Skip to main content
×
Home

Survivorship analysis of Paleozoic Crinoidea: effect of filter morphology on evolutionary rates

  • Tomasz K. Baumiller (a1)
Abstract

The evolutionary rates of Paleozoic Crinoidea were obtained using dynamic survivorship analysis. The stratigraphic ranges of 838 genera were used in the analyses, revealing a mean generic duration of 12.0 m.y. and a mean species duration of 6.7 m.y., values within the range of longevities reported for other taxa.

Further analyses showed differences in evolutionary rates among crinoid taxa: camerate species and genera were shorter-lived than species and genera of flexibles and inadunates. This pattern may result from ecological differences among these taxa: an energy budget equation solved for crinoids with various filter morphologies revealed that crinoids with fine-mesh filters require higher current velocities to supply them with sufficient particulate nutrients than do crinoids with coarse-mesh filters. A hypothesis stipulating that these differences control the distribution of crinoids among different environments is supported by patterns of occurrence of Mississippian crinoids: the pinnulate camerates (fine filter) dominate higher energy settings while the non-pinnulate inadunates and flexibles (coarse filter) are found in all environments. The “specialized” pinnulate crinoids may therefore be more prone to speciation and extinction than the non-pinnulate “generalists,” thus accounting for the observed differences in the evolutionary rates of the three subclasses.

The above hypothesis was tested by comparing evolutionary rates of two morphological groups: fine-filtered crinoids (camerates) and coarse-filtered crinoids (non-pinnulate Paleozoic crinoids). As predicted, fine-filtered taxa had higher extinction and origination rates. A “bootstrapping” technique revealed that the differences in extinction rates were significant at the p < 0.10 level.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alexander R. R. 1979. Differentiation of generic extinction rates among Upper Ordovician–Devonian articulate brachiopods. Paleobiology 5:133143.
Anstey R. L. 1978. Taxonomic survivorship and morphologic complexity in Paleozoic bryozoan genera. Paleobiology 4:407418.
Ausich W. I. 1980. A model for niche differentiation in Lower Mississippian crinoid communities. Journal of Paleontology 54:279288.
Ausich W. I. 1988. Evolutionary convergence and parallelism in crinoid calyx design. Journal of Paleontology 62:906916.
Baumiller T. K. 1990. Crinoid functional morphology and the energetics of passive suspension feeding: implications to the evolutionary history of Paleozoic Crinoidea. Ph.D. dissertation. The University of Chicago.
Baumiller T. K. 1992. Importance of hydrodynamic lift to crinoid autecology, or could crinoids function as kites? Journal of Paleontology 66:658665.
Baumiller T. K., and LaBarbera M. 1989. Metabolic rates of Caribbean crinoids (Echinodermata), with special reference to deep-water stalked and stalkless taxa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 93A:391394.
Brett C. E. 1984. Autecology of Silurian pelmatozoan echinoderms. Special Papers in Palaeontology 32:87120.
Brower J. C. 1987. The relations between allometry, phylogeny, and functional morphology in some calceocrinid crinoids. Journal of Paleontology 61:9991032.
Buzas M. A., and Culver J. J. 1984. Species duration and evolution: benthic Foraminifera on Atlantic continental margin of North America. Science 225:829830.
Byrne M., and Fontaine A. R. 1981. The feeding behaviour of Florometra serratissima (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). Canadian Journal of Zoology 59:1118.
Cheer A. Y. L., and Koehl M. A. R. 1987a. Paddles and rakes: fluid flow through bristled appendages of small organisms. Journal of Theoretical Biology 129:1739.
Cheer A. Y. L. 1987b. Fluid flow through filtering appendages of insects. Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications Journal of Mathematical Applications to Medicine and Biology 4:185199.
Crick R. E. 1981. Diversity and evolutionary rates of Cambro-Ordovician nautiloids. Paleobiology 7:216229.
Efron B. 1982. The jackknife, the bootstrap and other resampling plans. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia.
Elliot D. K. 1986. Dynamics of extinction. Wiley, New York.
Foote M. 1988. Survivorship analysis of Cambrian and Ordovician trilobites. Paleobiology 14:258271.
Fortey R. A. 1980. Generic longevity in Lower Ordovician trilobites: relation to environment. Paleobiology 6:2431.
Fox H. M. 1936. The activity and metabolism of poikilotherm animals in different latitudes—I. Proceedings Zoological Society of London 1936:945955.
Fox D. L. 1957. Particulate organic detritus. Geological Society of America Memoir 67:383390.
Gagosian R. B., Nigrelli G. E., and Volkman J. K. 1983. Vertical transport and transformation of biogenic organic compounds from sediment trap experiments off the coast of Peru. Pp. 241272in Suess E. and Thiede J., eds. Coastal upwelling, part A. Plenum, New York.
Gilinsky N. L., and Bambach R. K. 1986. The evolutionary bootstrap: a new approach to the study of taxonomic diversity. Paleobiology 12:251268.
Gilinsky N. L., and Goode I. J. 1991. Probabilities of origination, persistence, and extinction of families of marine invertebrate life. Paleobiology 17:145166.
Gould S. J. 1977. Eternal metaphors in paleontology. Pp. 126in Hallam A., ed. Patterns of evolution. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Gross M. G. 1977. Oceanography: a view of the earth. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Hansen T. A. 1980. Influence of larval dispersal and geographic distribution on species longevity in neogastropods. Paleobiology 6:193207.
Harland W. B., Cox A. V., Llewellyn P. G., Pickton C. A. G., Smith A. G., and Walters R. A. 1982. A geologic time scale. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hoffman A., and Szubzda-Studencka B. 1982. Bivalve species duration and ecologic characteristics in Badenian (Miocene) marine sandy facies of Poland. Neues Jahrbruch für Geologie und Pälaontologie Abhandlungen 163:122135.
Holland N. D., Strickler J. R., and Leonard A. B. 1986. Particle interception, transport and rejection by the feather star Oligometra serripinna (Echinodermata: Crinoidea), studied by frame analysis of video tapes. Marine Biology 93:111126.
Holland N. D., Leonard A. B., and Meyer D. L. 1991. Digestive mechanics and gluttonous feeding in the feather star Oligometra serripinna (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). Marine Biology 111:113119.
Holterhoff P. F. 1988. Morphologies and facies associations of crinoids from the Lower Stanton Formation (Late Pennsylvanian, Lansing Group) of the Mid-Continent United States. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Program 5:349.
Horowitz A. S., Blakely R. F., and Macurda D. B. Jr., 1985. Taxonomic survivorship within the Blastoidea (Echinodermata). Journal of Paleontology 59:543550.
Jablonski D. 1986. Larval ecology and macroevolution in marine invertebrates. Bulletin of Marine Science 39:565587.
Jablonski D. 1989. The biology of mass extinction: a paleontological view. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B325:357368.
Jablonski D., and Bottjer D. J. 1991. Environmental patterns in the origins of higher taxa: the Post-Paleozoic fossil record. Science 252:18311833.
Jackson J. B. C. 1974. Biogeographic consequences of eurytopy and stenotopy among marine bivalves and their evolutionary significance. American Naturalist 108:541560.
Jackson J. B. C., and Cheetham A. H. 1990. Evolutionary significance of morphospecies: a test with cheilostome Bryozoa. Science 248:579583.
Kammer T. 1985. Aerosol filtration theory applied to Mississippian deltaic crinoids. Journal of Paleontology 59:551560.
Kammer T., and Ausich W. I. 1987. Aerosol suspension feeding and current velocities: distributional controls for Late Osagean crinoids. Paleobiology 13:379395.
Kauffman E. G. 1978. Evolutionary rates and patterns among Cretaceous Bivalvia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B284:277304.
Kennedy W. J. 1977. Ammonite evolution. Pp. 251304in Hallam A., ed. Patterns of evolution. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
LaBarbera M. 1982. Metabolic rates of suspension feeding crinoids and ophiuroids (Echinodermata) in a unidirectional laminar flow. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 71A:303307.
Lane N. G., and Sevastopulo G. D. 1987. Stratigraphic distribution of Mississippian camerate crinoid genera from North America and western Europe. Courier Forschungs institut Senckenberg 98:199206.
Lane N. G. 1990. Biogeography of Lower Carboniferous crinoids. Pp. 333338in McKerrow W. S. and Scotese C. R., eds. Paleozoic paleogeography and biogeography. Geological Society Memoir No. 12.
Lane N. G., and Webster G. D. 1980. Crinoidea. Pp. 144157in Broadhead T. W. and Waters J. A., eds. Echinoderms: notes for a short course. University of Tennessee Department of Geological Sciences, Knoxville, Tennessee.
LaTouche R. W. 1978. The feeding behavior of the feather star Antedon bifida (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 58:877890.
Leonard A. B. 1989. Functional response in Antedon mediterranea (Lamarck) (Echinodermata: Crinoidea): the interaction of prey concentration and current velocity on a passive suspension-feeder. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology 127:81103.
Levinton J. S. 1974. Trophic level and evolution in bivalve molluscs. Palaeontology 17:579585.
Liddell D. W. 1980. Population variability and resource utilization patterns of Caribbean comatulid crinoids (Echinodermata). Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan.
Liddell D. W. 1982. Suspension feeding by Caribbean comatulid crinoids. Pp. 3339in Lawrence J. M., ed. International Echinoderm Conference, Tampa Bay. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Loudon C. 1990. Empirical test of filtering theory: particle capture by rectangular mesh nets. Limnology and Oceanography 35:143148.
Loudon C., and Alstad D. N. 1990. Theoretical mechanics of particle capture: predictions for hydropsychid caddisfly distributional ecology. American Naturalist 135:360381.
Macurda D. B. Jr., and Meyer D. L. 1983. Sea lillies and feather stars. American Scientist 71:354365.
Matrai P. A., and Eppley R. W. 1989. Particulate organic sulfur in the waters of the Southern California Bight. Global Geochemical Cycles 3:89103.
Mayr E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
McIntosh G. C. 1986. Phylogeny of the dicyclic inadunate order Cladida. Fourth North American Paleontological Convention, Boulder, Colorado. Abstracts with Programs, p. A31.
Meyer D. L. 1979. Morphological length and spacing of the tube feet in crinoids (Echinodermata) and their role in suspension feeding. Marine Biology 51:361369.
Meyer D. L. 1982. Food and feeding mechanisms: Crinozoa. Pp. 2542in Jangoux M. and Lawrence J. M., eds. Echinoderm nutrition. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Meyer D. L. 1985. Evolutionary implications of predation on Recent comatulid crinoids from Great Barrier Reef. Paleobiology 11:154164.
Moore R. C., Rasmussen H. W., Lane N. G., Ubaghs G., Strimple H. L., Peck R. E., Sprinkle J., Fay R. O., and Sievertsdoreck H. 1978. Systematic descriptions. Pp. T403T1027in Moore R. C. and Teichert C., eds. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, part T, Echinodermata 2. The Geological Society of America and University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans.
Pabian R. K., and Holterhoff P. F. 1988. Late Pennsylvanian crinoids from the quarries at Hamilton, Kansas. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Program 2:126.
Parsons T. R. 1975. Particulate organic carbon in the sea. Pp. 365383in Riley J. P. and Skirrow G., eds. Chemical oceanography. Academic Press, New York.
Pearson P. N. 1992. Survivorship analysis of fossil taxa when real-time extinction rates vary: the Paleogene planktonic foraminifera. Paleobiology 18:115131.
Peters H. 1983. The ecological implications of body size. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Porter K. C., Orcutt J. D., and Gerritsen J. 1983. Functional response and fitness in a generalist filter feeder, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea). Ecology 64:735742.
Poulet S. A. 1973. Grazing of Pseudocalanus minutus on naturally occurring particulate matter. Limnology and Oceanography 18:564573.
Raup D. M. 1975. Taxonomic survivorship curves and Van Valen's Law. Paleobiology 1:8296.
Raup D. M. 1978. Cohort analysis of generic survivorship. Paleobiology 4:115.
Raup D. M. 1985. Mathematical models of cladogenesis. Paleobiology 11:4252.
Raup D. M., and Boyajian G. E. 1988. Patterns of generic extinction in the fossil record. Paleobiology 14:109125.
Reaka M. L., and Manning R. B. 1987. The significance of body size, dispersal potential for rates of morphologic evolution in stomatopod Crustacea. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 448:146.
Reiswig H. M. 1971. Particle feeding in natural populations of three marine demosponges. Biological Bulletin 141:568591.
Reiswig H. M. 1974. Water transport, respiration and energetics of three tropical marine sponges. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 14:231249.
Reiswig H. M. 1981. Particulate organic carbon of bottom boundary and submarine cavern waters of tropical coral reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 5:129133.
Rutman J., and Fishelson L. 1969. Food composition and feeding behavior of shallow-water crinoids at Eilat (Red Sea). Marine Biology 3:981994.
Schopf T. J. M. 1984. Rates of evolution and the notion of “living fossils.” Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 12:245292.
Schopf T. J. M., Raup D. M., Gould S. J., and Simberloff D. S. 1975. Genomic versus morphologic rates of evolution: influence of morphologic complexity. Paleobiology 1:6370.
Schroeder L. A. 1981. Consumer growth efficiencies: their limits and relationships to ecological energetics. Journal of Theoretical Biology 93:805828.
Schubert J. K., Bottjer D. J., and Simms M. J. 1992. Paleobiology of the oldest known articulate crinoid. Lethaia 25:97110.
Sepkoski J. J. Jr., 1975. Stratigraphic biases in the analysis of taxonomic survivorship. Paleobiology 1:343355.
Sharp J. H. 1973. Size classes of organic carbon in seawater. Limnology and Oceanography 18:441447.
Sharp J. H. 1975. Gross analysis of organic matter in seawater: what, how and from where. Pp. 682693in Church T. M., ed. Marine chemistry in the coastal environment. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.
Shick J. M. 1983. Respiratory gas exchange in echinoderms. Pp. 67110in Jangoux M. and Lawrence J. M., eds. Echinoderm nutrition. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Shimeta J., and Jumars P. A. 1991. Physical mechanisms and rates of particle capture by suspension feeders. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Reviews 29:191257.
Silvester N. R. 1983. Some hydrodynamic aspects of filter feeding with rectangular-mesh nets. Journal of Theoretical Biology 103:265286.
Simms M. J. 1988. Phylogeny of post-Paleozoic crinoids. Pp. 269284in Paul C. R. C. and Smith A. B., eds. Echinoderm phylogeny and evolutionary biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Smith A. B. 1984. Classification of the Echinodermata. Palaeontology 27:431459.
Stanley S. M. 1979. Macroevolution. Freeman, San Francisco.
Stanley S. M. 1986. Population size, extinction and speciation: the fission effect in Neogene Bivalvia. Paleobiology 12:89110.
Tenore K. R. 1977. Food chain pathways in detrital feeding benthic communities: a review, with new observations on sediment resuspension and detrital recycling. Pp. 3753in Connel B. C., ed. Ecology of marine benthos. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, S.C.
Ubaghs G. 1978. Evolution. Pp. T275T281in Moore R. C. and Teichert C., eds. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, part T, Echinodermata 2. The Geological Society of America and University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans.
Vrba E. S. 1980. Evolution, species and fossils: how does life evolve? South African Journal of Science 76:6184.
Vrba E. S. 1984. Evolutionary pattern and process in the sister-group Alcephalini-Aepycerotini. Pp. 6279in Eldredge N. and Stanley S., eds. Living fossils. Springer, Berlin.
Vrba E. S. 1987. Ecology in relation to speciation rates: some case histories of Miocene-Recent mammal clades. Evolutionary Ecology 1:283300.
Warnock R. E., and Liddell W. D. 1985. Oxygen consumption in two shallow-water comatulid crinoids. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 9:169192.
Webster S. K. 1975. Oxygen consumption in echinoderms from several geographical locations, with particular reference to Echinoidea. Biological Bulletin 148:157164.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Paleobiology
  • ISSN: 0094-8373
  • EISSN: 1938-5331
  • URL: /core/journals/paleobiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 116 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.