) Private conservation in southern Africa: practice and emerging principles. In Evolution and Innovation in Wildlife Conservation in Southern Africa (eds Child, B., Suich, H. & Spencely, A.), pp. 103112. Earthscan, London, UK.
Child, G. & Riney, T. (1987) Tsetse control hunting in Zimbabwe, 1919–1958. Zambezia, XIV, 1171.
Cumming, D. (2004) Performance of parks in a century of change. In Parks in Transition (ed. Child, B.), pp. 105124. Earthscan, London, UK.
Cumming, D. (2010) Linkages, wildlife corridors and shortfalls in the KAZA TFCA. In A Review of the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Game and Veterinary Fencing in Africa with Particular Reference to the GLTFCA and KAZA TFCA (eds Ferguson, K. & Hanks, J.), pp. 119125. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
Dasmann, R.F. & Mossman, A.S. (1961) Commercial use of game animals on a Rhodesian ranch. Wildlife, 3, 714.
de Klerk, J.N. (2004) Bush Encroachment in Namibia. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, John Meinert Printing, Windhoek, Namibia.
Duffy, R. (2000) Killing for Conservation: Wildlife Policy in Zimbabwe. James Currey, Oxford, UK.
du Toit, R. (2004) Review of Wildlife Issues Associated with Land Reform in Zimbabwe. WWF–SARPO Occasional Paper, Number 10, Harare, Zimbabwe.
DVS (2007) Veterinary Science, Transboundary Animal Diseases and Markets. Unpublished Report. Namibian Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate of Veterinary Services, Windhoek, Namibia.
Erb, P. (2004) Consumptive wildlife utilization as a land use in Namibia. MBA thesis. University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Falkena, H. (2003) Game Ranch Profitability in South Africa. The SA Financial Sector Forum, Rivonia, South Africa.
Fryxell, J. & Sinclair, A. (1988) Causes and consequences of migration by large herbivores. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 3, 237241.
Gibson, C. (1999) Politicians and Poachers: The Political Economy of Wildlife Policy in Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Gödde, T. (2008) Analysis of the Namibian Game Meat Sector: Potentials and Constraints for the Supply of Exports Markets. Namibian Game Meat Task Team Report. Windhoek, Namibia.
Hayward, M., Henschel, P., O'Brien, J., Hofmeyr, M., Balme, G. & Kerley, G. (2006) Prey preferences of the leopard. Journal of Zoology, 270, 298313.
Humavindu, M. & Barnes, J. (2003) Trophy hunting in the Namibian economy: an assessment. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 33, 6570.
Jansen, D., Bond, I. & Child, B. (1992) Cattle, Wildlife, Both or Neither? WWF multispecies project, project paper number 27, Harare, Zimbabwe.
JMPIN (2000) JMPIN Version 4.0.2. SAS Institute, Cary, USA.
Krug, W. (2001) Private Supply of Protected Land in Southern Africa. World Bank/OECD International Workshop on Market Creation for Biodiversity Products and Services, Paris, France.
Lamprechts, M. (2009) Trophy Hunting in Namibia from the 1960s to the Present Day. Namibian Professional Hunting Association Report, Windhoek, Namibia.
Langholz, G. & Kerley, G. (2006) Combining Conservation and Development on Private Lands: An Assessment of Ecotourism-Based Private Game Reserves in the Eastern Cape. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Report, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
Laubscher, J., Jooste, A., Mbai, S. & Idsardi, E. (2007) Market Study for Goat Products and Venison. Meat Board of Namibia Report, Windhoek, Namibia.
LEAD (2005) Our Land We Farm: An Analysis of the Namibian Commercial Agricultural Land Reform Process. Land, Environment and Development Project Report. Legal Assistance Centre, Windhoek, Namibia.
Lindner, J. (2002) Handling nonresponse error in the Journal of International Agricultural Extension Education. Fall, 9, 5560.
Lindsey, P.A., Romañach, S. & Davies-Mostert, H. (2009) The importance of conservancies for enhancing the conservation value of game ranch land in southern Africa. Journal of Zoology, 277, 99105.
Lindsey, P.A., Balme, G.A., Booth, V.A. & Midlane, N. (2012) The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land. PLoS ONE, 7(1), e29332.
MacKenzie, J.M. (1988) The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism. Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK.
Marker, L., Mills, M. & Macdonald, M. (2003) Factors influencing perceptions of conflict and tolerance toward cheetahs on Namibian farmlands. Conservation Biology, 17, 12901298.
Martin, R. (2004) The influence of veterinary control fences on wild large mammals in Caprivi, Namibia. In Conservation and Development Interventions at the Wildlife/Livestock Interface (ed. Osofsky, S.), 2740. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Martin, R. (2008) Review of Safari Hunting in Botswana. Botswana Wildlife Management Association Report, Maun, Botswana.
McLaughlin, D. (2010) Botswana Beef Industry and EU Trade Policy. Unpublished Report, Gaborone, Botswana.
Mendelsohn, J. (2006) Farming Systems in Namibia. Namibian National Farmers Union, Windhoek, Namibia.
Murombedzi, J. (2003) Pre-colonial and Colonial Conservation Practices in Southern Africa. IUCN Report. Http://dss.ucsd.edu/_ccgibson/docs/Murombedzi%20-%20Precolonial%20and%20Colonial%20Origins.pdf [accessed December 2010].
NACSO (Namibian Association of CBNRM Support Organisations) (2010) Http://www.okacom.org/geonetwork/srv/en/metadata.show.embedded?uuid=40a99379-a5d1-42e1-b71a-523f876f8995 [accessed August 2010].
NAMC (2006) Report on the Investigation to Identify Problems for Sustainable Growth and Development in South African Wildlife Ranching. National Agricultural Marketing Council Report, Pretoria, South Africa.
Namibian Ministry of Works and Transport (2011) Namibia Rainfall Performance at Specified Places. Http://www.meteona.com/climate/Monthly_Seasonal_Rainfall_Performance_Monitoring_Bulletin.pdf [accessed May 2011].
NNF (2010) Namibia Nature Foundation. Http://www.nnf.org.na/index.php [accessed June 2010].
Price-Waterhouse (1994) The Lowveld Conservancies: New Opportunities for Productive and Sustainable Land Use. Price-Waterhouse, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Scoones, I. & Wolmer, W. (2008) Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Market Access: Challenges for the Beef Industry in Southern Africa. Working Paper 1, Institute for Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
Sims-Castley, R., Kerley, G., Geach, B. & Langholz, J. (2005) Socio-economic significance of ecotourism-based private game reserves in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province. Parks, 15, 618.
Taylor, R. & Martin, R. (1987) Effects of veterinary fences on wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe. Environmental Management, 11, 327334.
Thomson, G. (2008) Regional Positions on Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control in Southern Africa. Unpublished Report. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
WTTC (World Travel and Tourism Council) (2012) Travel and Tourism Economic Impact, 2012: Namibia. Http://www.wttc.org/site_media/uploads/downloads/namibia2012.pdf [accessed June 2012].

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Lindsey supplementary material
Lindsey supplementary material

 PDF (67 KB)
67 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed