Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-vkn6t Total loading time: 0.281 Render date: 2022-08-19T18:50:56.344Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Article contents

Absence of relationships between selected human factors and natural infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum to mosquitoes in an area of high transmission

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 April 2009

H. Haji
Affiliation:
Ifakara Centre, PO Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania Ministry of Health, PO Box 236, Zanzibar, Tanzania
T. Smith*
Affiliation:
Swiss Tropical Institute, PO Box 4002, Basel, Switzerland
J. D. Charlwood
Affiliation:
Ifakara Centre, PO Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania
J. H. Meuwissen
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nijmegen, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, The Netherlands
*
*Corresponding author. Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, PO Box CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. Tel: + 41 61 2848273. Fax: + 41 61 2717951. E-mail: tomsmith@iso.iso.unibas.ch.

Summary

The effects of sex, age of the human host, patency of asexual and sexual stages and seasonality on infectiousness of Plasmodium falciparum to mosquitoes were investigated in a rural village in southern Tanzania between 1992 and 1994. Villagers from randomized subgroups of households were surveyed for malaria parasites. Gametocyte and trophozoite prevalences were age dependent and fluctuated without any clear pattern of seasonality. A sample of 107 participants, selected to include an excess of gametocyte carriers, slept under bednets with holes cut into the sides for 3 weeks. A total of 3837 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 5403 A. funestus recovered from these bednets, was examined for all oocysts 5–7 days after feeding or for oocysts less than 17·5 µn in diameter 2–3 days after feeding. Additional blood slides from participants were taken twice weekly. The 5–7 day oocyst rates were 12·1% in A. gambiae s.l. and 10·9% in A. funestus and 2–3 day rates were 3·6 and 4·9%, respectively. The higher rates using the former method were attributed to previous infection. There were strong correlations in the levels of infection in both vectors when they fed on the same hosts. However, patent gametocytaemia was only weakly associated with the development of oocysts in the mosquito. Infectiousness was not related to host age, sex, or the season.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1996

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Charlwood, J. D., Kihonda, J., Sama, S., Billingsley, P. F., Hadji, H., Verhave, J. P., Lyimo, E. & Smith, T. (1995 a). The rise and fall of Anopheles gambiae in a Tanzanian village. Bulletin of Entomological Research 85, 3744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charlwood, J. D., Smith, T., Kihonda, J., Heiz, B., Billingsley, P. F. & Takken, W. (1995 b). Density independent feeding success in malaria vectors from Tanzania. Bulletin of Entomological Research 85, 2935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dearsly, A. L., Sinden, R. E. & Self, I. A. (1990). Sexual development in malaria parasites: gametocyte production, fertility and infectivity to mosquitoes. Parasitology 100, 359368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Draper, C. C. (1953). Observations on the infectiousness of gametocytes in hyperendemic malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 47, 160165.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gamage-Mendis, A. C., Rajakaruna, J., Carter, R. & Mendis, K. N. (1991). Infectious reservoir of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an endemic region of Sri Lanka. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 45, 479487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Githeko, A. K., Brandling-Bennet, A. D., Beier, M., Atieli, F., Owaga, M. & Collins, F. H. (1992). The reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a holoendemic area of western Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86, 355358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graves, P. M., Burkot, T. R., Carter, R., Cattani, J. A., Lagog, M., Parker, J., Brabin, B. J., Gibson, F. D., Bradley, D. J. & Alpers, M. P. (1988). Measurement of malaria infectivity of human populations to mosquitoes in the Madang area, Papua New Guinea. Parasitology 97, 251263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graves, P. M., Burkot, T. R., Saul, A. J., Hayes, R. J. & Carter, R. (1990). Estimation of Anopheline survival rate, vectorial capacity and mosquito infection probability from malaria vector infection rates in villages near Madang, Papua New Guinea. Journal of Applied Ecology 27, 134147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lines, J. D., Wilkes, T. J. & Lyimo, E. O. (1991). Human malaria infectiousness measured by age-specific sporozoite rates in Anopheles gambiae in Tanzania. Parasitology 102, 167177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meuwissen, J. H. (1990). Current studies related to the development of transmission-blocking malaria vaccines: a review. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83 (Suppl.) 5760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molineaux, L. & Gramiccia, G. (1980). The Gorki Project. World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
Muirhead-Thomson, R. C. (1954). Factors determining the true reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti in a West African Village. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 48, 208225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muirhead-Thomson, R. C. (1957). Notes on the characters of Plasmodium malariae oocysts of possible value in mixed infections. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 6, 980985.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muirhead-Thomson, R. C. & Mercier, E. C. (1952). Factors in malaria transmission in Anopheles albimanus in Jamaica. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 46, 103116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petraca, v. & Beier, J. C. (1992). Intraspecific chromosomal polymorphism in the Anopheles gambiae complex as a factor affecting malaria transmission in the Kisumu area of Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 46, 229237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shute, P. G. & Maryon, M. (1952). A study on human malaria oocysts as an aid to species diagnosis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 46, 275292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, T., Charlwood, J. D., Kihonda, J., Mwankusye, S., Billingsley, P., Meuwissen, J., Lyimo, E., Takken, W., Teuscher, T. & Tanner, M. (1993). Absence of seasonal variation in malaria parasitaemia in an area of intense seasonal transmission. Acta Tropica 54, 5572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tchuinkam, T., Mulder, B., Dechering, K., Stoffels, H., Verhave, J.-P., Cot, M., Carnevale, P., Meuwissen, J.H.E.Th. & Robert, V. (1993). Experimental infections of Anopheles gambiae with Plasmodium falciparum of naturally infected gametocyte carriers in Cameroon: factors influencing the infectivity to mosquitoes. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 44, 271276.Google ScholarPubMed
27
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Absence of relationships between selected human factors and natural infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum to mosquitoes in an area of high transmission
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Absence of relationships between selected human factors and natural infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum to mosquitoes in an area of high transmission
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Absence of relationships between selected human factors and natural infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum to mosquitoes in an area of high transmission
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *