Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 131
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Langin, Cynthia and Jacobson, Susan K. 2012. Risk and residency influences on public support for florida panther recovery. Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 713.

    Macdonald, David W. Boitani, Luigi Dinerstein, Eric Fritz, Hervé and Wrangham, Richard 2013. Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2.

    Tortato, F. R. Layme, V. M. G. Crawshaw, P. G. and Izzo, T. J. 2015. The impact of herd composition and foraging area on livestock predation by big cats in the Pantanal of Brazil. Animal Conservation, Vol. 18, Issue. 6, p. 539.

    Humphries, Bruce D. Ramesh, Tharmalingam and Downs, Colleen T. 2016. Diet of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) on farmlands in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands, South Africa. Mammalia, Vol. 80, Issue. 4,

    Ordiz, Andrés Bischof, Richard and Swenson, Jon E. 2013. Saving large carnivores, but losing the apex predator?. Biological Conservation, Vol. 168, p. 128.

    Rust, Niki A. 2015. Media Framing of Financial Mechanisms for Resolving Human–Predator Conflict in Namibia. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, Vol. 20, Issue. 5, p. 440.

    Barua, Maan Bhagwat, Shonil A. and Jadhav, Sushrut 2013. The hidden dimensions of human–wildlife conflict: Health impacts, opportunity and transaction costs. Biological Conservation, Vol. 157, p. 309.

    Zarco-González, M. M. and Monroy-Vilchis, O. 2014. Effectiveness of low-cost deterrents in decreasing livestock predation by felids: a case in Central Mexico. Animal Conservation, Vol. 17, Issue. 4, p. 371.

    KANSKY, RUTH KIDD, MARTIN and KNIGHT, ANDREW T. 2014. Meta-Analysis of Attitudes toward Damage-Causing Mammalian Wildlife. Conservation Biology, Vol. 28, Issue. 4, p. 924.

    Soto-Shoender, José R. and Giuliano, William M. 2011. Predation on livestock by large carnivores in the tropical lowlands of Guatemala. Oryx, Vol. 45, Issue. 04, p. 561.

    Braczkowski, Alexander Watson, Laurence Coulson, Damien and Randall, Rod 2012. Diet of leopards in the southern Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology, p. n/a.

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro Hockings, Kimberley J. Humle, Tatyana and Carvalho, Susana 2012. Chimpanzee interactions with nonhuman species in an anthropogenic habitat. Behaviour, Vol. 149, Issue. 3-4, p. 299.

    Atickem, Anagaw Williams, Stuart Bekele, Afework and Thirgood, Simon 2010. Livestock predation in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. African Journal of Ecology, Vol. 48, Issue. 4, p. 1076.

    Miller, Jennifer R. B. 2015. Mapping attack hotspots to mitigate human–carnivore conflict: approaches and applications of spatial predation risk modeling. Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 24, Issue. 12, p. 2887.

    Thorn, Michelle Green, Matthew Marnewick, Kelly and Scott, Dawn M. 2015. Determinants of attitudes to carnivores: implications for mitigating human–carnivore conflict on South African farmland. Oryx, Vol. 49, Issue. 02, p. 270.

    Bhattarai, Babu R. and Fischer, Klaus 2014. Human–tiger Panthera tigris conflict and its perception in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Oryx, Vol. 48, Issue. 04, p. 522.

    Pechacek, Peter Li, Guo Li, Junsheng Wang, Wei Wu, Xiaopu and Xu, Jing 2013. Compensation Payments for Downsides Generated by Protected Areas. AMBIO, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 90.

    Nelson, Fred 2009. Developing Payments for Ecosystem Services Approaches to Carnivore Conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, Vol. 14, Issue. 6, p. 381.

    Potgieter, Gail C. Kerley, Graham I. H. and Marker, Laurie L. 2016. More bark than bite? The role of livestock guarding dogs in predator control on Namibian farmlands. Oryx, Vol. 50, Issue. 03, p. 514.

    Chartier, Laura Zimmermann, Alexandra and Ladle, Richard J. 2011. Habitat loss and human–elephant conflict in Assam, India: does a critical threshold exist?. Oryx, Vol. 45, Issue. 04, p. 528.


Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide

  • Chloe Inskip (a1) and Alexandra Zimmermann (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2009

Conflict between people and felids is one of the most urgent wild cat conservation issues worldwide, yet efforts to synthesize knowledge about these conflicts have been few. For management strategies to be effective a thorough understanding of the dynamics of human-felid conflicts is necessary. Here we present the results of a cross-species, systematic review of human-felid conflicts worldwide. Using a combination of literature review and geographical information system analyses, we provide a quantitative as well as qualitative assessment of patterns and determinants that are known to influence the severity of human-felid conflicts, and a geographical overview of the occurrence of conflict worldwide. We found evidence of conflict affecting over 75% of the world's felid species. The severity of conflict increases with felid body mass and is of greatest conservation significance to nine species: caracal, cheetah, Eurasian lynx, jaguar, leopard, lion, puma, snow leopard and tiger. We also reveal specific gaps in knowledge about human-felid conflicts, and required actions within this aspect of felid conservation. With only 31% of implemented management strategies having been evaluated scientifically, there is a need for greater and more rigorous evaluation and a wider dissemination of results. Also urgently required are standardized reporting techniques to reduce the current disparity in conflict reporting methods and facilitate resolution of patterns and trends in the scale of human-felid conflict worldwide. This review provides a basis both for further synthesis and for the coordination of human-felid conflict management among researchers, practitioners and organizations.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Durrell Institute of Conservation & Ecology, Department of Anthropology, Marlowe Building, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NR, UK. E-mail
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

B.B. Ackerman , F.G. Lindzey & T.P. Hemker (1984) Cougar food habits in southern Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management, 48, 147155.

M. Altrichter , G. Boaglio & P Perovic . (2006) The decline of jaguars Panthera onca in the Argentine Chaco. Oryx, 40, 302309.

H. Andrén , J.D.C. Linnell , O. Liberg , R. Andersen , A. Danell , J. Karlsson (2006) Survival rates and causes of mortality in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in multi-use landscapes. Biological Conservation, 131, 2332.

S. Bagchi , S.P. Goyal & K Sankar . (2003) Prey abundance and prey selection by tigers (Panthera tigris) in a semi-arid, dry deciduous forest in western India. Journal of Zoology, 260, 285290.

S. Bagchi & C Mishra . (2006) Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Journal of Zoology, 268, 217224.

H. Bauer & H.H de Iongh . (2005) Lion (Panthera leo) home ranges and livestock conflicts in Waza National Park, Cameroon. African Journal of Ecology, 43, 208214.

S. Biswas & K Sankar . (2002) Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Zoology, 256, 411420.

J.R.A Butler . (2000) The economic costs of wildlife predation on livestock in Gokwe communal land, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology, 38, 2330.

A.L. Casey , P.R. Krausman , W.W. Shaw & H.G Shaw . (2005) Knowledge of and attitudes towards mountain lions: a public survey of residents adjacent to Saguaro National Park, Arizona. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 10, 2938.

V.A. Conforti & F.C.C. de Azevedo (2003) Local perceptions of jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) in the Iguacu National Park area, south Brazil. Biological Conservation, 111, 215221.

K. Graham , A.P. Beckerman & S Thirgood . (2005) Human-predator-prey conflicts: ecological correlates, prey losses and patterns of management. Biological Conservation, 122, 159171.

P. Henschel , K.A. Abernethy & L.J.T White . (2005) Leopard food habits in Lopé National Park, Gabon, Central Africa. African Journal of Ecology, 43, 2128.

I. Herfindal , J.D.C. Linnell , P.F. Moa , J. Odden , L.B. Austmo & R Andersen . (2005) Does recreational hunting of lynx reduce depredation losses of domestic sheep? Journal of Wildlife Management, 69, 10341042.

S Hussain . (2000) Protecting the snow leopard and enhancing farmers' livelihoods: a pilot insurance scheme in Baltistan. Mountain Research and Development, 20, 226231.

R. Jackson & R Wangchuk . (2004) A community-based approach to mitigating livestock depredation by snow leopards. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 9, 307315.

A. Jobin , P. Molinari & U Breitenmoser . (2000) Prey spectrum, prey preference and consumption rates of Eurasian lynx in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Acta Theriologica, 45, 252.

A. Johnson , C. Vongkhamheng , M. Hedemark & T Saithongdam . (2006) Effects of human-carnivore conflict on tiger (Panthera tigris) and prey populations in Lao PDR. Animal Conservation, 9, 421430.

A.C. Kitchener , M.A. Baeumont & D Richardson . (2006) Geographical variation in the clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, reveals two species. Current Biology, 16, 23772383.

O.B. Kok & J.A.J Nel . (2004) Convergence and divergence of prey of sympatric canids and felids: opportunism or phylogenetic constraint? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 83, 527538.

J.M. Kolowski & K.E Holekamp . (2006) Spatial, temporal, and physical characteristics of livestock depredations by large carnivores along a Kenyan reserve border. Biological Conservation, 128, 529541.

J.D.C. Linnell , R. Aanes & J.E Swenson . (1997) Translocation of carnivores as a method of managing problem animals: a review. Biodiversity and Conservation, 6, 12451257.

F Madden . (2004) Creating coexistence between humans and wildlife: global perspectives on local efforts to address human-wildlife conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 9, 247257.

M.D Madhusudan . (2003) Living amidst large wildlife: livestock and crop depredation by large mammals in the interior villages of Bhadra Tiger Reserve, south India. Environmental Management, 31, 466475.

L.L. Marker & A Dickman . (2004) Human aspects of cheetah conservation: lessons learned from the Namibian farmlands. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 9, 297305.

L.L. Marker & A Dickman . (2005) Notes on the spatial ecology of caracals (Felis caracal) with particular reference to Namibian farmlands. African Journal of Ecology, 43, 7376.

L.L. Marker , A. Dickman & D.W Macdonald . (2005a) Perceived effectiveness of livestock-guarding dogs placed on Namibian farms. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 58, 329336.

L.L. Marker , A. Dickman & D.W Macdonald . (2005b) Survivorship and causes of mortality for livestock-guarding dogs on Namibian rangeland. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 58, 337343.

L.L. Marker , A. Dickman , M.G.L. Mills & D.W Macdonald . (2003a) Aspects of the management of cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus jubatus, trapped on Namibian farmlands. Biological Conservation, 114, 401412.

L.L. Marker , M.G.L. Mills & D.W Macdonald . (2003b) Factors influencing perceptions of conflict and tolerance towards cheetahs on Namibian farmlands. Conservation Biology, 17, 12901298.

M. Mazzolli , M.E. Graipel & N Dunstone . (2002) Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil. Biological Conservation, 105, 4351.

H.I.A.S. Melville & J.d.P Bothma (2006) Using spoor counts to analyse the effect of small stock farming in Namibia on caracal density in the neighbouring Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. Journal of Arid Environments, 64, 436447.

F. Michalski , R.L.P. Boulhosa , A. Faria & C.A Peres . (2006) Human-wildlife conflicts in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape: determinants of large felid depredation on livestock. Animal Conservation, 9, 179188.

F. Michalski & C.A Peres . (2005) Anthropogenic determinants of primate and carnivore local extinctions in a fragmented forest landscape of southern Amazonia. Biological Conservation, 124, 383396.

C. Mishra , P. Allen , T. McCarthy , M.D. Madhusudan , A. Bayarjargal & H.H.T Prins . (2003) The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard. Conservation Biology, 17, 15121520.

J. Mohd. Azlan & D.S.K Sharma . (2006) The diversity and activity patterns of wild felids in a secondary forest in peninsular Malaysia. Oryx, 40, 3641.

S. Mukherjee , S.P. Goyal , A.J.T. Johnsingh & M.R.P Leite Pitman . (2004) The importance of rodents in the diet of jungle cat (Felis chaus), caracal (Caracal caracal) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Zoology, 262, 405411.

J.C.C. Neale , B.N. Sacks , M.M. Jaeger & D.R McCullough . (1998) A comparison of bobcat and coyote predation on lambs in north-coastal California. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 700706.

J. Odden , J.D.C. Linnell , P. Fossland Moa , I. Herfindal , T. Kvam & R Andersen . (2002) Lynx depredation on domestic sheep in Norway. Journal of Wildlife Management, 66, 98105.

M.O. Ogada , R. Woodroffe , N.O. Oguge & L.G Frank . (2003) Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology, 17, 15211530.

M.K. Oli , I.R. Taylor & M.E Rogers . (1993) Diet of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Journal of Zoology, 231, 365370.

M.K. Oli , I.R. Taylor & M.E Rogers . (1994) Snow leopard Panthera uncia predation of livestock: an assessment of local perceptions in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Biological Conservation, 68, 6368.

C. Packer , D. Ikanda , B. Kissui & H Kushnir . (2005) Lion attacks on humans in Tanzania. Nature, 436, 927928.

F.B.L. Palmeira & W Barrella . (2007) Conflitos causados pela predação de rebanhos domésticos por grandes felinos em communidades quilombolas na Mata Atlântica. Biota Neotropica, 7, 2130.

B.D. Patterson , S.M. Kasiki , E. Selempo & R.W Kays . (2004) Livestock predation by lions (Panthera leo) and other carnivores on ranches neighbouring Tsavo National Parks, Kenya. Biological Conservation, 119, 507516.

J. Polisar , I. Maxit , D. Scognamillo , L. Farrell , M.E. Sunquist & J.F Eisenberg . (2003) Jaguars, pumas, their prey base, and cattle ranching: ecological interpretations of a management problem. Biological Conservation, 109, 297310.

A.S. Pullin & G.B Stewart . (2006) Guidelines for systematic review in conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology, 20, 16471656.

K.T. Rao , R.K. Maikhuri , S. Nautiyal & K.G Saxena . (2002) Crop damage and livestock depredation by wildlife: a case study from Nanda devi Biosphere Reserve, India. Journal of Environmental Management, 66, 317327.

T.K. Ruth , K.A. Logan , L.L. Sweanor , M.G. Hornocker & L.J Temple . (1998) Evaluating cougar translocation in New Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 12641275.

V.A. Saberwal , J.P. Gibbs , R. Chellam & A.J.T Johnsingh . (1994) Lion-human conflict in the Gir Forest, India. Conservation Biology, 8, 501507.

M. Schiess-Meier , M. Ramsauer , T. Gabanapelo & B König . (2007) Livestock predation — insights from problem animal control registers in Botswana. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71, 12671274.

N.U Sekhar . (1998) Crop and livestock depredation caused by wild animals in protected areas: the case of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Environmental Conservation, 25, 160171.

J.A. Shivik , A. Treves & P Callahan . (2003) Non-lethal techniques for managing predation: primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology, 17, 15311537.

P. Stahl , J.M. Vandel , V. Herrenschmidt & P Migot . (2001a) Predation on livestock by an expanding reintroduced lynx population: long term trend and spatial variability. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 674687.

P. Stahl , J.M. Vandel , V. Herrenschmidt & P Migot . (2001b) The effect of removing lynx in reducing attacks on sheep in the French Jura mountains. Biological Conservation, 101, 1522.

P. Stahl , J.M. Vandel , S. Ruette , L. Coat , Y. Coat & L Balestra . (2002) Factors affecting lynx predation on sheep in the French Jura. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 204216.

A. Treves & K.U Karanth . (2003) Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology, 17, 14911499.

A. Treves & L Naughton-Treves . (1999) Risk and opportunity for humans coexisting with large carnivores. Journal of Human Evolution, 36, 275282.

L.M. Verdade & C.B Campos . (2004) How much is a puma worth? Economic compensation as an alternative for the conflict between wildlife conservation and livestock production in Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 4, 14.

S. Vijayan & B.P Pati . (2002) Impact of changing cropping patterns on man-animal conflicts around Gir Protected Area with specific reference to Talala Sub-District, Gujarat, India. Population and Environment, 23, 541559.

S.W. Wang & D.W Macdonald . (2006) Livestock predation by carnivores in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Biological Conservation, 129, 558565.

W. Weber & A Rabinowitz . (1996) A global perspective on large carnivore conservation. Conservation Biology, 10, 10461054.

R. Woodroffe & L.G Frank . (2005) Lethal control of African lions (Panthera leo): local and regional population impacts. Animal Conservation, 8, 9198.

R. Woodroffe , L.G. Frank , P.A. Lindsey , S.M.K. ole Ranah & S Romañach . (2007) Livestock husbandry as a tool for carnivore conservation in Africa's community rangelands: a case-control study. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 12451260.

R. Woodroffe & J.R Ginsberg . (1998) Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science, 280, 21262128.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Materials

Inskip and Zimmermann supplementary material

 Unknown (149 KB)
149 KB