Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Strengthening the conservation value of ex situ tree collections

  • Nicole Cavender (a1), Murphy Westwood (a1), Catherine Bechtoldt (a1), Gerard Donnelly (a1), Sara Oldfield (a2), Martin Gardner (a3), David Rae (a3) and William McNamara (a4)...
Abstract

With 10% of trees (> 8,000 species) threatened with extinction there is an urgent need for botanical gardens to protect threatened trees in dedicated conservation collections. Species conservation is mentioned in the mission statements of most major botanical gardens, yet the actual conservation value of existing ex situ tree collections is low. We conducted interviews with members of the botanical garden community and organized a symposium at the 5th Global Botanic Gardens Congress to identify challenges and collect recommendations to improve living ex situ tree collections. We summarize and evaluate this information to facilitate gardens becoming more effective agents for global tree conservation. Experts agree that gardens offer valuable strengths and assets for tree conservation. Some challenges exist, however, including a lack of strategic conservation focus, collection management limitations, gaps in fundamental biological information for trees, and a lack of global coordination. Solutions are offered to facilitate gardens and arboreta of all sizes to participate more effectively in tree conservation. Prioritizing genetically diverse tree collections, participating in conservation networks, developing tree-specific conservation models and guidelines, and strengthening tree science research efforts are a few examples. Most importantly, a more coordinated global effort is needed to fill knowledge gaps, share information, and build conservation capacity in biodiversity hotspots to prevent the loss of tree species.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Strengthening the conservation value of ex situ tree collections
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Strengthening the conservation value of ex situ tree collections
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Strengthening the conservation value of ex situ tree collections
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail mwestwood@mortonarb.org
References
Hide All
Aitken, S.N., Yeaman, S., Holliday, J.A., Wang, T. & Curtis-McLane, S. (2008) Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations. Evolutionary Applications, 1, 95111.
BGCI (Botanic Gardens Conservation International) (2012) International Agenda for Botanic Gardens in Conservation. 2nd edition. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, UK.
BGCI (2014a) Building Living Plant Collections to Support Conservation: A Guide for Public Gardens. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, UK.
BGCI (2014b) PlantSearch. Http://www.bgci.org/plant_search.php [accessed 25 November 2014].
BGCI (2014c) Progress Report on Target 8 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation in the United States. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, UK.
Bramwell, D., Hamann, O., Heywood, V. & Synge, H. (eds) (1987) Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy. Academic Press, Ann Arbor, USA.
CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) (2012) Global Strategy for Plant Conservation 2011–2020. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, UK.
Center for Plant Conservation (2014) Bibliographies. Http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/Bibliographies.asp [accessed 25 November 2014].
Cibrian-Jaramillo, A., Hird, A., Oleas, N., Ma, H., Meerow, A.W., Francisco-Ortega, J. & Griffith, M.P. (2013) What is the conservation value of a plant in a botanic garden? Using indicators to improve management of ex situ collections. The Botanical Review, 79, 559577.
Cires, E., De Smet, Y., Cuesta, C., Goetghebeur, P., Sharrock, S., Gibbs, D. et al. (2013) Gap analyses to support ex situ conservation of genetic diversity in Magnolia, a flagship group. Biodiversity & Conservation, 22, 567590.
Falk, D. (1987) Integrated conservation strategies for endangered plants. Natural Areas Journal, 7, 118123.
Falk, D. & Holsinger, K. (eds) (1991) Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) (2014) Http://www.gbif.org/ [accessed 25 November 2014].
Gill, D., Magin, G. & Bertram, E. (2013) Trees and Climate Change. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK.
Griffith, P. & Husby, C. (2010) The price of conservation: measuring the mission and its cost. BGJournal, 7, 1214.
Griffith, P., Lewis, C. & Francisco-Ortega, J. (2011) Palm conservation at a botanic garden: a case study of the Keys Thatch Palm. Palms, 55, 93101.
Guerrant, E.O. Jr, Havens, K. & Maunder, M. (eds) (2004) Ex Situ Plant Conservation: Supporting Species Survival in the Wild. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Hird, A. & Kramer, A.T. (2013) Achieving Target 8 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: lessons learned from the North American Collections Assessment. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 99, 161166.
iDigBio (Integrated Digitized Biocollections) (2011) Https://www.idigbio.org/ [accessed 25 November 2014].
IUCN (2013) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species v. 2013.2. Http://www.iucnredlist.org [accessed 1 February 2014].
Kramer, A., Hird, A., Shaw, K., Dosmann, M. & Mims, R. (2011) Conserving North America's Threatened Plants: Progress Report on Target 8 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. Botanic Gardens Conservation International U.S., Glencoe, USA.
Li, Y., Chen, X., Zhang, X., Tian-Yi, W., Hui-Ping, L. & Yue-Wei, C. (2005) Genetic differences between wild and artificial populations of Metasequoia glyptostroboides: implications for species recovery. Conservation Biology, 19, 224231.
Lughadha, E. & Miller, C. (2009) Accelerating global access to plant diversity information. Trends in Plant Science, 14, 622628.
Ma, Y., Chen, G., Grumbine, R.E., Dao, Z., Sun, W. & Guo, H. (2013) Conserving plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) in China. Biodiversity & Conservation, 22, 803809.
Maschinski, J. & Haskins, K.E. (eds) (2012) Plant Reintroduction in a Changing Climate. Promises and Perils. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Maunder, M., Guerrant, E.O. Jr, Havens, K. & Dixon, K. (2004) Realizing the full potential of ex situ contributions to global plant conservation. In Ex Situ Plant Conservation: Supporting Species Survivial in the Wild (eds Guerrant, E.O. Jr, Havens, K. & Maunder, M.). Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
McNamara, W.A. (2011) 708. Acer pentaphyllum . Curtis's Botanical Magazine, 28, 128140.
Namoff, S., Husby, C.E., Francisco-Ortega, J., Noblick, L.R., Lewis, C.E. & Griffith, M.P. (2010) How well does a botanical garden collection of a rare palm capture the genetic variation in a wild population? Biological Conservation, 143, 11101117.
Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. & MacKinven, A. (1998) The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
Oldfield, S. & Newton, A. (2012) Integrated Conservation of Tree Species by Botanic Gardens: A Reference Manual. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, UK.
Pence, V.C. (2013) In vitro methods and the challenge of exceptional species for Target 8 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 99, 214220.
Pimm, S.L., Jenkins, C.N., Abell, R., Brooks, T.M., Gittleman, J.L., Joppa, L.N. et al. (2014) The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science, 344, 1246752.
Pritchard, D.J., Fa, J.E., Oldfield, S. & Harrop, S.R. (2012) Bring the captive closer to the wild: redefining the role of ex situ conservation. Oryx, 46, 1823.
Roberts, D.L. & Solow, A.R. (2008) The effect of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species on scientific collections. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 275, 987989.
Robinson, D. (2005) Assessing and addressing threats in restoration programmes. In Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees (eds Mansourian, S., Vallauri, D. & Dudley, N.), pp. 7377. Springer, New York, USA.
Samain, M. & Cires, E. (2012) Plants for the future—a future for our planet: towards a protocol for genetic management of ex situ living plant collections. BGJournal, 9, 3.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Cavender supplementary material
Cavender supplementary material

 PDF (104 KB)
104 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed