Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Effects of anthropogenic mortality on Critically Endangered red wolf Canis rufus breeding pairs: implications for red wolf recovery

  • Joseph W. Hinton (a1), Kristin E. Brzeski (a2), David R. Rabon (a3) and Michael J. Chamberlain (a1)
Abstract

Following precipitous population declines as a result of intensive hunting and 20th century predator-control programmes, hybridization of the Critically Endangered red wolf Canis rufus with coyotes Canis latrans posed a significant challenge for red wolf recovery efforts. Anthropogenic mortality and hybridization continue to pose challenges; the increasing number of wolf deaths caused by humans has limited wolf population growth, facilitated the encroachment of coyotes into eastern North Carolina, and affected the formation and disbandment of breeding pairs. We assessed the effects of anthropogenic mortality on Canis breeding units during a 22-year period (1991–2013). Our results show that deaths caused by people accounted for 40.6% of breeding pair disbandment, and gunshots were the primary cause of mortality. Red wolves replaced congeneric breeding pairs > 75% of the time when pairs disbanded under natural conditions or as a result of management actions. Since the mid 2000s anthropogenic mortality has caused annual preservation rates of red wolf breeding pairs to decline by 34%, and replacement of Canis breeders by red wolves to decline by 30%. Our results demonstrate that human-caused mortality, specifically by gunshots, had a strong negative effect on the longevity of red wolf pairs, which may benefit coyotes indirectly by removing their primary competitor. Coyotes are exacerbating the decline of red wolves by pair-bonding with resident wolves whose mates have been killed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of anthropogenic mortality on Critically Endangered red wolf Canis rufus breeding pairs: implications for red wolf recovery
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of anthropogenic mortality on Critically Endangered red wolf Canis rufus breeding pairs: implications for red wolf recovery
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of anthropogenic mortality on Critically Endangered red wolf Canis rufus breeding pairs: implications for red wolf recovery
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail jhinton@uga.edu
References
Hide All
Asa, C.S. & Valdespino, C. (1998) Canid reproductive biology: an integration of proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes. American Zoologist, 38, 251259.
Bartel, R.A. & Rabon, D.R. (2013) Re-introduction and recovery of the red wolf in the southeastern USA. In Global Re-introduction Perspectives: 2013. Further Case Studies from Around the Globe (ed. Soorae, P.S.), pp. 107115. IUCN/SSC Reintroduction Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland, and Environment Agency Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Beck, K.B., Lucash, C.F. & Stoskopf, M.K. (2009) Lack of impact of den interference on neonatal red wolves. Southeastern Naturalist, 8, 631638.
Bekoff, M. & Gese, E.M. (2003) Coyote (Canis latrans). In Wild Mammals of North America, 2nd edition (eds Feldhamer, G.A., Thompson, B.C. & Chapman, J.A.), pp. 467481. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
Benson, J.F., Patterson, B.R. & Wheeldon, T.J. (2012) Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone. Molecular Ecology, 21, 59345954.
Bohling, J.H. & Waits, L.P. (2015) Factors influencing red wolf–coyote hybridization in eastern North Carolina, USA. Biological Conservation, 184, 108116.
Borg, B.L., Brainerd, S.M., Meier, T.J. & Prugh, L.R. (2015) Impacts of breeder loss on social structure, reproduction and population growth in a social canid. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84, 177187.
Boyle, T.W. (2014) Red Wolf Coalition, et al., Defendants. In the United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina. Northern Division. No. 2: 13-CV-60-BO.
Brzeski, K.E., Rabon, D.R. Jr, Chamberlain, M.J., Waits, L.P. & Taylor, S.S. (2014) Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus). Molecular Ecology, 23, 42414255.
Cardillo, M., Purvis, A., Sechrest, W., Gittleman, J.L., Bielby, J. & Mace, G.M. (2004) Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores. PLoS Biology, 2(7), e197.
Caro, T.M., Young, C.R., Cauldwell, A.E. & Brown, D.D.E. (2009) Animal breeding systems and big game hunting: models and application. Biological Conservation, 142, 909929.
DeBow, T.M., Webster, W.D. & Sumner, P.W. (1998) Range expansion of the coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae), into North Carolina; with comments on some management implications. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 114, 113118.
Ferguson, S.H. & Larivière, S. (2002) Can comparing life histories help conserve carnivores? Animal Conservation, 5, 112.
Gese, E.M. & Terletzky, P. (2014) Introduction and Evaluation of the “Placeholder” Concept for Recovery of an Endangered Carnivore, the Red Wolf. Final Report. Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium, Tacoma, USA.
Gese, E.M., Knowlton, F.F., Adams, J.R., Beck, K., Fuller, T.K., Murray, D.L. et al. (2015) Managing hybridization of a recovering endangered species: the red wolf Canis rufus as a case study. Current Zoology, 61, 191205.
Hayward, M.W., Hayward, G.J., Druce, D.J. & Kerley, G.I.H. (2009) Do fences constrain predator movements on an evolutionary scale? Home range, food intake and movement patterns of large predators reintroduced to Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation, 18, 887904.
Hedrick, P.W. (1995) Gene flow and genetic restoration: the Florida panther as a case study. Conservation Biology, 9, 9961007.
Hinton, J.W., Chamberlain, M.J. & Rabon, D.R. Jr (2013) Red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery: a review with suggestions for future research. Animals, 3, 722744.
Hoekstra, J.M., Clark, J.A., Fagan, W.F. & Boersma, P.D. (2002) A comprehensive review of Endangered Species Act recovery plans. Ecological Applications, 12, 630640.
IUCN (2014) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species v. 2014.3. Http://www.iucnredlist.org [accessed 15 January 2015].
Johnson, W.E., Onorato, D.P., Roelke, M.E., Land, E.D., Cunningham, M., Belden, R.C. et al. (2010) Genetic restoration of the Florida panther. Science, 329, 16411645.
Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G. & Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Encounter data in resource management and ecology: pitfalls and possibilities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 11641173.
Kelly, B.T., Beyer, A. & Phillips, M.K. (2008) Canis rufus. In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species v. 2015.2. Http://www.iucnredlist.org [accessed 12 August 2015].
Kelly, B.T., Miller, P.S. & Seal, U.S. (eds) (1999) Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Workshop for the Red Wolf (Canis rufus). Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN), Apple Valley, USA.
Linnell, J.D.C., Swenson, J.E. & Anderson, R. (2001) Predators and people: conservation of large carnivores is possible at high human densities if management policy is favourable. Animal Conservation, 4, 345349.
Miller, C.R., Adams, J.R. & Waits, L.P. (2003) Pedigree-based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population. Molecular Ecology, 12, 32873301.
Milner, J.M., Nilsen, E.B. & Andreassen, H.P. (2007) Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores. Conservation Biology, 21, 3647.
Phillips, M.K., Henry, V.G. & Kelly, B.T. (2003) Restoration of the red wolf. In Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation (eds Mech, L.D. & Boitani, L.), pp. 272288. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Purvis, A., Gittleman, J.L., Cowlishaw, G. & Mace, G.M. (2000) Predicting extinction risk in declining species. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 267, 19471952.
Ripple, W.J., Estes, J.A., Beschta, R.L., Wilmers, C.C., Ritchie, E.G., Hebblewhite, M. et al. (2014) Status and ecological effects of the world's largest carnivores. Science, 343, 1241484.
Rutledge, L.Y., Patterson, B.R., Mills, K.J., Loveless, K.M., Murray, D.L. & White, B.N. (2010) Protection from harvesting restores the natural social structure of eastern wolf packs. Biological Conservation, 143, 332339.
Rutledge, L.Y., White, B.N., Row, J.R. & Patterson, B.R. (2012) Intense harvesting of eastern wolves facilitated hybridization with coyotes. Ecology and Evolution, 2, 1933.
Seidler, R.G. & Gese, E.M. (2012) Territory fidelity, space use, and survival rates of wild coyotes following surgical sterilization. Journal of Ethology, 30, 345354.
Sparkman, A.M., Waits, L.P. & Murray, D.L. (2011) Social and demographic effects of anthropogenic mortality: a test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in the red wolf. PLoS ONE, 6(6), e20868.
Stephens, P.A., Pettorelli, N., Barlow, J., Whittingham, M.J. & Cadotte, M.W. (2015) Management by proxy? The use of indices in applied ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52, 16.
Stoskopf, M.K., Beck, K., Fazio, B.B., Fuller, T.K., Gese, E.M., Kelly, B.T. et al. (2005) Implementing recovery of the red wolf: integrating research scientists and managers. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 33, 11451152.
USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) (1990) Red Wolf Recovery/Species Survival Plan. USFWS, Atlanta, USA.
USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) (2007) Red Wolf 5-year Status Review: Summary and Evaluation. USFWS, Manteo, USA.
USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) (2014) Red Wolf Recovery Program Second Quarterly Report, January–March 2014. USFWS, Manteo, USA.
Vandermeer, J.H. & Goldberg, D.E. (2004) Population Ecology: First Principles. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.
Warton, D.I. & Hui, F.K.C. (2011) The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology. Ecology, 92, 310.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed