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Molecular characterization of Trichomonas gallinae isolates recovered from the Canadian Maritime provinces’ wild avifauna reveals the presence of the genotype responsible for the European finch trichomonosis epidemic and additional strains

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 March 2015

SCOTT MCBURNEY
Affiliation:
Department of Pathology & Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada Prince Edward Island, Canada Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Atlantic Region, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada Prince Edward Island, Canada
WHITNEY K. KELLY-CLARK
Affiliation:
Department of Pathology & Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada Prince Edward Island, Canada Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Atlantic Region, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada Prince Edward Island, Canada
MARÍA J. FORZÁN
Affiliation:
Department of Pathology & Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada Prince Edward Island, Canada Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Atlantic Region, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada Prince Edward Island, Canada
BECKI LAWSON
Affiliation:
Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regents Park, London NW1 4RY, UK
KEVIN M. TYLER
Affiliation:
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
SPENCER J. GREENWOOD*
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada Prince Edward Island, Canada
*
*Corresponding author: Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada Prince Edward Island, Canada. E-mail: sgreenwood@upei.ca

Summary

Finch trichomonosis, caused by Trichomonas gallinae, emerged in the Canadian Maritime provinces in 2007 and has since caused ongoing mortality in regional purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus) and American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) populations. Trichomonas gallinae was isolated from (1) finches and rock pigeons (Columbia livia) submitted for post-mortem or live-captured at bird feeding sites experiencing trichomonosis mortality; (2) bird seed at these same sites; and (3) rock pigeons live-captured at known roosts or humanely killed. Isolates were characterized using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and iron hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) gene sequences. Two distinct ITS types were found. Type A was identical to the UK finch epidemic strain and was isolated from finches and a rock pigeon with trichomonosis; apparently healthy rock pigeons and finches; and bird seed at an outbreak site. Type B was obtained from apparently healthy rock pigeons. Fe-hyd sequencing revealed six distinct subtypes. The predominant subtype in both finches and the rock pigeon with trichomonosis was identical to the UK finch epidemic strain A1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Fe-hyd sequences suggest there is fine-scale variation amongst isolates and that finch trichomonosis emergence in this region may not have been caused by a single spill-over event.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

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Molecular characterization of Trichomonas gallinae isolates recovered from the Canadian Maritime provinces’ wild avifauna reveals the presence of the genotype responsible for the European finch trichomonosis epidemic and additional strains
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Molecular characterization of Trichomonas gallinae isolates recovered from the Canadian Maritime provinces’ wild avifauna reveals the presence of the genotype responsible for the European finch trichomonosis epidemic and additional strains
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