This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
A. L. Alldredge , and M. W. Silver 1988. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow. Progress in Oceanography 20:41–82.
Y. Avnimelech , B. W. Troeger , and L. W. Reed 1982. Mutual flocculation of algae and clay: evidence and implications. Science 216:63–65.
F. Azam , T. Fenchel , J. G. Gray , L. A. Meyer-Reil , and T. Thingstad 1983. The ecological role of water-column microbes in the sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 10:257–263.
U. V. Bathmann , T. T. Noji , M. Voss , and R. Peinert 1987. Copepod fecal pellets: abundance, sedimentation and content at a permanent station in the Norwegian Sea in May/June 1986. Marine Ecology Progress Series 38:45–51.
M. D. Brasier 1992. Nutrient-enriched waters and the early skeletal fossil record. Journal of the Geological Society of London 149:621–629.
M. T. Brett , and C. R. Goldman 1997. Consumer versus resource control in freshwater pelagic food webs. Science 275:384–386.
M. T. Brett , K. Wiackowski , F. S. Lubnow , A. Mueller-Solger , J. J. Elser , and C. R. Goldman 1994. Species-dependent effects of zooplankton on planktonic ecosystem processes in Castle Lake, California. Ecology 75:2243–2254.
N. J. Butterfield 1994. Burgess Shale-type fossils from a Lower Cambrian shallow shelf sequence in northwestern Canada. Nature 369:477–479.
S. R. Carpenter , and J. F. Kitchell 1993. The trophic cascade in lakes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
P. J. Cook , and J. H. Shergold 1984. Phosphorus, phosphorites and skeletal evolution at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Nature 308:231–236.
H. Cyr , and M. L. Pace 1993. Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 361:148–150.
S. I. Dodson 1974. Adaptive change in plankton morphology in response to size-selective predation: a new hypothesis of cyclomorphosis. Limnology and Oceanography 19:721–729.
R. B. Dunbar , and W. H. Berger 1981. Fecal pellet flux to modern bottom sediment of Santa Barbara Basin (California) based on sediment trapping. Geological Society of America Bulletin 92:212–218.
J. J. Elser , and C. R. Goldman 1991. Zooplankton effects on phytoplankton in lakes of contrasting trophic status. Limnology and Oceanography 36:64–90.
D. H. Erwin 1993. The origin of metazoan development: a palaeobiological perspective. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 50:255–274.
W. R. Evitt 1963. A discussion and proposals concerning fossil dinoflagellates, hystrichospheres and acritarchs, II. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 49:298–302.
M. A. Fedonkin 1985. Precambrian metazoans: the problems of preservation, systematitics and evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 311:27–45.
L. Fortier , J. Le Fèvre , and L. Legendre 1994. Export of biogenic carbon to fish and to the deep ocean: the role of large planktonic microphages. Journal of Plankton Research 16:809–839.
R. A. Fortey , D. E. G. Briggs , and M. A. Wills 1996. The Cambrian evolutionary ‘explosion': decoupling cladogenesis from morphological disparity. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 57:13–33.
G. Fryer 1991. Functional morphology and the adaptive radiation of the Daphniidae (Branchiopoda: Anomopoda). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 331:1–99.
B. Hansen , P. K. Bj⊘rnsen , and P. J. Hansen 1994. The size ratio between planktonic predators and their prey. Limnology and Oceanography 39:395–403.
R. J. Horodyski 1993. Paleontology of Proterozoic shales and mudstones: examples from the Belt Supergroup, Chuar Group and Pahrump Group, western USA. Precambrian Research 61:241–278.
D. Jablonski , J. J. Sepkoski , D. J. Bottjer , and P. M. Sheehan 1983. Onshore-offshore patterns in the evolution of Phanerozoic shelf communities. Science 222:1123–1125.
G. A. Jackson 1990. A model of the formation of marine algal flocs by physical coagulation processes. Deep Sea Research 37:1197–1211.
T. Kiørboe 1993. Turbulence, phytoplankton cell size, and the structure of pelagic food webs. Advances in Marine Biology 29:1–72.
A. H. Knoll 1992. Biological and biogeochemical preludes to the Ediacaran radiation. pp. 53–84In J. H. Lipps and P. W. Signor , eds. Origin and early evolution of the Metazoa. Plenum, New York.
A. H. Knoll 1994. Proterozoic and Early Cambrian protists: evidence for accelerating evolutionary tempo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91:6743–6750.
A. H. Knoll , and N. J. Butterfield 1989. New window on Proterozoic life. Nature 337:602–603.
A. H. Knoll , and G. Vidal 1980. Late Proterozoic vase-shaped microfossils from the Visingsö Beds, Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 102:207–211.
W. Lampert , W. Fleckner , H. Rai , and B. E. Taylor 1986. Phytoplankton control by grazing zooplankton: a study on the spring clear-water phase. Limnology and Oceanography 31:478–490.
M. R. Landry , C. J. Lorenzen , and W. K. Peterson 1994. Mesozooplankton grazing in the Southern California Bight. II. Grazing impact and particulate flux. Marine Ecology Progress Series 115:73–85.
W. K. W. Li 1995. Composition of ultraphytoplankton in the central North Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 122:1–8.
G. A. Logan , J. M. Hayes , G. B. Hieshima , and R. E. Summons 1995. Terminal Proterozoic reorganization of biogeochemical cycles. Nature 376:53–56.
A. R. Longhurst 1991. Role of the marine biosphere in the global carbon cycle. Limnology and Oceanography 36:1507–1526.
M. Margaritz , J. L. Kirschvink , A. J. Latham , A. Yu. Zhuravlev , and A. Yu. Rozanov 1991. Precambrian/Cambrian boundary problem: Carbon isotope correlations for Vendian and Tommotian time between Siberia and Morocco. Geology 19:847–850.
J. M. Moldowan , J. Dahl , S. R. Jacobson , B. J. Huizinga , F. J. Fago , R. Shetty , D. S. Watt , and K. E. Peters 1996. Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of biofacies: molecular evidence linking cyst-forming dinoflagellates with pre-Triassic ancestors. Geology 24:159–162.
T. Naganuma 1996. Calanoid copepods: linking lower-higher trophic levels by linking lower-higher Reynolds numbers. Marine Ecology Progress Series 136:311–313.
P. H. Nienhuis 1981. Distribution of organic matter in living marine organisms. pp. 31–69In E. K. Duursma and R. Dawson , eds. Marine organic chemistry—evolution, composition, interactions and chemistry of organic matter in seawater. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
T. A. Norton 1992. Dispersal by macroalgae. British Phycological Journal 27:293–301.
C. R. C. Paul , and S. F. Mitchell 1994. Is famine a common factor in marine mass extinctions? Geology 22:679–682.
D. Pauly , and V. Christensen 1995. Primary production required to sustain global fisheries. Nature 374:255–257.
C. H. Pilskaln , and S. Honjo 1987. The fecal pellet fraction of biogeochemical particle fluxes to the deep sea. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1:31–48.
K. G. Porter , and E. I. Robbins 1981. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits. Science 212:931–933.
U. Riebesell 1991. Particle aggregation during a diatom bloom. II. Biological aspects. Marine Ecology Progress Series 69:281–291.
S. Rigby , and C. Milsom 1996. Benthic origins of zooplankton: An environmentally determined macroevolutionary effect. Geology 24:52–54.
E. I. Robbins , K. G. Porter , and K. A. Haberyan 1985. Pellet microfossils: possible evidence for metazoan life in Early Proterozoic time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 82:5809–5813.
K. O. Rothhaupt , and H. Güde 1992. The influence of spatial and temporal concentration gradients on phosphate partitioning between different size fractions of plankton: further evidence and possible causes. Limnology and Oceanography 37:739–749.
J. W. Schopf , and C. Klein 1992. The Proterozoic biosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
P. M. Sheehan , and T. A. Hansen 1986. Detritus feeding as a buffer to extinction at the end of the Cretaceous. Geology 14:868–870.
E. B. Sherr , and B. F. Sherr 1991. Planktonic microbes: tiny cells at the base of the oceans's food webs. Trends in Recent Ecology and Evolution 6:50–54.
V. Smetacek 1985. Role of sinking in diatom life-history cycles: ecological, evolutionary and geological significance. Marine Biology 84:239–251.
S. V. Smith 1981. Marine macrophytes as a global carbon sink. Science 211:838–840.
M. L. Sogin 1989. Evolution of eukaryotic microorganisms and their small subunit ribosomal RNAs. American Zoologist 29:487–499.
N. Spjeldnaes 1963. A new fossil (Papillomembrana sp.) from the upper Precambrian of Norway. Nature 200:63–64.
S. M. Stanley 1973. An ecological theory for the sudden origin of multicellular life in the late Precambrian. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 70:1486–1489.
R. E. Summons , J. Thomas , J. R. Maxwell , and C. J. Boreham 1992. Secular and environmental constraints on the occurrence of dinosterane in sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56:2437–2444.
R. Tollrian 1995. Chaoborus crystallinus predation on Daphnia pulex: can induced morphological changes balance effects of body size on vulnerability? Oecologia 101:151–155.
T. T. Turner , and J. G. Ferrante 1979. Zooplankton fecal pellets in aquatic ecosystems. Bioscience 29:670–677.
M. J. Vanni , C. Luecke , J. F. Kitchell , Y. Allen , J. Temte , and J. J. Magnuson 1990. Effects on lower trophic levels of massive fish mortality. Nature 344:333–335.
I. M. van Waveren , and H. Visscher 1994. Analysis of the composition and selective preservation of organic matter in surficial deep-sea sediments from a high productivity area (Banda Sea, Indonesia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 112:85–111.
P. G. Verity , and V. Smetacek 1996. Organism life cycles, predation, and the structure of marine pelagic ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series 130:277–293.
G. J. Vermeij 1989. The origin of skeletons. Palaios 4:585–589.
G. Vidal , and M. Moczydlowska 1992. Patterns of phytoplankton radiation across the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Journal of the Geological Society of London 149:647–654.
M. Walter 1995. Faecal pellets in world events. Nature 376:16–17.
N. A. Welschmeyer , and C. J. Lorenzen 1985. Chlorophyll budgets: zooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in a temperate fjord and the Central Pacific Gyres. Limnology and Oceanography 30:1–21.
G. M. Woodwell , R. H. Whittaker , W. A. Reiners , G. E. Likens , C. C. Delwiche , and D. B. Botkin 1978. The biota and the world carbon budget. Science 199:141–146.
G. A. Wray , J. S. Levinton , and L. H. Shapiro 1996. Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergences among metazoan phyla. Science 274:568–573.
J. C. Zachos , M. A. Arthur , and W. E. Dean 1989. Geochemical evidence for suppression of pelagic marine productivity at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Nature 337:61–64.