Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Harvesting of salep orchids in north-western Greece continues to threaten natural populations

  • Anna Kreziou (a1), Hugo de Boer (a2) and Barbara Gravendeel (a2)
Abstract

In several eastern Mediterranean countries orchids are collected from the wild for the production of salep, a beverage made of dried orchid tubers. The drivers of this collection and trade have changed over time. We investigated which genera and species are harvested for salep production, whether any cultivation takes place, the chain of commercialization, and the economic value of tuber collection. Fieldwork and interviews in north-western Greece included 25 collectors and street vendors, the owners of two companies, and one herbal shop. The results show that several orchid species are traded for the production of salep, and none are cultivated. Tubers collected in Greece, Albania and Turkey are sold in northern Greece for EUR 55–150 per kg on average. Recent catalysts such as the increasing demand for traditional, organic and alternative foodstuffs, and the 2009 economic downturn, have led to a revival of salep consumption, with an increasing number of salep harvesters from Greece and Albania scouring the mountains for harvestable tubers, using unsustainable harvesting practices.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Harvesting of salep orchids in north-western Greece continues to threaten natural populations
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Harvesting of salep orchids in north-western Greece continues to threaten natural populations
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Harvesting of salep orchids in north-western Greece continues to threaten natural populations
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail barbara.gravendeel@naturalis.nl
References
Hide All
Berliocchi, L. (1996) Il fiore degli dei l'orchidea dal mito alla storia. Stampa Alternativa, Rome, Italy.
Bulpitt, C.J. (2005) The uses and misuses of orchids in medicine. QJM, 98, 625631.
Davenport, T.R.B. & Ndangalasi, H.J. (2003) An escalating trade in orchid tubers across Tanzania's Southern Highlands: assessment, dynamics and conservation implications. Oryx, 37, 5561.
Delforge, P. (2006) Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. A&C Black, London, UK.
Entwistle, A., Atay, S., Byfield, A. & Oldfield, S. (2002) Alternatives for the bulb trade from Turkey: a case study of indigenous bulb propagation. Oryx, 36, 333341.
Ghorbani, A., Gravendeel, B., Naghibi, F. & de Boer, H.J. (2014a) Wild orchid tuber collection in Iran: a wake-up call for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 23, 27492760.
Ghorbani, A., Gravendeel, B., Zarre, S. & de Boer, H.J. (2014b) Illegal wild collection and international trade of CITES-listed terrestrial orchid tubers in Iran. TRAFFIC Bulletin, 26, 5258.
Hawkes, A.D. (1944) Economic importance of the Orchidaceae. II. American Orchid Society Bulletin, 13, 5658.
IUCN (2013) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species v. 2014.3. Http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [accessed 6 March 2015].
Kasparek, M. & Grimm, U. (1999) European trade in Turkish salep with special reference to Germany. Economic Botany, 53, 396406.
Landerer, X. (1850) Naturgeschichte und Pharmakognosie. Beiträge zur Pharmakognosie. Ueber Salep und die Salepisiden. Archiv der Pharmazie, 112, 177180.
Lazarides, K. (1986) Botanical and Folk Elements of the Flora of My Village Koukouli, Zagori and of the Vikos Gorge. Ioannina, Greece.
McGough, H.N., Kikodze, D., Wilford, R., Garrett, L., Deisadze, G., Jaworska, N. & Smith, M.J. (2014) Assessing non-detrimental trade for a CITES Appendix II-listed plant species: the status of wild and cultivated Galanthus woronowii in Georgia. Oryx, 48, 345353.
Petrou, N., Petrou, M. & Giannakoulias, M. (2011) Orchids of Greece. Koan Publishing House, Athens, Greece.
Seaton, P. & Ramsay, M. (2005) Growing Orchids from Seed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, UK.
Sezik, E. (2002) Turkish orchids and salep. Acta Pharmaceutica Turcica, 44, 151157.
Sezik, E. (2006) Destroying of Ophrys species to obtain salep in Turkey. Journal Europäischer Orchideen, 38, 290.
Starin, D. (2012) Salepi extinction, salepi survival: how a change in ingredients could help safeguard orchids. Orchids, 81, 490494.
Sumpter, J.P., D'Ayala, R., Parfitt, A.J., Pratt, P. & Raper, C. (2004) The current status of military (Orchis militaris) and monkey (Orchis simia) orchids in the Chilterns. Watsonia, 25, 175184.
Tamer, C.E., Karaman, B. & Copur, O.U. (2006) A traditional Turkish beverage: salep. Food Reviews International, 22, 4350.
Veldman, S., Otieno, J.N., van Andel, T., Gravendeel, B. & de Boer, H.J. (2014) Efforts urged to tackle thriving illegal orchid trade in Tanzania and Zambia for chikanda production. TRAFFIC Bulletin, 26, 4750.
Vokou, D., Katradi, K. & Kokkini, S. (1993) Ethnobotanical survey of Zagori (Epirus, Greece), a renowned centre of folk medicine in the past. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 39, 187196.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 49
Total number of PDF views: 123 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 692 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.